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׿ִ֪ıɱ磩

ij˼ҵĹ˵Σһ֣ôڶλ˼ҽн͵ʱͻѣо׵µһµǰҳѾЩѽ˼˵ĴҲ˼ǿ˵˼ȿ׵¸㡣λ˼ҵҪƷǰȫʵ֤ߣintegral Positivistʶʵ֤(intellectual Positivist)֮Ķٻпڿ׵±ˡ˼֮ĶӰ쵽ܷӴ˼൱ɹ۵һָڵò˼ߵӶûзһֱ19271932䡶˼˹ȫMarx-Engels Gesamtausgabeʼ½ʱĹۡڵһ˼˶ʢй˼һ˵λڵġΪѧҵ˼ڴԼԪ1845[1]ͻȻ˶ھѧѧʷѧԵĶһ˵˼DzֵĶġڴ˵˼ˡԡ͡ʱۡ׫дߡһϵĹ˶Ĵߣ˼ߵ˼֮ŵʱλʷ˼Ѿˣҡһⳡ˶ʽȡֱ˳ף˭ǡ桱˼תDz˹̹BernsteinͿĻ(Karl Kautsky)˼¬ɭ( Rosa Luxemburg)(Lenin)˼⡣ͽ׷ߵǷȫӹɣδ[2]ֻе˵һսͶʱֲű򿪣Ī˹Ƶ˼-˹-оʼһʥҵ浼ʦǵ¹ҲʼԵĵصֳָȤֻΪһ̵ֽĽ˼ϸĽͲ1932ԺԿչ[3]


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[1]
1845Ϊ˵еĴڣΪΪ˼ġΨ塱һȷȷ̬1914Ϊٿȫ顰˼ѧ˵дΪ

[2]
ȱ㵽˽죬ȻҶбҪǿһ£ⲻΪȷΪġ桱Ļȷ˼ʷ⣬DZ˼ĹȲ˼˼ҲΪ˴˵˼ྺġȷ˼ǵķĿһ˼ͼͬʱ˼ܹ˼Ĺзչ

[3] S. LandshutJ. P. MayerΪDZ༭˼Der Historishce Materialismus: Die Fruehschriftem(2 vols, Leipzig: Kroner, 1932)дĵԾܼ̣ȴǶ˼˼õķ֮һLowithVon Hegel bis Nietzsche˼һھкܸ߼ֵ˼ѧѧرҪHenri de Lubac, S. J. Le drame de lhumanisme athee3d ed. Paris: Editions Spes, 1945СѶ͹ڽ̻þFeuerbach et lillusionһڣRileyӢ뱾 The Drama of Atheist HumanismӢĶ߿ԿH. P. AdamsKarl Marx in His Early Writings( London: Allen and Uniwn,1940)м¼˵1847Ϊֹϧڽݵʱûз˼⡣ԲοD. EastonHurt H. GuddatWritings of the Young Marx on Philosophy and Society(Gardon City: Doubleday, 1967)

һ˼߼

λ·ֵűģһλжߣactivist mysticı硣ڡϵ۵񡷣The People of GodһоУѾ˽ߵĸͼ䱯磻ǰ۰ͿBakuninһУǻߵһࡣ

1

˼жĸṹǷǸģʽġǿҵʶǸʱΣеǸʱǡֱʱƽȵġὫһɵȡǰʲ׼ᡰʷǰʷһʱľ֮ʷʼ[1]Ӿת佫ֻͨƶȵļ򵥱ʵֵģ͵ĺ̵ĽߣSectariansҲͿ˼Ϊmetanoiaĸı䣬ǿ¼Ԫľ¼ΪʹֹʶձزΪʵҵʹձط仯DZģֱ仯ֻʵ˶Уڸвпʵ֣ˣ֮Ա裬Ϊûκİ취ܹƷͳν׼һΪƷͳν׼Ǹ׼ֻڸв׵Լϵһг¾ɵİĶܳΪ»[2]ˣΪ֮ڽеһ̣ҪĹܣ1۸ƶȵĹܣ2Ĺܡ

