ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 


ܷԭ*
ղء˹** ǧ***

תԱ󹫷

Ͼѧۡ2004괺ţ1-24ҳǧ֯룺ܷۡɳ2006档1ƪ

Ҫ ˹ܷѧڣƪܷѧľסݿ˹Ͳ˹ɵ֤зѧߵģڷѧ־ϵʽڿ˹ľѧġɱ⡱1ƪУ˹սһϵԷʡҪ⡣һ棬Ϊ˾֮ϣͬ⺺·൱дԵĹ۵㣬ԺȨзϹϽȨͳҪܷһ棬˵֤Що뽨ڳԽͷϣΪ߷Ժûѭԭӡжᵽķ˹٣ΪƪԴĽΪв˻ķ˹ڡɵĵ·ûϵͳ˼롣ƪ֮󣬡ԭ򡱳Ϊ˾ۺʵܹע⡣


ڹȥУ϶̽ǹ飺ҲǷԺͳеһú߷ԺãԼǶάͺͷչⲿְ֯ܣ÷Ϊṩ˿ܣԼΪ߷(supreme law)

˵ĵȻǽܿѷ󷨹(J. Jackson)ûĸߵ½(Godkin)[1]ڼЪϷĺ[2]Լ·(J. Learned Hand)һǰ̳Ϸݽ[3]ҲҪЩҪףҵòһ䣺ҹط֮ܵעԣЩֻǹһƬϣ⻹ЩѧԲҪԵIJô֮עжʾ ҲΪеҪ˵Ҫ¹ɼ򵥵ظô˵ݽֻǶֵ̽һ̽գǽǶ˺ÿ͵һֱ֮мֵĿǰ۵ҪرءȻҰʵ֮ǰȳ壬Ѿǹĸ㷺⣬ں·ȥۣҵ㾿ʲôطԼǺ潫ǰֵء

һ ˾

ҴʼҴûж˾Բκλɣ۰ҪеΪĻġĻǸݵġұȴ⣬Ϊ·۹ҾڷԺʹȨĻشĴ𰸺ҽľ൱ͬĻ

·ٵǣܷ1787µܴʱǿıĻṹûṩκݣƶ߷ԺľȨԣ¼Ժ͸˵ˡһ棬ûijվٲߣϵͳпܡ϶Ϊһγɾһš෴ʹǷԺǰòıһֱϵ׼ıӳҪܲδȷ涨Էƻʧܡˣ͡߷ԺȷȫǺϵģҲʹȨԱ֤ݡͳ涨ȨΪ󣬻ɣܷȨ޷Ϊ[4]

Ҵӹȥľѧͺ·٣J. HandĹ۵ȥֻͨʮ޴ұΪʲôŷԺȨǻܷıֻһ(interpolation)Ϊ֤һ㣬DZ̵ʴȵĵز

ܷԼƶĺڹɺںڹȨǩǩԼǹҵ߷ɣκݵܷǷִ֮ݷپ֮Լ[5]

·ٳϣһݷԺʱݷܻǷܷͻ˵ùϽȨΪбҪر涨޵ĹϽȨһʵȥֶ֧ǷһϽȨ[֮][6]

ȻôΪԸݷԺϽȨ裬ŶԺȨ֮ᣬǷأ϶ıȻ壻ҲԱΪ԰ԺڵȨֻرǿԼǰĸ֮١ǵܷйʱұ˵ȷĽ

һ˾ȨӦһ߷ԺԼʱɹὨ¼Ժ֪ܴһҪЭǷ¼Ժľίи˹ɲȨ[7] Ҳܲκ¼Ժһг˾ƽݷԺ[8] Ȼڶһ˾ȨķΧ涨Ӧչܷķƽҡݹƶ򡱣߷ԺసСӦ߹ϽȨͺ1789ġ˾һ[9] ⵱ȻζһݵķԺܷ⡪涨Ӧˣôڹ涨⣬оǿɱ߷Ժģ£߷ԺȻкͱķԺͬȨΣܷȵλ[10] ݷԺİܰÿһֵܷܳİΪѾ˵᲻Ҫҿܲʹ佨¼ԺȨ

㵽ĿǰΪֹͬҵĻһһԥ񺺵·ٽ̵ġһĿġ֮׼ȥϸ[11] Ƿпܷܲнͣѡ񴴽¼ԺϵͳЩԺӦϽȨڵİԼ߷ԺǵоԼҪȸݷԺ٣ʽͬҲܻرܶ˵˾ȵĽۣǺ·ٶııȻıֵ֧ͬơ ȷʵܶڡļ78ƪ۵вûᵽŽںΪijܷ֮ԼԺܳϵΪɽߵְ֮СЪѷظЩһ㿼ǣע⵽ı˾һֻڽβᵽ֣Դָ϶ǿ˶гܷҪԭ򣬼ִܷķЧģҷԺԼⲿļԼ[12] ڳܷԿ˵۵ʽϿֵ֮̽ɺ·ٵ۵޹أֲֻܴܷṹз˾飬ָʷϡ[13]

