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߽200ǰڸ˹K?nigsbergĶ˹գĿŬµƽ˼롣
ʹԼԡ sapere aude!˶սںšɿ¡ʲôɣ1784ġ˵ס---ѧ˼ϰǶ෽ģңΣĻءЩѧǹעͬҲκαˣдк޹˼ɵͬ¬RousseauĹ۵㼴ͳֻһڡʻװ adorn our chains with flowersЩ֪ʶӡڹĶ볤̫ˣһ飬һϵĵʦһΪƶʳҽȵȣҾͲҪ鷳Լ˼ˣֻҪܸǮñӦЩ¶á
ϣHeinrich Heine̵˵µƽʷΪûҲûʷںܶ෽棬ºڴĵ¹ѧӦеӣ˵Լ׾ӵģߣһ׼ʱŰѧЩԣdz´ĵϾdz´ĵѪˡɣNietzscheڿijƺ˹йСһַŲ˵طͷ˵Ǻηʥأ
ڸ˹ס壬Կ϶ϹܼࣨLampeΪ㿪šԺ߽ʥdzʧطλΰ˼ʵͷСݡ״ǷѣȻΣColeridge˵µĻ˵ȭͷϡȻijտ۾¶ǻۺĬһ۰צϲǸŮǸ˼֮⣬»Ȱ罻ˣǰʱμӸ˹罻ijͣϲ̨򡢺ȡ
Ƕ˵λѧ𴲺硣Ըܼӽⰴκ˵ı׼˵ǺˡԿ³Ը𴲣ȴò𴲣ΪࣨLampeο󣬾¶˯һӡдһֱϿεʱ䡣ǿ϶ÿǸеѧͷ̫ʱ䰲ԡԼ˼СʵרְĽʦÿ20ѧʱĿγ̡Ȼ·dz˺ܳʱŵõĹǨ·Եȡְѧʿİ̾Ÿе47ʱյõѧڵϯλûа취ֻרעijѧDZϸָĿγȻѧѧѧѧѧȡе˼ζСͷͬʱ˵˵γգΪһĬڶг˵ңһĬҡ
γ̽󣬿³һԽ緹һΨһ͡ʱ̸󿵵¿ʼ״򲻶غɢĹܼɡԷꡣ˺ǻʱоѧϰֱ10ϴ˯ϴҲرʽиرļɽԼȫڱϼ硣
ĵʶĹ̶ģʽ¾ͷdzջһν뵽̤࣬ʶҵʱͨϴ˯ʱһͱ÷dzšʮֱ͵ңĽǺͲ죬ӴҲȥˡֻ˵ָڶԭһӶѡ˵ijԭļֵͻִСִֶźʵչйؽĿǡ·dzӽӦصԼʽʹĸı졣翵±dzϲȵζǼֲȿȴȺܵIJպϣΪſкдһ彡Сӣϸ˵˯̫Ϊÿ˵õ˯һģ̫˯߶õˣζŹغķ
㣬漰ܶ෽档ڿѧп--˹ۣKant-Laplace theory߹̫ϵԴġƼ˵ѧȤ㣬Ϊµ㷺Ķ˼ӰҲͷdzǣڡСCritique of Pure Reason˵ӣDavid Humeġʽ˯ߡѡһҪӰſ¬Jean-Jacques Rousseau¬ġֶEmileգüÿɢĶ
ڽѧ˼ʱʲôأԼ˵ζѧ˼עΪζѧСеʵͳ־DzܶԴĮġζѧԿ·dzҪǷгԽżȻڵĶɴ֧ĻǴûԭΪĿԣûԴڵĻʯЩÿζѧ޷رܵ⣺㣬ԼϵۡЩⲻûشܡ³ѧͼشЩϡڰеôˣDzܼ򵥵ֱӻشЩ⣬ڻشЩ֮ǰҪһЩѧϵ׼ΪʲôζѧôģʲôԭɵģǿڡСͼش⡣󿵵·ûȷĴ𰸡ķǡ۵ķҲ˵̽ijЩԵıҪ֪ʶ͵¡Ҫ֪ʶҪжϣҪʲô
Ǹʱ񣬰ڽ̺ͷɡ½쵽Լѧͳ壬Լ塱壬塱СʾַкôҪʵλãҪ֪ʶǴϢĹͨɡŬȥԣǴҲ֪絽ʲôӶֻǴĽǶ˽⵽ӡǵ˼ǵ෴Ĺ۵㣬ǶԴǰΪġԵIJҷ