ָṹǷϳģֹıҲԤ֮еģԤ֮еĸķˣIJûиı䣬ôȻǸƽȵʷǰʷľ硣ձIJϣҲŶԣֶ֮ǰͷԶӰ죬ʵҲȷʵӰ졣˵Ǹ˫عܡ˼ȵĽȴµϵ۵ȻЩиøȻϵ۵Ӹв˼˿ֻеδܵĵĸıʱƷʲ׼ǺģҪ֤Ʒʲ׼Ǵıǡ;ʷֻ֤еȸԺܵõ⵽֮ǰľ񲡺˵ܲʵʯײͬʱĩӢļ֮£ԼڵõĹ£˵ĻҺƻ

ȻҪһؽ뵽Ľṹ֮У˼һ֮ҲڲΪ֪ʷδIJԤϵӰ졣˼ĸ˫عܱûиԵزͬڰͿĹ˵Ĺһ罫ȫƻ֮صصĹͨ˶̫ѽһ㣬ͨ˵ľ񼲲͵ȱĩЦõԤڣǶڸ쵽ηҪͿЧԶܴﵽ˼ĹﵽЧ̶ȣеԭ˼ݡ

2롪Ȼ

˼߳˼һ֮׿ȺΪһߣԺһ磬Ϊһ˼ߣ뵽ĩ˼Ȧ֮СӶڹҵϵ֮ĶʵصóӦȡҵϵĽۣ֮Ϊа룻ŷ(Owen)Ҷ(Fourier)³(Proudhon)ͿأCabet[3]˽ʱڶʧܳԡ䲻ͬͨصԭʼʽƹҵļʲôȻͬһҵᣬй֮޼ƬҲͿ׵µı̬ķ̴ͳʵ֤֪ʶӹɼײ㣬þ׼Ȩɺڸڸɣǻ˵·½̴ͳ֮УˣؽһᣬҲµľÿһ˵ľеõʵֵᡣˣ˼УܵĹҵ豸ԼҪͬʱھϣǾġšѾﵽһµɾ硣

ѾĴҪ˼Լ档Dz˼еĿںŶ棬ʹȷɣ˼벻ֻǺ족Ĺȡʱڵġѧ˼һ˼붯

ڡʱۡУ˼˼ʱϵŵ㡣ΪԭʼʽȣʱϵĸΪѸٵԽСĴۣ˿ھͿԵõͶƷĹһϵڸ֮ҲԱ֣ΪΨпΪͶգӦشϾͶյһʼҪĿľͶֹĵط䱾ʶԣϸϵ֮⡣ԭʼһȻԼҪûκʽҲûκθȡcondito humanaȻȻԵĽһչΪҪֳᷱ˵֮һɵĻҲڡ³´лԵĵڡữˡҲǡߡ´лġĿơ֮£ǷäĿףϵ£СŬһеĸĽȻһȻֱֻȻ֮⡰ſʼչԱΪĿı˵ֻſʼȻֻдΪıȻвܿ[4]
ЩҲ˼ijȻȻԵ˵Ȼһϵб˵ȻȷзΧ˼Ǻܹؼġڸ˽вƲڡơ֮֮󣬾ûֹΪȻȻĴڡȡ˽вƲĿıĺôֻΪٿ๤Ͷʱ䣬Ϊ¸Ͼʱ䡣Щ»õʱǰ˱ȻԵģǡԴвô˼ЩϾʱгɳʲôأ֪һǺҪġϧһ㣬˼жǸոշļҳֻҵһۣʱԡһ˴ȹΪġҲһп˼ҪһּʹȹĻʱпǵͶϾʱеĴDz֡ϷˣȵȶΪʲ׼ȹųˡȹôָʲô˼أΨһȷǣָָijжжΪΪĿı˵չǵĹŵѧ뵽Ŀij˹µbios theoretikosscholeҲӦһ̫ԶֻǿԹҵϵĹƲǸĿģĿֻṩʻǽҪչһɲԴʻԴڸǿⲻֻ˼Ĺһֱдʱۡʱڡ