ڲӦٶΪʲôɺ·ٽıķʽеȣΪ˾ȨΪάܶЧơͺطһ֧ܺ룬ȷʵһ֡Ҫһ֡Ϊ֤һ㣬ú·ٵԭ

ȻȨǴܷṹеó߼ֻۣǶɹеľûбҪڷԺһΪԼΥܵʱʹǴһȾ⣬ҲôеҪҲñнҪȨ𰸣ҲеĴǷԺûʵֶʵʩġ[14]

ζŷԺʵİɡݶְܵʶӦɡлܾжݵľΪܷսȡΪСҪ𣬻ʲôܱ˾ۺʵиҪҪҪ֤ʲôǷ֤˾Ԥڷֹ̨DZҪġԻȨ˵֮ɣʹﲻԤԼΪ˾Ȩܷ߱ıκ˶ԣ˾DzжģҲַʽܵ Ȼ˾ְ𲢲ǼලȰҲûܹѧΪһ̳ܷΪݹ䲻ƽ֮¡ְǾϰݷԼϸij͹ϽȨҪ֮ݵ½ǵĸڲ˹ٵ˼˻[15] ֻڹϵķɡ˾ΪһҪijַṩ˾ȼãֻйؾȼõķͨһȨȨΪܵ£ԺбҪѯܷҪֹʲôֻ²бҪ԰Ъﰸٵ⣿

һԭҪίǷȨڶȨȨַܵҷǷΪṩȼãȷʵṩȼãǷӦDZԺ´ǿ(mandamus)[16]

Ϊķ߶ΪܷЩĴأ[17] ǿȨ

ڷϵɳĹУṩľȼ÷ʵԵԺȻַչҲйףṱ׸[18] ֳɳǵϵͳѾ[19] Ҹ˵иijɳԻòܷϵ϶ӦӡȻŷԺ뱳۲ûиı䣬ѵǾȼúϵʹۼ京屣ֲԵԽԽҪ

ҲϣԺijЩΪΡԵģҲ˵DzӦ˾漰ܷͲϹг֡·ᵽۣ䷶Χδܶij̶ϣΪϸߵijˮ[20] ˸ط(J. Frankfurter)ЪϵľҲʵеԺ䡮ΡʶеرоijЩİһЩ־áɡ롮ƽȡ֮Ľ߾Ǽϸ΢ġ[21]

ȷʵϸ΢ΪҪʵعϸˣ۵ĿסȫǣԺҪоܷǷίһȥ⣬һ϶ҲҪ͡ƩܷһеȫȨڲԺ˭ŷԺʵ鵯ϲԱһλԱͶƱԼѷͳĸ˹ǣ[22] ԵκʵжҪܷ⣬ھʲô޹ϵ

һӣԱϯ(seating)򿪳[23]Ե⣬ԵġڡڹӦΪÿһݱϹ֮ʽĹ涨ҲΪˣ[24] ҿȷġӦüǵãϺͱݲԵͬһУ[25] ԤĿܲ𣬲͹ԺӦԱϯȨȻϵ[26]

ܴ෴۵㣬[27] ҿԽһóۣᡰ涨ı䡱ݹơѡٲԱķʽ[28]֮ȨŻѡ涨ѡӦѭı׼֮ȨųԺԸĻѡ(gerrymanders)ܷս[29]ʹܷԱΪ಻ƽ涨ҹھȼõķΪܵ𺦵ѡṩߵķʸ񣬶뵥Ե⡣[30]

ٴνҵ۵㣺ҳᵽûʱᵽЩУ[31] ܵ»رоΨһʵܷѾľίиһǷԺҪǵжѣʲôӦڴ𰸲ܵȷȨ⣬漰ⱾܷΪӦøһڽ͹̵ı׼Сҳ;ǻرܻǸԤĹ㷺ɲȨȫͬġ

ȻڹڹϽȨķ(certiorari)δ涨ߵ£߷ԺȷʵɲȨǷ¼Ժо[32] ˵ȫͬ¡˾ϵͳǽܷȨ֮ϣԵԺ߹ϽȨ涨⣻ԵIJ˾оеְ𣬶߷Ժб¼ԺľȨʹҪҪע߷ԺͨѾʹɲȨı׼[33] Щ׼ǹ涨ģƩҪԼ[¼˾]֮ijͻҴų羴ָֻά͸Щ׼[34]ʵ֮[35] ܱԺܾܹͬƫ֧һֻһŵķѡ

ʵϣҽһţ߷ԺճбҪڿɿطΧڣйԵõ޸ģʹ֮ڽ綨ʲôҪ߷Ժʱ;зӸãǽǼġ[36] һûɲϽȨĹЪԺṩıǣ[37]

