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----Լɪ ޴Ļ
ѰҶ𣿹ָij˵¿ѵصΪҵļġ;ԽԴȪڶ˹Ĺν֪ʶһе˴󲿷ֵΡǹĶڡͬʱҲڣͨԼѧʶѰϵĸߵأ¶Լ͹ȨļϣPushkin˹Ү˹Dostoyevskyſɷ˹Mayakovski޴ĻBrodsky֪ʶӵĴǻгǧˣȻڶ񷢱˵иǫȱ֪ʶĿ
ڶҶתڣЩʷɫǿҵε֪ʶӽʲôأ
1991820Ұ£Ҵӽֵս˵ñǰĴ㳡ɽ˺Ⱥڻ25ˡǰ鹲ǿӲӰͳǷڸǷ쵼µڽĸĸҪɣҪʷڰƪ¡Ǹʾʱ̡
Ⱥڼɱ˵ñгɽں͸ĸAnatoli Sobchak𣬾μӼÿһ˶ѵ˼⡣ڽֵϼǷģμζŶ룬ٵǰ̣쵽ǡȫһһ鿴ͬΣɷ۾μӻDzμӡңAndreiǸѧңСȣNinaǸʦѶӻСһпܵӰ죬ǻǾμӡҡεĹĵؿߺӣNeva Riverģӹսdz˾ηij档
ڳ69ʷУַͨʽͳһйٷǿв˵Ѫѹڹҵ־׺ƽһ˼ǻ۵ӵȻ⵽ٰݲȻ֡ЩԸ֪ʶӣңңѧңѧңңѧңѧҡʱͨŵʫ֣ʱ÷̺ڿʱԼ򵥡ƽؼֿѧԵ飬ͨ־Ķԡ1980꣬ЩеһѾ㹻ĵֱսҵȨȻտ̨κ;ƶѹĽЩ֪ʶӲߵķĽ塣
൱һ֪ʶ˼ϵڹѺƫԶĹʹسܰռͥʽʶ׾ĽȺȫϵ֪ʶֻܱʫ˰ȡޣAnna AkhmatovaʫУΪдֽ̫ΣˡֻڼбֱޡᣨPaul McCartneyФ񻭣ͼӡԼͷǷѾĻ˹ӭƷʷʱ̣дģļᲢ׼Ӧһа
֪ʶ׼ӭʤӭӾʮֵĶ˹תֹǻ۳Ⱥ֪ʶӳͶĵΧһǮᡣǮƣ˵Ǯƣ޴Ӱʷ̵Ŀ֣ûκôѧоĹˣнˮˮƽȻЩ˵ˮƽԣˮƽƶҿڼݣƤͷȻٵ֪ʶӼʱɹ̵˹ĺôǺȨĽDZŤģͺŲԵЬͼֱֳ·
һҹ֮䣬άӢۺ͸ĸﱻҴææ¹ҵŬһߡ֪ʶӳʵʣС֣߶û꣬Խ¹ҵʵʹֳмһ˵ʱƣȨ¸ܣЩ˱пɱЩ˻صϱܴǰİǰȣ֪ʶӸԵζҪܹ¶
˹۲˵֪ʶΪʷ¼Ķ˵ټˡ˿ܼ"ллأڰЩ"˵֪ʶӲȺ壬һһˡΪѧڶ͹Щһֱ֪ʶӵ˼Ϊжͼ磬ижǣTolyaǰ20͸ĸһжǵ7嶼ڶսĸĿԼĸɱΡжͨд̽Ǯ̽עƽСµ塣һɳAlyoshaۺ󣬱㵽̺һѪ޹顣ڳ˽ѧ鼮׬죬дʫҹָѬĽƣֶǡ
пѧҺʷѧҿɳKeshaͼĹų˹ӣStaraia Ladogaɳɽɽˮˮ˼ʷһϣձɫҹٽʱ򣬿ɳһȺźӱ߼ѵţɳ˵Ϥ˹ѾʧΧ̽еӳţһһĹ¡ÿͣһΣҪٱףԸףԸƫƧµ⵽ĵطףԸʷδÿףƵĽɳٵһؼӣͨ죬Ѿˡɳ˵ͶطͶطȰ
аǣAnyaԶԶڱǰ档ʶѾö꣬˼·һֱںԶĵطҪץסÿȥйɳ塣dz˵ڡӰ֪ʶӻ׵һ棬ļߣڴ֮ǰʫ跭Ϳ룬ʱӵܵļͥгĴŮ
ʲôأļ˼Ծ񱡣ڼ幫Ԣǽжһľͳӡڳ˹ͳ游ĸ游ĸĸǹĸ񣬸ױǵ"۾"ʱ򣬸ܵˡĸ֢Ϊ̫ˣøºΣաڼ̸Уڷϣһǵôʾ�"£ֲΣ"ǣѡ
ڳ˼ĻгǷ鼮ؼҺ˽ѡϴѧʱѧϰԱΪɷߣܺάĸ־룬ӱʵΪ"򱧸"ѡζij̶ֳȵɡѡԼĵ·۹˼϶ԶȨIJǽȷطǹʵĵط԰˵ƶڵȼɭϵѡȱλְҵǸеΪ
ȻΪԼʱǸˡӣ1990ȫϵرȥΪͻġտʼΪߣ߰ҵԼ༭ͷ۵ijءվսСͨ·ϵͣͲǰȷ쳣ֱʡ
200312Ī˹һμǣڶѡѡÿ""ֵûӮôȨ5%ͶƱ֧֡ͬһ죬һ鳵սḾŮϰըȥҶ··Լըɡ