˼ķʹܹЩ⣺1˼ʱڵת죻2ɴ˵Ĺ˼˶еת죻3ġѧġ˼Ĵ˵4˼ʵ˼뷽⵽ʧܣ5˼ȡõγɹʽijɹ˼ۼĻ̲סϲĸfour-letter wordˡ

˼꣬18371847ĴԼʮ䣬DZڹǰոѾоֹһʱڵ൱һִδδɳʽΪǵĿΪ˳˼롣һ֮ľȻǸжˣд۾ͲҪʵϣ˼겢̸롣аıѾųˡȻһûʲ׼Ĺҵᡣ֯ϸڲôҪΪĸ£統еپκ塣ɳȻijɳ޷ƻġһϣ˼ƺѴҪôͿ뵽֮УҪô뵽Ĭ֮У֮ʱджĺǾΪ׼

ֿǸֲĹĽṹġҪ˼ĹȥϵҪͨԼľȨ׷м䴴һrenovatioô˵ı֮ⲻ̫ĺȻûļϡǸһڱȻݡΪ˲߻˼ھֻҪ˵Acheronta㹻ˡڹУ˼ҪȲȷ˵ϣжУȴԳڶ˵֮СңȻ֮еĸзdz綨ݣǾƷʲ׼ˣΪ׼Ҳζŷdz񣺣1ԵطʱЩؽʹʱƶ߽⣬ʹ޲׼ɱ⡢ʹ֮ȡóɹأ2޲׼֯ڹؼʱ̳֮ڱȻ֮еֽ˼ԿԳΪȷ˱ְûгΪ䣬дˡԡٻٻִ֯вɱĸûдйδģдˡʱۡԴзǿ˵1840ǰ꣬˼dzؽӽڰͿĸԺ͹صͲϵתƵĽǰѴӵ׼תΪ˼ת졣׼ڱȻ֮Уڻڱ˸ĩ飬ڱ˸Ŀꡪʵ --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[1] Kar Marx, Zur Kritik der politischen Oekonomie(1859), ed. Karl Kautsky, 2d. enl. Ed. (Stuttgart: Dietz, 1907), 1vi.
[2] Deutsche Ideologie(1845-1846), in Marx-Engels-Gesamtausgabe, section I(Frankfurt, Berlin, and Moscow: Marx-Engels Institute, 1927-1935), 5:60. ر˵IJοĶȫеĸᡣӢİ汾The German Ideology, The Marx-Engels Readered. Robert Tucker, New York: Norton, 1978, 146-200ȫİ汾ǣMarx-Engels Gesamtausgabe(Berlin: Dietz Verlag, 1972-)Marx-Engels Collected Works(New York: International Publishers, 1975-)ա˼˹ѡһҳ91һž棩
[3] Etienne Cabe( 1788C1856),ѧңаߡŷӰ쿪ƿ˹˶Icarian Movement1848ƿ˹ᣬһֱڵ1898ꡣ
[4] Das Kapital, Kritik der politischen Oekonomie, 4th ed., Friedrich Engels, vol. III/2( Hamburg, 1894), 354ff.Σ˼ʱۡ磬2004ҳ928-29ﰴӢ롣

4 ˶

˼һУתڱ룬δƸĽţ˼ô˼֯׼֮УҲδɥʧĩ롣Ȼת콵ٵ˶IJ֮󣬾ͲԶӰ졣׼ԱЩδй˼ӡͨڸ˼Ҳн־羫µ֮֮С˼˶еĴ󲿷˲δ־ΪDZѾꣻˣ˵˼ȱ壬Ҳ岻󡣲޷鵽֮ȴܹ鵽Ͷ׼յıҴδ̹ո֮ȱδܴĸıȻܹһĽıȻԼʲ׼Ŀ̨