ȷǣԺӦõʱùϽȨͬȷǣӦõʱȡùϽȨ˾ڱƽܷ޶ʱرܲȡʩDzʶ۴ʲôʺѣһᵽԺǰDZ봦֮ǼûȨܾʹĹϽȨҲûȨ۶ûбĹϽȨǶܷıѡ

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* Toward Neutral Principles of Constitutional Law, 73 Harvard Law Review 1-35 (1959)195947չѧԺĻķ˹ָ¼ڴˣӽע֮ûʵԸĶע⣬ΪڶǶ߶дġ

** Herbert WechslerױǴѧ˹ܷͨѧڣ1928ŦԼѧԺѧʿ(A.B.)1931ڸױǴѧ÷ѧʿ(LL.B.)

*** ߸лɳȨƪ䡶ۡ䡷ġҪ˵ǣ˹սڵƻֺ룬Ķ಻ϵķʾ䣬ıΪסΪʵԭ⣬ԾԭĵķṹڲپӲòͨпɬѶʲ֮ȫΪˮƽ£߼¡ԭ漰ܷѧ֮ͨע˵

1 μR.H. Coase, The Problem of Social Cost: The Citations, 71 Chicago-Kent Law Review 809˹(Richard A. Posner)Խɵĵ·Ͼѧۡ2000^ţ20-23ҳ

[1] Jackson, The Supreme Court in the American System of Government (1955).

[2] Government Under Law (Sutherland ed. 1956).

[3] Hand, The Bill of Rights (1958).

[4] Id. at 27, 29, 14, 15, 29.

[5] ڹܷڶ

[6] Hand, op. cit. supra note 3, at 28.

[7] 1 Farrand, The Records of the Federal Convention 104-105, 119, 124-125 (1911)ܽHart & Wechsler, The Federal Courts and the Federal System 17 (1953).

[8] ĴǵBailey, The Federal Jurisdiction of State Courts, 2 Res Judicatae 109 (1940); Wheare, Federal government 68-72 (2d ed. 1951)¼ԺϽȨĻ̣Hart & Wechsler, op. cit. supra note 7, at 727-733, 1019-21, 1107-08, 1140-50.

[9] Act of Sept. 24, 1789, ch. 20, 25, 1 Stat. 85.

[10] Ϊ·ҲϣܶԴ˵ijֻdzԽܸѷHand, op. cit. supra note 3, at 5.

[11] Id. at 19.

[12] Marbury v. Madison, 5 U.S. (1 Cranch) 137, 180 (1803).

[13] Hart & Wechsler, op. cit. supra note 7, at 14-16; Hart, Book Review, Professor Crosskey and Judicial Review, 67 Harvard Law Review 1456 (1954).

[14] Hand, op. cit. supra note 3, at 15.

[15] Freund, On Understanding the Supreme Court 64-65 (1949); Freund, Mr. Justice Brandeis: A Centennial Memoir, 70 Harvard Law Review 769, 787-788 (1957)μBickel, The Unpublished Opinions of Mr. Justice Brandeis 1-20 (1957).

[16] 5 U.S. (1 Cranch) at 154.

[17] ǵõĻܸѷ֮Է԰䷢Թǿǻܷй˾ȨȨ۵㡣1 Warren, The Supreme Court in the United States History 232 (1937); Kendall v. United States, 37 U.S. (12 Pet.) 524, 610 (1838); Lee, The Origins of Judicial Control of Federal executive Action, 36 Georgia Law Journal 287 (1948).

[18] Developments in the Law C Remedies Against the United States and Its Officials, 70 Harvard Law Review 827 (1957).

[19] ֳɳľֱԱ⣬Harmon v. Brucker, 355 U.S. 579 (1958)ȽJ. Prettyman¼Ժ243 F.2d 613 (D.C. Cir. 1957).

[20] Hand, op. cit. supra note 3, at 15.

[21] Frankfurter, John Marshall and the Judicial Function, 69 Harv. L. Rev. 217, 227-228 (1955), in Government Under Law 6, 19 (Sutherland ed. 1956).

[22] Kennedy, Profiles in Courage 126 (1956)Andrew Johnsonֿϱ̺ɸͳͳؽϺ͹ᷢ⵽һƱ֮סͳְλע

[23] ڹܷһ涨ԺӦԼԱѡ١ͳƺʸIJߡԺɾΥΪͷԱ2/3Աͬ¿һԱ˽ѡзIJΪܾԱϯɣɵijܷսBeck, May It Please the Court 265 (1930).

[24] Pacific States Tel. & Tel. Co. v. Oregon, 223 U.S. 118 (112); Luther v. Borden, 48 U.S. (7 How.) 1, 42 (1849).