ǾյӺĵ绰һ飬ͶͿǽ̸ĹУ̸˹Anatoli ChubaisSPS(Union of Right Forces)Ϊѡٻĵӹ档ڹУкά˹˹ķBoris NemtsovȡIrina Khakamadaںķɻϡæµһɻ-ְˣԡڽɫ-գõδһĹ۲ҳ"ʷ޴ľѡ档" Ǽ򵥵˵"ѵǾͲڰɫ"
ΪʲôЩʱ""ͲԼͬ۹⿴أСĹԢ̫̫ҪԼŪԵģƴɻũΪ˳ЩʾԷΪȨӢԱ֪ʶӵäĿ֪˹Ѿ1980ʥ˵ñᾭѧұµĶĵߣƶߺͼȵߡ
1990ڣڳ"" loans for sharesףϷֹʲɶͷμҹзҪá˰¾ӢŵĴdz׺Ϳ룬ȱġ顣ǵľ䵭İԴΪˣijЩʱΪĸٵڶû֮ءЩΪѡʱ־ӵг벢Ϊ޴˵ĸĻƽʱʽѾ
ǵȻϣ¾ϣսսأ
ǣLidiaúŨ۾˵"MaggieסѾܹˡ"ѡٵ£ͶƱûСûУûͶƱȻûСʥ˵ñǶͲͬԴأǶ"ŷ޴"ϣ˹Ү˹ޣAkhmatovaͲ޴ĻͷģɰѾ븯ܵӣ԰Ρȥ12³ͶƱرȡIrina Khakamadaߡûн뱻⵽ıɱĸĸ߼ɡ˹ߣGalina Staravoitovaռϯλᣬѡ˸ɼл·Gennady Seleznev
ûͶƱҲܿܲͶƱҲ25˵ļСҲű־ƻ׫дۡ
ҶǵļǿԵ⡣14ǰ͹Уѧϵдļ̸ΪǸΰѧ֮һĸ׵̽ס˵İţǺҶѧʿѧλǵͿʼϵһˡ
ǵǺȥʫˣĸǵѧҺңĸάũ񱳾С˵ҡļͥԱԱйѧҡ֪ʶ޷˵УڱȽСĻҳԱоʱиΪ""
ҳԱλѾΪΧοһȱٵһ֣ԼĹȴDZĶʻ-ѡ壬ʻʽɫʵĴʻҪܿһеĹҵ޴Ӱ졣д·оҵӷͷ͵ѧۿʼתС˵ϣԼС˵ҵ˵ʻ㡢ͰҪĶΨһ׷ЩĹ̡
Ǹߴ󡢽׳ע⵽Ͷе෴޳·dzšйϲ---ϲ˵ģõܺչ˵ģ·ģ˵---ʮʱѧȥϵ糵ﵽȥչѧѧУѧĶ޸һԸº͵ˣһңҵķɷ⣬һλµĶӡ
ϲʱࡣҼŭɶӣýͣڽϣסȥ·ƯԴ³ŮдΪά"Ժ"ʹ˶һһĪСѵˡ׶Яˡ˵Ψһʫ˸ŭɵάʱ޴IJĶǶ¹Ǵײװǻƣʢˡ
ܳһȾȻռȥĸõݽʵûйƽȱ壬ֱǾҺͷ񡣻̹ʵ˵ȹȥȱͶ䡣
DzȥͶƱΡɷ򿿻ͷάơǵļҺСƷʱ˵ֻҪܵõ2 Ӣ߼Ŀռ㹻д̨Ըκ£ĿռҲûС
ǾǷʵĴֱɺͳͬʱҲз漣ȫһԷѳʱȲ죬ﹷڵнĵ糵Уڰҹɫ£İijнֵ˺ӵɢ漣УڽŲѰ漣У¹ҹܵĿʶȻտʼܲ
ô֪ʶʱҪΪͬĿ˵ʶʲôأǸобҪǿȨʹࣿò꾡˽С飿Ƕ˴ͳĸһʥͽԿڵɳʣǸԴھɶʱ⽨ƶȵIJ࣬ϲ㾫Ӣ֮ͨһ϶ŷطĸء
Щʷһб---ԵгڴIJδ˵֪ʶѾΪʱ˵ѾޡȻԶ˵֪ʶǴԼΣıԵǽӽϡӽʥ࣬ӽǡԶǿо״̬֪ʶܹͬʱʥͬʱֱԲơҲǸĽβЩԻĶ֪ʶӵĴҪġ
ʷֻһǰŲ룬ȷʽһȫ֪ʶô֤ܶԼԻ᲻ϾȵطԼȨȷʵƶ25ʥ˵ñĸ㳡˰ǣۿԼҳԶǰ;һд۶ܶ˿ɳڸǹȥIJƿӣ˽еţǣŬʳϲչĸĶײеȺΪһӢ߼Ŀռܶ˼ۡ
ԣ"Bearing Russia's Burdens "by Margaret Paxson
http://wwics.si.edu/index.cfm?fuseaction=wq.essay&essay_id=83686
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