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飺ȫ


һִۣƶս

ȫϸִƶȴ⣺
һ漰ȫΧȫ򻯵һЩʾ֯WTOIMFWBȵȣȣЩ֯ľ߻ƲģΣûһʾ֯ƵĹ֯ȫߣһϹȲһȨ߻һһƱͶƱҲȫԭ򣬸οЩϹԱǷң־ù⡣
֮ûһȫƶӦõȫš֡֡Ľ֮һʹϽͷWTOĶл飬ǾĶĽͷϾۼͼʢ٣Ӳ񵽿ˡ ƺйWTOȫҵһĻ᳡
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Ӣ͵¹ҲǴйС90ڱ˺ӢΣѾȫȣӢ͵¹ĹҹģѲԸṩȫˡⲻܲ˵ƶŷԪһ򡣵¡ӢϾǰеľǿΣûдȫ澭ΣСһݻľ̩Ϻ¼¡̨徭һ겻񣬻þΣӡݱΣҪЩΪֻСй½ֻ󴬱ϡ
Ϊӭȫ򻯵սΪѰ󱾹õȶֳҵľӦ˶ŷˣӴĿDZóѲҲеĶóƷչȥ᲻ᵼһڵԵڵĹϳһ壿ǿ϶ģִҽṹս
Ҫĵֻ漰һڲWTOȫ򻯵Ĺңƶϻ֣࣬һңһǷҡƹҺͷƹңڷƹҲһСͶֻ֮֡ԷһҺͶķЩоΪȫ򻯻һ̶ϳСȨķӰƶȣȫԽζȨԽõǿ
һƵĶ෴ȫһǿȫƶִйʾЭȨһ棬ҲȨľûرйңҵŹҵľWTO֮ڸЧʵʱľ£ҵ˳ҵʹȫѡǽЩڡԴͨͨŵ֧ԲҵøʱӪøʱӪ߶߹ͬӪȫȨľûܵ½ͬʱǿطȨȫľᷢҡζȫ򻯻ӸһԹΪȨ뼯Ȩʹԭеս
ĵĺǣȫڸƶȫεҲ˵εĻƶϣϵĻƶΡ

ȫ

ȫҵʱ廯һȲȫǸҲȫ䡣һЩ˴棬һЩ˴𡣾漯˵ҵʱȫ򻯣Ϊʱ粻ţʱƷгܽͶɱҵ͹ײȫ򻯣ʱʧҵʣʹٹ½ѹΪʲô͹֯ȫ򻯡йWTOԭ֮һ͹˵ĴȲСܴȫлȡ棬ںʱгȫ򻯣ǿʱͽʱʱԽۺ񣬻Խ󡣶ʱСʱijų䣬ûʧȥȶеİ͢һ֤
ڣȫܺ漯ź͹ҵεõﲢõֱͱƵȱijЩо߳Ϊȫ򻯵ġ֣Democratic deficitҪ֡סԼɪ. S. ˵ģҪԱԴ˵ѡƣβɱҪһ𱣻˺˵Ȩ緶Χڣȫˮƽϵ֮ͬͣ˭ǡ񡯣һһƱǸһȺĹеͶƱȨҪһйһǧһ棬ȫ統һһȫѡѡԴʵжԭǾζų20ڵй˺ӡͨԾһС1ȻԼɪ.Ĺ۵㣬ϹһֵĹʻһһƱƵľ߻ƣdz¹ƣȫԭ
ȲϹֲܸȫѡ񰴼򵥶ԭߣν⣿.˺Ͱ³.˹˹Լţ֯ȫᡱᡱɹҵĴɣĴҲȫѡ١˵ȲҪһһƱơҲҪһһƱơĴ֯Щ֯Ƿӯ֯־ԸЭᣬҲ˵Ƿ֯ͷҵ֯Ǿȫ򻯵֯磺ȫҵ֯ȫ֯Ϲ֯УߺĿ൱ġ֯ᡰҪչϹĹϵһϹһԺƵᡣ2
ԣһȫ롣ϹݵǡԺԺɫ֯ݵǡԺɫƣáԺƽ⡰ԺϹһһƱơԴȨıֵҲԱ⡰һһƱơĶ˿СȨĺԡҪ۵ǣ֯ΪȫεҪߣЩ֯ڶķңڷ֯ܵƵIJҡķм֯ijɳҪһʷ̣УνЩҵȨ⣿ⲻȫεֻܱ޶ȵ