[25] ڹܷĿڹӦԣܿᣩ뱣ڲҡ [26] ȽLuther v. Borden, 48 U.S. (7 How.) 1, 42 (1849)һݵIJԱܽᣬôǵȨ乲ܵʵܷȨ֮ϡ

[27] Lewis, Legislative Apportionment and the Federal Courts, 71 Harv. L. Rev. 1057 (1958).

[28] ڹܷһĿ

[29] Colegrove v. Green, 328 U.S. 549, 554 (1946, J. Frankfurter)Լݵ½ڵۣSupreme Court and Supreme Law 46-47 (Cahn ed. 1954).

[30] Щ֮ŬLewis, supra note 27, at 1071-98.

[31] Hart & Wechsler, op. cit. supra note 7, at 192-197, 207-209; Post, The Supreme Court and Political Questions (1936).

[32] 28 U.S.C. 1254-57 (1952)߷ԺɲʸΪʵҪ׶֮׷ݣHart & Wechsler, op. cit. supra note 7, at 400-403, 1313-21ھϸFrankfurter & Landis, The business of the Supreme Court (1927).

[33] ڹ߷Ժ(United States Supreme Court Rule)19

[34] ҿźǣ1954޸ʱ߷Ժͼơء֮μWiener, The Supreme Courts new rules, 68 Harvard Law Review 20, 60-63 (1954).

[35] Note, Supreme Court Certiorari Policy in Cases Arising Under the FELA, 69 Harvard Law Review 1441 (1956).

[36] ߷ԺĿǰ(obligatory)ϽȨɲϽȨҪܲȫ1925ġ˾229£43 Stat. 936߷ԺίԱᣬTaft, The Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court Under the Act of Februar 13, 1925, 35 Yale Law Journal 1 (1925); Frankfurter & Landis, op. cit. supra note 32, at 255-2941925ԺҪ仯Hart & Wechsler, op. cit. supra note 7, at 1317.

[37] Cohens v. Virginia, 19 U.S. (6 Wheat.) 264, 404 (1821).

ܷԭУ

ߣղء˹ ǧ

׼

һͼϱʵԺԺͲӱܾ֧ΪǷܵô㽫ỳʲôǽӦѭı׼ԺҪԡ߷Ժо߻ߣǷڵºѧֵ֧κα׼ Ϊʲô϶ͬôǶԵģҲҶ߷ԺͶͬһ⡣оȻ߷ԺӦͬľǣŵЧȡǷṩڷԺӦûʤɣκɶ޹صġȻڷԺ׼κδҲζҪľDzڳĺ֮ŵұ̾ǵĻûвְ̫ҵƵߣ ͺijˡԼɪ˹(Josephus)۲ҲңʷݲЩжϺձ֤ˡϣʷDzɲ֪ģоδĻУһߡ

ڻصԷԺ߶ͬصı׼⡪ָǿΪԵʵγɲı׼ֻΪһԻ־ΪȻǵĻͬϡһΪֻ(fiat)һ֣䷨ûûеλôͲ׼֮֮̽ұԤƵΪ˾ûΪս˾ֵ̽ìκοռ䣬ôһἤҷҵij㡣[1] ͬҲԤƵǵли˲ȷеسŵʲôѧ̹ʻεؽǰĽȥ谭Ǵٽֵֵ֧Ϊ׼Ҳܻ᲻ͬҵij㡣

ҲӦͼ˷ᵽѧʣܽûķ˹˵һ仰ҵ㡣ⳡ۱ڱܷ͸ΪսչҲ˵Ϊʸ´ǿҵϣṩȻЩжȡǰ˿ûʶŷԺΪȨʹְܣҽΪϵķԺ(courts of law)ǰìֻܵһնĶԡֻΪһά˹˰ߡ˻ߡҵ򹲲žͲ֮ͬôĬţͬϢͬ۵˿ܻͬʵصóͬĽۡ

Բŵ˵ǶڷԺоڲܷͬǵзõĸ(ad hoc evaluation)һ̵ֱ⡣

ϲӢҪıԹ˰ֽ֧ʱѵӢûս[2] ܸܽѷڹеʱԿȨȨѵ·˹ɹ(Louisiana Purchase)DZȽڿϣ[3] ܷΪԲ˵ܵѹָصIJ(Burr)еʧ[4] ҪͨԶϵһĴٽɡѹƵ֤ݳ֣ЩӪūķū(abolitionists)ȻǷɵǿĹ۵ӵϿڷĹ۵㣿[5]

صǣο1829ҵࡪͿµ˹(J. Curtis)ͬһ졪ļ¼ƪ۵س޸÷ڡū(Dred Scott Case)еķּһ䣺ìܵǣ186210׼˷۵㣬Сڲʿٷֿͳţϲݵū֮Υܵġ[6]