Զ˼תڻ߼ǿҵάͨ˵˼Ϊ׼ͨϯλ֯Ϊ׼ǿ˹˹ְҵǣԾͳΪܣ磬˹̹Bernstein˵ͨΪռĿĶҿǺģ˶һС磬ĻKarl Kautsky˵ĵǸĵĵЩԤʾţԤڵӳ˽ĿܹȻе¼Ļһɳڱˡ̹ա߹ʡҵϵĹƵĿʵʱڡͨá͵ѹֶΡʵֵĻûˡһת죬Եıƽӹˣ˵ˡߵתڱϱһ˶[1]

˶һת·ߺݽΪת·ƺԼƵģ桱˼Ļع顣Щ1980ʼжļ߲ԸԽĸȡʹ˶ԣһġԴĻɵ̬ȷdzؽӽ˼ԴӢó˶̬ȡܾųɢȺڵ첼ʲά˵ʽľӢս֯ĹרעڶȡȨ̵زЩǰջѸĹȺڣ˵ȵȶȷеʾĸĻع顣һ۰蹫ѵƪݽ1895˹1895Ϊ׼дƪԣǾܸܵһµϢ˹ܵѡĹ裬ǿ˺ƽؼʱƽĿԣΪ¹žǹ޲׼еһ֧ͻӡӦڳڵijͻ֮У1871蹫Ĵɱ֮⣬ûʲôܹʱֹķչ˱ʵı˶Ҫְ1905Ķ£ǿ˰蹫ıĽѵ֮ʧܣΪҪ壬ûذߣΪԵ˿ûɱǶõлǣΪûгֵᴿľжսеҪԣԥи¼ʱ䡣ˣϾս֤սļֵ̻޲׼ξش⡣190512ѵѾѧˡάʿŸ档ȷҪһʱʹúƽΪ׼ǵ޲׼ݻĵ˵ʱ򣬹սʱҲˡһʧܣֵõģΪѵʶζżٵսͱ

ڱȻжϵõ˻ָ˼Ƿںʱµõе飬ֵûɵġȻӰȷʵ֮У1936ܷı֮СܷȷسijɹĿǰΪֹδĹ壬δﵽ谴ͷԸܵľ硣빲֮ķֱ𻹱ά(Soviet Union)ijƺϣά˱Ϊά͹socialist soviet republicɹĵ쵼硣[2]Ȼȱ1917֮ǰ˼еһ·Ҳδ̫Ҫԡ°Ϊ˼ԡ졷(Gotha Program)עҵǰ˼ӸתֿһõȻ˼һԡԵıǣķʽռĿΪǰ׶εĹռ׶εĹ൱ͬռ׶൱ңԶ˼ʮ֮֮󣩣ǰ׶ijһȡóɹ֮ʵˣDzӦΪԭ飬Ϊ˼ġ͡˼Դο˼ߣ֤ʧʵռIJɱսԲ衣[3]

ȷʵпҲûлָԭʼ룬ǰἰ˼ƪٿȫģ1914ʾһ㡣ƪĿƪҪؽ˼ƽţԶ˹ۡAnti-DuhringеĴֲڵȻΪҪˡѧΨ塱壻ܿ˼Զ˹ͷѶ͹Ϊˡ֤壻ܿ˼йΨʷ۵ĴףԡξѧСKritik der politischen OekonomieеһҳΪˡΨʷۡƪĽһֽˡ׼͡ѧԭۡ塱һڣʱݽIJɱʱݵ˼Ķ䣬δʱݵǶ˹[4]ƪۡԡһᡣȫƪʼնûаۼʵֵްԡ

ˣǿԵóۣ·ߵתֻڱȻIJϻָûɵIJϻָʱƣתʹбҪԲԵķԽԽʷ¼ֲԽ͵չ󲻵ò͸͸ҽ͸֮ʷ¼˼߹Щ۾ڶԸʷ¼IJԽͣ磬1917ĶǷڴ֮еdzֻֻdzĿˣǷͨΪһڸδ鼰ȫ£ǷȫǷʱһ壻Ҫ೤ʱ޲׼רҪʱ޲׼רĶ󡪡޲׼ٴ֮޲׼רָʲô˼רǷΪʩһֱҪϯΪֹȵȡ