ȫ򻯸ȫδһЩƺ໥ìܵһ棬ΪȫʹڲȨмл򣬱絤.ŽڣR. Daniel Kelemenָҵķֱʷۺ壨Žָȫ򻯵֮һעٽڲȨļл3һ棬 .ֶȴʣȫҴ𣿡Ļشǿ϶ġ֮⣬Ϊȫ򻯱ԹȨսдһ飬ȫ飬ȫijЩ˵ӶԵгȨʹʴȵܱЩDZ޵Ӷ᣻෴Ĺ۵㣬ΪƵгȨʵڷֹбѹեĹ񡣾˫ĻͬǶóһۣͬȫܵгζܵμҡ4
ҿһڲȨлƺһⲿгȨȫܻƣڵͬһԳԽִʵ󡣹ʵԷΪʵ͡ʵʵֿԷΪ͡ҵĽָһڹ̸С޽ԼͼලԼʵʩԣһҹģԽԽԵԴԽ࣬ԼԽǿڹ̸ĵλԽóױҲԽһƹ֮ҪһֱȨΪǿĽЩƵĽСĹңҪ߽ѡķһ̸ʵ壬ŷймWTO̸ڳֵļȨǶԳԽԭȨ׷ŷֵ˻ǶԳԽԭйʵ׷
ҵġҵָڹҹڶҵṩķɱԴ֧Ԯڹҵṩİȫƾ۲쵽ǣһСֻСĹ˾һܹϴĹ˾ɳ˾ӱ˵ľһȻֻ辰߽С٪塣ʵʽֻij˾ķɻ칫˾κһŷǿ޷һɻ칫˾˾Ҫ²ƷʱԤǧԪĶ֧ǵ¹ǿҲġΪ˲ɥʧɻҵĹʾŷǿ˿аʿ˾Ϊŷ˵ĵŷ޹Լġҵߵij̶֮ԸƶĽ
ҵġΪҵܹʽΣ򾭼ΣijĵĵᵽгϵĹңﺽеĴֻԽ󣬰ȫԽߣԽױ˴򷭡оһҵȶ͹ԴĵֿԪڹϵİλҵλԪϵȶԡӰȶԵغܶ࣬غҪһǾõ״ǻҷ뾭ӦǹгԸûҵʽгһӰǵءһҾʵԽۺ񣬻ͨԽ󣬹гԸùҵȶӰԽСͶͨùӰ乩Ӧͼʵ֡ŷͳһ֮ǰͳһŷ޻ңǿȶԣԪ⡣ŷԪΪһŷԪһһԪġ
ȫʱóѸҵĹʷֹﵽǰδеij̶ȡǣһȲʷֹ־ԸĴо޴ĿгյԹгԲСԼӵάֹһԴȫ򾭼ʱڣܵùԴΣ״̬£ŶñԴ2000꣬ʯ֯ʯͲгϵԭͼ۸붬ڣƷͺȻļ۸ǡͳֶ1000ͰսԴʯһůĶ졣˾ٲȶڵͼۣƽ˹гʯͼ۸ʱ״ҲӰһÿгյʱۺĹңһʱ𾭼õIJ䣻ʱ΢С̩ӡǡ¼µȹңʱͻȻˣ״ڷ籩ŷ˵ĵƻӾ˵ս֮һǿŷڲԴĵԼҲ嫵Դ󺣡
ǽһҵġʵսԽһҵġʵսԷǿĹңܹ޴ͰȫѵĿ˾ȫ򻯵ԭĹ˾һ޴Ŀ˾ʵгϵһ۹ȫܵгȨʵȫܵĹ˾Ȩ˵ȥ۹ͨȡȨĻ۹ͨȫгȡȨǣ˾гͨгȨҲǴϣ2000ij顶۹λ߲ŰȨµ۹ΪȨһûб߽Ȩ5ⲻгȨ
ȨᣬջǻԭΪͳһģľձڶսʱ̫ƽսȻʼʱռȻһձɻϿոһ¾֪ձӮdzսձԴ̫ˡսձѸڷɣ棬¹ѧڸдһձһ顣
ձһճһ롣ձ˱ŷ޾ø̶γȤյǣԪֵΣʱŷԪǻɺ벻ǡŷŷ硰ȨձģƣѾڶŷ˵ĺ档ɥʧսԾĽҲѾŷɥʧսԾĽˣսԽDZսԷDZ˵ܵйӡսҪȨϿŷޣһµձҪġ͵Եκ͹ҹģԣձйҪ𽥴йձҪձйҪҲմҪ
СڵĽǣΪȨͳһģľʹչֳһڵңͨģơŷѾΪʵڶǡŸոճijЩһó˻йձͺμӣȵȣЩ¶