Ȼµ˹ΪΪͶƱ֧[7] ܷݹϽ(diversity jurisdiction)ϣһɵĺǺڹҲݵĹ񣻼ʹγɺõأҲȨֹūڣ˽أֹֽ൱ڽūȻò԰ΪͳȨȡݷڵĽͱijʽIJƲͳ߶ΪЩûкϷشȥҲûк͹ĵ˷ս

ڰʷ˵Ψһصֻǿµ˹°谭ū֮ʵ֡ô򵥻ˡ ʷЩӣΪʱ룬˵죬Ӻ֮࣡˶Թ鹲ܷսָеԸߵ·(Goldfine)(Hoffa)ҿᵽ˵Ϊ飿Ϊʷ˹(Smith Act)ս͵ϵһֱ֧ڹĶƫͲߵĺԣ򷴹˵һʷ˹Ͽκִ۵ԤıĶΥΪ[8] ôǷҲƩ˾оо֧йطƽȱ⵽˰֮šͬκ֣ͬҿڶصҴûпijЩƶȵļΪҵ֧ߣͬ1957ǹȨȴ˥

Իش˵û˻˵Щԭں̶ܴDZõĹߣʵһκضʱҪĽdzʵеʵò׹ǵĽԼ׼̨ɣСǵ˹(John Quincy Adams)趨İǺЧµġ

Щȷʵ˵ȫҪһ㣺ǷеӦݡҸݣӶԭɿɲݵĹߣѵ㲻ͬԷԺҪDzͬҪָ˾̵Ҫԭ참漰ÿһڳԽضķԵĻϣֱóоȻԺֻӦþǰİѵǵľӦýʵ(neutrality)(generality)ϣ׼ǰðһӦøԭǵѵ˾ҪزǼͨЩ漰֮ŵκԭ

ҲΪԼκµĻҪĶͺͻķ˹ںܾǰ˵ġƺԺӦɻIJһǡҪʶ[9] ǶܷҪΪ˾ռߵظǰ˳ڷ񶨵ȨܷĹУԺٲɻرܵġΡ⡪õʵĵϣҲ漰໥ͻļֵ֮ѡ񣬶ѡӳڷԺǴ߿ˡйΪС

ԸԻܿѷ(J. Jackson)ЪԼ·ٵĽǿ۵㡣ʵϣԼ۵㡣[10] ҳϣؼʣڷԺЧ𸴵ʡκûְܵʶͨ߱ɵĽֵ֧ѡ񣬵Ϊֽ˾ΪеġĽЩзֵľ߱ɵĽ͡ Ժͨԭʹ·ֵĹ۵޹ؽҪҲκηԺ粻ܷĹ̶ʷ塱֮׼ѡ[11] ɡԺ[12] ֮˭ܷҪءһ棬ɶƻĴʩȨʧһ棬ЩԱΪܷεļֵϣԭȨڷԺĽ˾Ժȫ֧κ֮䣬һмشмشǰҪԺԡ˾Ϊҿ϶ǽܿѷ߷ԺΪλ½ָģҷַʡɲֻûƣֻǶԷҲֻƾƽײȨʵ֣ǼŵIJɱĸƷֻͨζʵ֡[13] ⲻҲǷ˸ط˵ģٱ롰Ŭھֺ޵ļʶУͨߺʷ᷸ͨѵǰжϵ·Ҳͨɵ˺Լ˺͹֮ʵ塣[14]

ԺԭԺ໥ͻֵ֮˾ӵãбеá㲻Ӧҵ۵Ϊܷ־оõʱܷı񣬾ұ˹ϯ󷨹(C.J. Hughes)ľ棺ֱܷǾƺͿõļٶ[15] ҲӦΪʷڹıеķȨΪһָעһ΢顣ҲӦΪҲΪҪΪDZȻͬķ˹˵ġģ¹ȥֱɸı֮ʳҪɡ[16] Ͼ̹ϯ󷨹(C.J. Taney)Ը⡰ԭΪԺķɣֻҪΪǽڴ֮ϣܷķԺԶԹۣ˾ȨӦȫȡֵ֧֮[17] ڷԺٵ֮ʣлκ˲ôΪ

Σܷıʷһ𻹲ܲ𰸵ʱǵ˵ڿܵij̶ϸݳԽ°ԭжϵ顣ҵȻ֪纺·ָ˿ʷܲں[18] ڡȨԸ涨ҿֶԱȾЩľԻ򲻱ԣڳǵʱˡ û˻ţڵԺ(felony)ɷʱҪָغеѵǣָıɱ׷ĺԱǷľ·ͥܵС[19] ڽֹһ¶෣(double-jeopardy)ֻܷƶǰʷǷʵھ⣺ָΪһıɱΪıɱıӮóоǷԱΪһıɱֻΪıɱ[20] ֹ֫塱ʵǷڲκ˵ֻ֫Լ򷣿κ壿ҿԿ϶ʦ绤ȨʱܵǣӢʱķɲͬȨ֤еĻԻʦ绤[21] ҿⲢԽ京չȨ̫ˣòְȨ÷Ժһʦ[22]ҳΪʦŹ۵㡣[23] ҪΪڲ֮ʱԶ˵ʱѲʹͨΰҪڿλʲôѵġҿҲӦΪʵеϧһֹ𺦵ġ(the)ۻɲֻǸ18ͺڵķΧģܡһʿܱΪǽǸʱĺ塪绳(Wright)᳤ǣǸʱĹʶ[24]