ȻϷҲʱƵһȤ⡣һѾڶȡóɹȴδʥ齵ٵ漣ȺǽʼԿˡԵϷǿ֧Щ쵼ְ񡢻ͶеǣȻͨȺDzԸƾյġѾˣһ¼ҪѾӡÿУǣʮʮ塢ʮȥˣһûڼʼԵЩЦˡڹϣҪΪ˵ǧҵһ׽Աʣڡҵ˶ͳĸ˺͡塱

һµİע뵽˶֮Сǿɽ˵ԭʼ߼ģǿ⣬ṩЩԶĩ֮еȺڵʾ˼תʷ֮к˵иԵı仯תIJԲδΪԵİѾӸȺڡΪֹ˼˶쵼ײУ˿Ҳûиļһ֡صġ۹ߣô˼ת͵ʷյ㣬DzΪ˼תѾʷյ㡣ֻʾѾԵػ뵽˼˶ϲ쵼ƶĸ˶֮СֻеǿĸɹɱظIJǿҵ۹ɫʣЩսԼΪѵļҲֿʱְòű[5]

6

Ƕһ˶׷Ѿﵽϵյ㣬ܵĿǰΪֹδﵽʷյ㡣ǿܽһЩۡ

˼˶˼Ĺԣϵھھ1848¸֮Ѿ˼ϵת졣ǰ˼ת춨ΪǿĿתǿΪ׼IJԡĵת֮ԿܣڸĿꡪҲĽΪǸһ޷׼ġΪ֮׼ֻDZȻ֮еĸΪʵĿ꣬ĸı䲻DZҪģֻҪˣ磬ߡ塢ͬ顢Сĥѻõ󸣱ġ˵塱΢ѧԹޡʡޡߵλʶ̰ƻԿֲжͳεԵɱȵȡЩ¡ΪɶսĩӢ塢Լʷ˵Ƚһ𣬾͹һкǿĻ˼ߵĹ۵㿴ΨһȱҲܱģºá˼ߣҲֻ˼ߣǵط֣壨ɴ壩ҲòĽ

ǿ԰ת컮Ϊ⼸ʷ׶Σ

1˼Լת죬1848¸֮

2¹ת졣Ʒʲ׼Żʲ׼epater le bourgeoisĸԣʵȴ˽ĸĸﵳߡҪǵһսͶ˼Ľпܾǰ˶ɹθеͶĸ߿ܾͳһ˴ŵȺ塣

3ת졣1917ĶŤת˶ijʹ֮һֿȵ˼塣ŹһȨǽҳɹǸչĵһijɾ͵õ˼顣ڴĽǶȿûдijɾͣ˲òѹ׶ۣһ׶ΣʵĽ׶οԲڵؽδ׶ΣԼΪʾ뵽˶IJ֮ȥ

4۹ת졣ŶսĽս֮ŹʵǸǣ˶صͬڶ۹塣ڶʧܿͨõֵĿ˷Ҳ˹Panslavicǿڸǡš֮ɵȱӶڶŷŷٵõֵĿ˷ڸԶµIJڸǻδֻ֣ԡ˹塱fascismָһеֿ۹֯

ϸ׶ʾ˼תdzԵشӲս͸ȡò˥˶ƺ߱شĸֻͨԡ͸߶ȷζɶ߱һץסͣͺͽĻķǷΪֹⳡ˶ʼܹͨ˶֮¼˸ܿǧ˥⡣ڸԴɷӯתĽһ·޷Ԥ⡣

Ȼ˵ת֮Կ˼߼ģвԽֹĹؼʱ̾˳־õΪȷɹֹ뽨ڶʵ״ijֿɿķĻ֮ϣҲ빹Σһֻ֡Ϊ̵ľ񼲲ıֻ֣Ϊּµļˣܹ̬ĴԿǽҪֹIJԼֹвּıʡ

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[1] һձʷֻǶתĵ͹̵һ档ڹ˼ߵ൱СġԵ⡣Ȼʵʵʷ˼зǷҪԣڴ˲ͿĻԵıǸӳڿĻһƪУNeue Zeit, Berlin, 1910; ӡDer Weg zur Macht, Berlin, 1910, 52; Ӣİ棺The Road to Power, trans. Raymond Meyer, Atlantic Highlands, N.J.: Humanities, 1996ΪתеĸĻ෴Ϊһĸߡ˵