ģ

ƪIJƹȫ򻯵ij£Ȩƽ⣬ֻйķƵ뼯ȨڼWTOȫ򻯽֮ƵݱơԹ۲쵽ǣȫ򻯵£йܵӰ죺һҪǿȨһƶطͻε෴СͬܵĿһǰһ仰˵ȫ򻯹̵йĿԴ¼ȨĿԡ
ȫ򻯶ԣȨҪҪ棺һҪ̸СԼʱȡλȨԼڹڼලԼʵʩȨڶҪбܿ˾ƽҪеߵԱЩȫ򻯹½Ⱥ壬ڹҵƲʱʧҵĹˣũƷڶƲũ񣬵ȵȡ
һ棬ȫҲһ뼯ȨƵĴЩҪ¼棺
һɥʧóױ֮󣬴󲿷־ҵĹҵ޷뾺ǿʱ˳ӪȨľûı䣬ӪҵĿǰչǿԤڵġЩҵķչȻǿڵطȨȨԴɱؽ仯ڹ£ҵľӪȨģӪҵƶ£ĹȨҵġ
ڶȫνȨţԴȨṹ绯ᣬνṹ˵Ϊᡣ˼ҵ.Ĺ۵㣬뼯Ȩǽ͵ȨṹǾȨṹͽṹʵϾṹֽṹҵṩ˳ֵռ䣻ҵijַչҲٽȨṹɽṹṹݱ䡣֮ȫ򻯾ȫ绯йҲ⡣
ƣҲƶйνṹܱ߹ͬʻͬʻָһһ뼯Ȩķϳһͳһ塣йǽϺõѡƵСҿʵ뼯Ȩйij͡ĹҪ뼯Ȩʵƣʷûгɹ
ģ𲽼ȫ򻯴ȫε֣緶Χγɹʶķ֯ȫεнԽԽҪĽɫһơɷ֯ĴȫᣬȫߡйҪ벻żȫε֮⣬бҪƶڷ֯ijɳ֮һƶΣ͵Ȩṹתṹṹм֯ͷ֯ķͷչڽṹУ֯һᱻǷ֯ṹУ֯ᱻǻͻм
ѿȫ򻯶һȨҪ󣬲һҪ뼯ȨƲ㣬ԵطͻεҪ󣬶绯Ҫ󣬶Էм֯Ҫһ뼯ȨƵĴǺġһƹңҲͬЩȨֻҪڶȨʵ˵йı뼯ȨģʽȫԻȨıе뼯ȨģʽӦȫ򻯴ij

壬ۣ໥ƽ

Ͽȫ͹ƺ໥ʵϣͬһϵڣһڵƽٽݱ䡣ȴȫٵ죬Ȼٷ졣
ǵڶڵķȫζȫγɺȫķ֯ĴȫġԺƱƶԵڹҵϡΪһеķ֯оѲ侭Թ˾ԽԽ࣬˾ʵҲԽۺ֯ҲԽˣ֯ȫеҲԽ󡣵ڶӴڲ֯ȫи״һҵٺͻиײһһ֧ȫľҪˣҵ֯Ҫȫŷ⣬ȻҪƶϳɸ塣
ȫͿƽҲٷƴڲ̡Ϊ˷֯ȫξΪʹԼνṹпԣԱڽϳɸ壬ȫ
ڲҲٽȫһˣ֯õͷչȫᣬͲΌȫȫΪȨҺͿ˾ıһרƴתƵңܱ߱ȽСҶĿ־ǿ໥׺ʹЩϳһͳһĿԴǿϵĹҲıǰȫ򻯵ǰǻΪȫŷij壬ڽСĹҡ
˵ǣȫ򻯺ʼԴزͬĺлγһӿĴӡ䱼ٶȳԭٶ֮ͣչʾһͼʱ

20023ʡ

עͣ
1Լɪ. S. ΣJoseph S. Nye, Jr.)Globalizations Democratic DeficitHow to make international institutions more accountableForeign AffairsJuly/August 2001.
2.˺Ͱ³.˹˹Richard Falk and Andrew Strauss:Toward Global Parliament, Foreign Affairs, January/February 2001.
3.(R. Daniel Kelemen):Globalization, Federalism and Regulation,Website eprints.cdlib.org/cias/documents/root/00/00/00/20/index.html
4.ֶMartin Wolf:Will the Nation-State Survive Globalization?,Foreign Affairs, January/February 2001.
5Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri:Empire,Harvard University Press,Tenth printing 2001, Page 161.

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