һ棬粼˹(J. Brandeis)ŵģ[25] ʹǡҲܱڱϹ򡪡ͽֹΥȷķϵ˵ЩСڡ¡е˼ƽȱԱΪֻDZ֤κ˶ñڷɱ֮⣬ͺʹùȨķǷǷûиĺ塣ʣҲйؽͲûаڹϵʷϣǴЩ涨жĻֵļҪ϶ЩֵбڷԺ鷳 Ϊҵ۵֮ҾýȨΪ϶ֵֵķΣߵĽΪܾǰĹʶȷԼļΪͬһܷͬ߶ȵĶԿԼֵǰһֽΪӦ͵ء ظͼҪ˵ġһʵİҪԺܷ֧ΪԺͬʱȨ񣬼ʹΪɱ漰ֵѡȻУԺԳȨʹְܣΪзķԺ(courts of law)ġҪ⣺ľξ߱κηʡҽҪǡǡȫԭľϣһԭľǽڰ֮ϣԵԺԳԽ漰κǰĽûгȥƷ֧ļֵѡЩѡȻܵά֡ķ˹߷ԺĵһָܷٽӢձҪȨ򣬶Ϊһض򾭼ùĵƫ[26]

ˣоĹɰȫȡֵ֧ԣԼά涨κμֵѡʵԣ˵DZ벹ǡܾ涨κѡʵԡ籫(T.R. Powell)ڳɹ˶һֱʾģߵͼı׼ȥԷԺɽг־áûϵļ顣ϣǽиģķס

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һŹڷԺܷôһ⣬ԽЩijЩսʹֻΪ֤֮šȻһνһʵ;Ϊ˵ͷɱҪʱ䡣ˣһǸеҪŬһ£ôԽѾչʾĿݡ

˵ұ⣬֮ѡᵽijЩصܷͣҪʮַḻĻ϶߷ԺҵһװۡκλȣԺܷйŰԭߵӴѵ⡣ڶԷԺۺͶԾ֮䣬ֵò


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[1] Fuller, Reason and Fiat in Case Law, 59 Harvard Law Review 376 (1946).

[2] 4 Adams, History of the United States of America During the Second Administration of Thomas Jefferson 267 (1890)ȨĿĶ1808óףϿƺûн20ԺɱƵĺԡ

ע˵ʷijЩţӢҪȨ涨Թ˰ַԶ䲻ϲʩ

[3] עܸѷͳ֮ǰԿȨޣԼͳ֮ȴҪ׷ṩıءΪ·˹ݣתſԱͳʱֹͨ۵ǰһֱһŵġ 2 Adams, History of the United States of America During the First Administration of Thomas Jefferson 90 (1889)·˹ԼǶԡϸ͡ҽܸѷ۴Ӵûܵ㷺֧֡ͨ˷ܸѷûָԼ·DZѡ·μ3 Wilson, A History of the American People 183-183 (1902).

[4] עǽܸѷУƵĽܸѷڴȴƺһ̬ܻܿð1803ġѷоһֱȥЪԺ 18071027յУ˵

Ϊ񽫸ǷԺҪ˹йչʾij֤ݳǰǿжȱݾ֤ʡɻִУҲʲôط⣬ֻûȼáܷƶ߿϶ΪͬЧرѹ⵽ݻٻ򱣻ѹΪܵѹȣЩĿûʵ֣ôбҪ̽ͨʲôЧֶβʵЩĿꡣ

1 Richardson, Messages and papers of the President 429 (1896)18071123գгƽԺ17 Annals of Cong. App. 385-778 (1807).

ܸѷνȼáҪͨһƷЪѹϸ͵һйعԺⷨٵĹ涨3 Randall, The Life of Thomas Jefferson 246-247 (1865); 1 Warren, The Supreme Court in United States History 311-315 (1937).

ǰߣԺԺ˲ͬķ˹(Giles)IJԺҪѹΪսĶҼᲢⱩƷıڹκأֿκιһִУκѹķʽЭκΪ·ʱûڳ17 Annals of Congress 108-109 (1808)ڲԺʩۣ֮17 Id. at 109-127, 135-139׵(Randolph)Ժһķ±Ѻڹı18 id. at 1717-18.