֪ǵĿֻͨһܴﵽҲ֪ûٳһǵĵǡǡֹǸҪɿ׼ҳ52

۵ͨĻһõ⣺˼֤ΪһʷȻ¼ʱֵؽ壨DzɱģԽӹ֮ǰΨеȴֻҪδﵽһij̶ȣעҪʧܡĸߡؼɵȴֻаȷӲŻʱ֮ǰաˣӶ˵һ߾һˣ֪޲׼ؽ٣֮ڴһ¼ʵʱᵽࡰѹ΢ԴٽȤǣĻ˼˹ʥı֧ԼĻתܲ˲1848-1850ijЩ⡣ǿ˵һֱ18482¸˼һĩ۵Ľ֮УŻʱĸڲõĽͻᷢŸķҲڼʱȷԡIJ֣־

ڵ¹еĹ߶ȫעΪ¹ʲ׼ǰҹΪڱ17͵Ӣ18͵ķȽ¡ӵи޲׼һġΪ¹ʲ׼DZģֻǽ޲׼ǰࡣ

ʧ֮󣬱ҪĽ͡˼Die Klassenkampfe in Frankerich(1850)н˵һ׶εʧܣDer Achtzehnte Brumaire des Louis Napoleon(1852)н˵ڶ׶εʧܡ۵ĽDzģ߹ͬ˵ijԱᷢʲô˼Ansprache der Zentralbehorde an den Bund(1850)һְһƪУ˼һ˺չνȴĸʱڵĽ׼ԡƪһµĿںţ־øDie Revolution in Permanenzij־൱һʱ䡣ڰ蹫ʧܺ󣬽͹ֳ˵֮Ϊˣ˼дDer Burgerkrieg in Frankreich(1871)˼󣬶˹еְZur Geschichte des Bunds der Kommunisten(1885)Уǰ18ÿ1518귢һθĹԤ⣨ⱾӡڣKarl Marx, Enthullungen uber den Kommunistenprozess zu Koln, ed. Franz Mehring, Berlin, 1914.˹ԤԼҳ45

һθ1870꣬ôĸԼ3Ҿͻᵽ˱ڡ˹ǰһξⷢļڵKlassenkampfe in Frankreichٰ浼(1895)ϸһЦԷǵľ棬߲úϷֶԶȲ÷ǷġѵֶθȡóɹѡƱչ˿ͽ۹˵ǿһʵڴȣDiocletianڹԪ303ԻͽдȺһ˹̹Ϊ̣ڵ¹ĴȣҲ˹󣬶߽ȺһҲлһƵĺý֡ˣĻƣų־øĻ棬ĩ1848¼֮˼ȼġ׷֮ǻȷ˼Եת췢ڴԼ1850ꡣ[˼˶ȫĽܼLeszek Kolakowski, Main Currents of Marxism, 3 vols. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978.]

[2] 빲ķֱ׷ݵ˼Zur Kritik des sozial-demokratischen Parteiprogramms (1875)ݶڡ졷ӡHermann DunckerKritiken der Sozialdemokratischen Programm-Entwurfe vo 1875 und 1891(Berlin: Internationaler Arbeiter Verlag, 1928)СӢİġСMarx-Engels Reader( ed. Tucker, 525-41)

DunckerǰָذƪһĿģٴ˼ĸںˣĸ塣1930ڶǰУƼٿȫ˼ƪΪСġõIJ䡱оҪ۵ƪ¡ڡСУ˼˸ոմӸнġijӡǵĹ롰߽׶εĹᡱͼ׶εӡǾǰͶ乤ꡣڸ߼׶ΣǡıֶΣĵһҪ׶һﵽԹļͲٱҪԭǡܣ䡱ڡState and Revolutionлָ׶εķֱ𣬴ԺһֱǶФsemantic icons֮һ