DZ865ҳĽtour de forceĬĬźǻʱµͬϣFichteץסеԶӰ졣ȻⲢζſ˫ӵŵ¶Mendelsonƿ¡顱all-mincerն£HerderⱾӵܡԴӲκˡκ˼屾SchopenhauerȴΪȫŷҪһ顱񣬡Скܶŵ㣬ȴdzζ˼ȴĶżҲǵĸһѧϵѧһ˵µ̫ѶˣҪٿ̿ѧϰʮ⡣϶ҪΪһѧҪ˵⻰߽о---ѧϵͨķʽȥ
ҴǰѧƼѧ飬Ƽ˿µġСһ棬ȻǻƵģûκѧѵ¶Ȿֱţ̿㡢Ь̽աһ棬еģ̸ܹǵνѧ˼
Ѿ¼౻޷֪Ȼǵı޷֪Ǹڡʿ¡Goethes FaustѴʿóҪ׷֪ʶͬʱ֪֪ʶDzܵģɱħЭ飩19͵ѧ޷ܵĽ״˺ڸϣ֤ͨʷȻ¸DZͻ棬Ϊ
һٵijͻĻȻijͻյµ˼ΪԼжȻ֮ijͻΪˣDzò顢ǵΪٰͼͬ⡣ΪʲôôΪ̫޴޷͸ǵĹƣͼ롣ǿ²ҳɹΪǵڴʵǵԸ³Ϊѧնͨ˵ɣǶ¬Ժ׵¸вѧҵרⷽ治κרңΪȫǶѧҶԵ½˵̡ѧܹǰŪǵΪĶṩɺġеķá๲ͬԱõʵĿơԱDzϸĺöDZԵʹԱѭɡ
ڡ޶ڵڽ̡Religion within the Boundaries of Mere ReasonһҪ۵ǿԲҪ֯ڽ̵İɡṩԮһǶġһºڽ֮ڵĽŹϵΪǿܰҪΪȷ¶ΪǵڽҪΣաĻΪʧȥ˼ֵǿΪԭ£DzõġõĽDzģ´ȷͼûκĿǡǵɴڵıҪ
ڡʵСCritique of Practical ReasonǣԵġζѧ֮Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Moralsܸ㿵ѧȫòϸ˵жĹ۵㡣ԭ뾭ֱ categorical imperativeļܳΪɡ֪ʶʧܵڵжȴáԵصóͨȷijΪԭôͨıӦʲôҪͨԼܷԭǷֱDzǾȻһ޷ƵɡֱϵĹǽһġ˶ǵƶǻƵġΪƶɲõ𾴡ˣӦĶԴκ˾еģܰѱ˵ʵԼĿĵֶΣͬԼĿġ
˵ѧǸȤǡ֪ʲôҸôϣôʵһ⡰ʲôѧĿľڻش׵ĻҪһֻ֪ʶ˿д˵СжСCritique of Judgementעѧڽ򡣱ϾDzĽǶ͵Ķʵ޷ػش⡣µѧҪһϵͳȷʵΪijϵ
µĹԹȥ˼ңڷѺܴľҵĶɡڳΪǰϵľѪܡ˵£̸Ķ̫ˣ治֪˵ЩʲôʶۣѧѧѧĿԵĹף±ֳѧԾԣҪǷijЩ΢Сͼ֤ϵ۵ĴڡƪڡúƽĶСҪڵ米»øʵ壬൱˼ҡµ˼ҪΪȫ򻯵ṩָȨϹɵĵ·
˼Ŭ˵ĺʱɵʱȻ˼ŵĹǿܵģȴȫš200Ľ죬ǰ
ԣSapere Aude!by Anja Steinbauer
<http://www.philosophynow.org/issue49/49steinbauer.htm>
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