[5] South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification, 1 S.C. Stat. 329 (1832).

עϿšֹܾۡɡū֮һūͨͷűѺūΥɣȴɵijͷ߲߱ǴǰҪĵԣΪʹ׷ĽūģɵĴϺǰһޡ෴ΪԼΥıһµġ [6] 1 Curtis, A Memoir of Bejamin Robbins Curtis 354-355 n. 1 (1879).

עڴᵽƫԭµ˹ٱڡūеķԽźūԵԼʷڶԴµ˹ϵĽȡ̬ȡΪµ˹ٵ߼ȫɱ绤ΪڡūǿǹȨūƶԺūԵķԿԱΪͳȨڹƶ֮ǰӰȨԡ

[7] Scott v. Sanford, 60 U.S. (19 How.) 393, 564-633 (1857).

[8] Yates v. United States, 354 U.S. 298 318 (1957).

[9] Holmes, Law and the Court, in Collected Legal Papers 291, 292 (1920).

[10] Wechsler, Comment on Snee, Leviathan at the Bar of Justice, in Government Under Law 134, 136-137 (Sutherland ed. 1956).

[11] Hand, op. cit. supra note 3, at 65.

[12] Id. at 42.

[13] Jackson, The Supreme Court in the American System of Government 76 (1955).

[14] Frankfurter, Chief Justices I have Known, in Of Law and Men 138 (Elman 3d. 1956).

[15] Principality of Monaco v. Mississippi, 292 U.S. 313, 322 (1934).

[16] Holmes, Holdsworths English Law, in Collected Papers 285, 290 (1920).

[17] Passenger Cases, 48 U.S. (7 How.) 283, 470 (1849).

[18] Hand, op. cit. supra note 3, at 30.

[19] Reid v. covert, 354 U.S. 1 (1957), ֤351 U.S. 487 (1956).

[20] Green v. United States, 355 U.S. 184 (1957).

[21] 18ֻͣѹвʦ绤1 Stephen, A History of the Criminal Law of England 453 (1883)μAssociation of the Bar of the City of New York & National Legal Aid & Defenders Assn, Equal Justice for the Accused 40-42 (1959).

[22] Johnson v. Zerbst, 304 U.S. 458 (1938).

[23] Walker v. Johnston, 312 U.S. 275 (1941).

[24] Wright, Consensus and Continuity, 1776-1787 passim (1958)μChafee, How Human Rights Got Into the Constitution (1952)ιʶһֱij־֮۵㣬Hartz, The Liberal Tradition in America 139-142 (1955).

[25] ෴۵˵˵Ѿȷǵʮͬʱʵ巨ͳ򷨡Whitney v. California, 274 U.S. 357, 373 (1927ͬ)

[26] Otis v. Parker, 187 U.S. 606, 609 (1903).

ܷԭ£

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ҿǿʮΪ൱ɹִչ׶ΣڶԹóס˰ȨĿЩɾֻ20ǰʮѵȡõģǰ߷ԺȨűͬ顣

Ϊʲô߷ԺȨŬȫʧܣ˴Ųŵ۹⿴硰ֹͯ[1]ú̿[2]dzũҵľ[3]ɲʵļʵִȨĹʶЩһôҪԣ߷ԺܶʩڹϵĶƲʵķΪݴڲԺƽȴĻϡ̣Ĭܵ

ͬȷҪǣԺ϶ijЩԭȱԣȨ͹Ӱʱά֮л¢ϷʱˣȨ͹ʱ֮棬͵ĶԱʮġά֡߸ɷ(Wagner Act)άء(Taft-Hartley)ͬȨݣ߶ȨԽΪԶ߸ɷе͹ơ

ұΪȤһǾǷκԭԺԭƵȫȸ޵ķʽʶóȨĽޡȻ˹ͳ׼κλЭֻҪ׼ʵƻʵʣ1930ƺȫԽܷԺΣ֮ǰƵԭ򣬶ЩԭʵҪάΪҲ˵ȷʵ߷ԺȻڷӸãǵ״ͻЩΪԸĹעѾںڹԼܷѡԺĹ涨Ǻܻܿʹֹעڡ[4] ֻ˵Ϊֲ²ȤġǼǵǻķ˹ͱ绤ʦ۵㣬Ϊ߼ʹԸԭԤճκβ֡[5]

1930ת֮ǰƹᡢȨоȱԭIJͣڴڸ˺ϵļΪͬУάɷ˾оҲͬ⡣ΰķ֮ôǿ˵֤˶ܴԭĽǶṩʵķ֧涨ļֵѡ񡣵Ȼķ˹ˡԼʧĽޣάֱݶԿɵú̿Ľֹвصӵ棬ʶĽޡ[6] ȥЩƷ͹ʺ߹ʱоѱǷȱҲǻķ˹Щ޵ķô˵ڼ򵥱Լ