[3] ڵһս֮˼ߵġ͡͡ԡ˷˼ߵЦսOttoBauerԤŴʧЧ֮󣬰µKarl Krausһtic-tac-tic

[4] ˶˹ġۡHerrn Eugen Duhrings Umwalzung der Wissenschaft, 1878, 19th ed. Stuttgart: Deitz, 1919,302е䣺

޲׼ȡùȨһжǰϱΪҲƲһжΪ޲׼һн׼ͽ׼ҲΪҵĹҡ.ΪĴȡĵһжռϣͬʱҲΪȡһжʱȨϵĸԤڸнȺΪֹͣʱ˵ͳνɶĹͶ̵쵼档Ҳǡϳġġ(˼˹ѡҳ630-631иĶ)


˹ļƽװת֮ǰ˼ǵһԭʼųȥˡ˼ǵľûϵֶοδֶּܲܲڿ˷ĸΪµḯܡȻ˹ƽǡӭĸԵҪ

[5]ڷ˹һϵ¼ƺѾһİ˹ԶƵķ֮ˡ

ָ֣ԭµķѧңӿɭʿġ

1938꣬˹̫

һѧߣһʶ̬־˼ҡ

ɵӱඩļ34

ѡA History of Political Idea

ѡԡѧ֪塷 ݸ壩

ҪͼͨһЩķչʾֹֽʵڴŬּչͬʱҲʵʩѧǵķҪָʱľңÿ˶Ը߶Σע£෴ÿ˶ӵ֮п˷־ΣֶΡǵŬֻҪָЩֶΣҪָЩֶΡûĸǻ뵽ⳡΣ֮еģ෴ÿ˶ȥԼ֮СˣǶijͬʱҲΪԵķ֮ṩƵķ

1

˼ijЩһġѧѧָ塷бֳĶʵĽֹΪǷij㡣

˼һ˼֪ߡѴڵΪһȻ֮ƵĹ̡Ȼһֲɵ״̬֮УչĹ֮вˣֱӵȻ[1]ţȻķչУһ䵽˵ϡִһȻȴͬʱվȻ֮ϣ˵Ͷ֧Ȼķչ˵ͶʽǻȻѧ֮ϵļ͹ҵʷ֮зչڹҵ֮зչȻȻ[2]ڴȻĹУҲͬʱԼʹԼƣˣνʷͨ˵ͶĹ̡[3]һ˼ĿΪжϴڵĹ볬֮ϵ˴һͨŪһЩﵽģȻǰһеĴȻԼӱʵ˵˵Ȼ˵ıԣhuman natureֶģŪһdz׺ӵľдﵽ˵ǷǼĵز

һ֮ûбԵĴﲻһȻĴȻĴڡA being that does not have its nature outside of itself is not a natural being; it does not participate in the being of nature[4]

˼棬˼Լһ⣺ЩĸˡȻȻĹʲôʣȻ˵ȻȻĴڣbeing-of-itself޷ģΪʵһпɴķ棨tangible aspects໥ìܵġ˻һһȥ׷ԼԴӶһα⡣Ԯ޻ݵ֤ɣIonian ѧе˱ԭ⡣ӡɴ֮У˻ԼԷڵģexist of himselfڴһ֮зʣ˼ش𣺡dzIJ̽Ȼ˵ĴʱʹȻˡȻֻ˼Ƿŵ˼ȥʱʵġ˼Ȼ˲ڵĿԵĻ˼Ҳ޷֤Ǵڡ[5]

ʵϣ˼Ĺʱͻô˼߳أ̵ߣijҲ֮ʡ߻ǹѼô˼ͻ˵òԼҲΪڣɵΪ֮УʵǴڵġˣٴν̵˵Ҫ룬Ҫʡ[6]ˡΪ˼۷ԼΪڣΪʵʶԼԷڵһʵġʵϣ˼һȴˣûн⡣෴˳۱棬ƣڡ˵ҲѾ˼ԴʷĹˡ⡰ʵбòܡ˼ߵּġˡЩⱻгˣΪԼĹܵšڡߡ˵ʱҪྲ[7]

Щ֤ݾǽֳ̽㡣ǽзǰҪŪף˼ĽֹʲǹҲ޺ġǸʱDzɷֵģΪڿ׵£ComteCours de Philosophie Positiveʵ֤ѧ̡̳ĵһݽҲҵͬĶʵĽֹ׵ҲԤ˶Ĺɣֱ˵س֮Ϊĵ⡣ĿǰĵֻĹɡ˭й˵ıʡ١˵⣬ĿǰԺӣʵ֤ϵʢ֮˾ͲòʶȵijĬ[8]ֹҲ޺ģмüЧֹڹؼʡǻ˹άӪ˾˹(Rudolf Hoss)Ĺ۲졣ʼܾһ֯ɱʱش˵

Ǹʱû˼أҽӵҲòִС.ţǧɴ⵳ӵľٵûһ˻ͷԼͷ֡ɸȫܵġ[9]

˵Ļ˼Ĵʮֽӽһ߶ԡ⡰ʵDzܵġǣǹճʹ̽ΪܵҪͣߣ˼ϵģʵ֤ߣ׵ϵģԼɴ⵳

˼ʵĽֹǻףһַdzӵDZΰijɷֶԿ졣ɴġһλ˼ң֪һѧ⣬Ĺͻ֪˵£վסŵĹ𣿾ֻʹȥֹһʡDzʣѵ˼һ˼ƭһҲ·ԡһλ൱ߵλ˼ңıҵǽ˼ƭֵĻ֮ϵģ뷨ǽƭ֮ϣڵ׷沢ҳΪأǽ첻ΪǸеƺܡŵȴʵģѾ̫ˡˣDzҪԥЩ֤ʹȥ⣬ҲҪԥػش˵ǵģ˼һ˼ƭӡ⵱ȻǶ˼ѾᵽǸ䱳ĸԡǣŪ׶ʵĽֹĻȻǶ˼ĵһ

ȷ˼һ˼ƭ֮󣬽һΪʲôˡʲôܹʹһȥƭأΪ֮ûвԵأΪ˻ش⣬תɣҲһ˼֪ߣһλ˼еѧҡ --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[1] Karl Marx, Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts, in Early Writings, ed. and trans. T. B. Bottomore, New York, 1964, p.206.˼1844꾭ѧѧָ塷磬1985ҳ124
[2] Karl Marx, Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts, in Early Writings, ed. and trans. T. B. Bottomore, New York, 1964, p. 164.˼1844꾭ѧѧָ塷磬1985ҳ85

[3] Karl Marx, Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts, in Early Writings, ed. and trans. T. B. Bottomore, New York, 1964, p. 166.˼1844꾭ѧѧָ塷磬1985ҳ88
[4] Karl Marx, Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts, in Early Writings, ed. and trans. T. B. Bottomore, New York, 1964, p. 207.˼1844꾭ѧѧָ塷磬1985ҳ125룺һ֮ûԼȻ磬ͲȻͲܲμȻ˴Ӣвͬ

[5] Karl Marx, Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts, in Early Writings, ed. and trans. T. B. Bottomore, New York, 1964, p. 165-166.˼1844꾭ѧѧָ塷磬1985ҳ86-87

[6] Karl Marx, Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts, in Early Writings, ed. and trans. T. B. Bottomore, New York, 1964, p. 166.˼1844꾭ѧѧָ塷磬1985ҳ87

[7] Karl Marx, Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts, in Early Writings, ed. and trans. T. B. Bottomore, New York, 1964, p. 166-67.˼1844꾭ѧѧָ塷磬1985ҳ87-88

[8] Auguste Comte, Cours de Philosophie Positive, I, Paris, 1830.


[9] Rudolf Hoss, Kommandant in Auschwitz, as quoted in Suddeutsche Zeitung, October 1958.