ǶԵģڽһֺ֧ĿǰΪص۵㣺ţҪԺ˵˾ҿ(self-restraint)ʵʩ⣬ƾֻڱ⾭滹漰ɡڽ̡˽ӣǻ塢ɣҲʵ⣬ǾʡȻԺܷ֧ʩӼֵѡʱӦСĽֻеʵͽԭĻȷѡʱôΪҿƵȫڣϣ۶ʲôDZزٵġҪŵǣļڷȡδ貹ضÿΥ˵ۻɵضƿΥ˵һȻܶǰṩķܷɵıһ㱻ΪǾԵģƲȨܵơע

۵㣬ڡۼû塪ʵϣǣ߱һ򾿾ŻʲôԼʲô[7] ֻŴκμҼеܷάȵļֵôкģΪɺ͹֮䲻ɱشųͻһ棬ֵijЩ֮ҪԶԣҲкôҪά֡ȨܸмֵƽȵҪԡ

ڻķ˹ΪӻȨıϱǸܻȻֵʹʱ[8] ˼ֻиֹ۵㣬Żڡİ͡ɵһгַ[9] ˼ֲиΪͶƱֵ֧γһԭIJķ˹ҪЩĿǼΥΪۣۻϻýʵΣգʹһΪķɹҳԼôģ[10] ѵκַܷأķ˹Ժձԭγɵں˵ѵ˹Ķ[11]ȫͬ𣿺ջ֧֮ͬķȨڵʱûбΪһܷҪǿ׵ԤԷԺҲκ[12]

ģ תڼ鰴ԭеΪṩΪѵ⣬зԺάţӰ˵ʮϵڷǰƽȡؼİȻЩ漰˳ѡ[13]ⷿͬǿʵʩ[14]ԼУ[15]

ҶԹȥԽ࣬ԽԼδԤԡѵ뵽1792귢޻ӦýͶūͶ󣬴ӶūƵǵ˹(Brooks Adams)ǣǡ෴ֲ޻üΪͼū󷴶ˣ֮ǴӱʢΪǰ;ú͸תɻūľ޴ũÿҪϲ4ū[16] ǰһսʱڷڷĵʱΪ˷ָ飬ҵʱΪʦΪְڷԺ֧ԣ[17] ȴΪǶܺߵĸΪԶǰƶߡ[18] ȻҶԤԴлɣ֪ĽκȣȻᵽijѡԼУпΪǵᴴ־õĹסӽҵʲô̶ϻԭ򣬲ϵĺͷԺصΨһͬ

ѡԼͬһͬ桪ʮֹֻᷨɵƽȱʮֹֻݻڹɫڹѡȨȻΪĽֹһֱΪͨ԰ᣬҲԺ¼ԱʹԴڹְλΪ[19]

ȴѡֻҪϲʹݷȨų˲룬ôͺΥΪԺ˵ų漰ݷá[20] ֻڸΪ˻ӦЩоЩʱűΪɿ˽ЭɶԱʸ񣬾ôܵݵıΪָʹƻȨ߷Ժ1935оֹųˣΪΪ漰ˣ漰Ա[21]

1941ֳˡѡƱ[22] ҲӦڸðΪ绤ð漰ָظѡٵĹԱǹûмijѡ·˹ѡеͶƱܷȨԺокϷʸѡѡٹԱȨܷһڶȨ[23]չӰѡijѡȻԺûдѡԱ֮ΧѡƱթܺԱȨijѡͶƱҲֻܲμѡ١[24] ֮󣬡ѡһ[25]ѡƱЧϾ˳ѡѡٵһ֣һάڳѡʵųƶȣ1953ýһ϶[26] ߷ԺѾȷšʱ岢ݲְͨתƵ˽֣֮ӱܷơζֹܷɫѡȨıϣ˽ֹ巽֯ȡΰȨʱ򡣴ʮֵijʵǷܹ֧ٴҲͬзԭڽ̶ѡȨ϶ҲΪֹܷġˣڽ̵ǷҲӦñΪֹܽأҲΪȻȡģǷЧóܷʵϣܸṩķǣַֹֽ˵һȨ

˵ⷿԼѵ⡣ٶֹܷݽӣǸʹûƲʱӡɿܵͨƣΪʲô˽˺ͬʵʩ͹ݵӣǶԸɵķɳϣάɭϯ󷨹ٵǿݷԺΪݵΪ[27] ⵱ȻȫȻġôȻȴǹؼһǣֻǶ˽˱ٶȫɴɵЭЧôǷʵָӡDzòʣ漰ʲôԭǷҲֹʵʩӵֻͨɵİʵκΰŵ˵ƶ˶ݵġ۵͹˳ֵĻش[28] ѵ䷨άƲ˽Խɧţųʲô˵ֲ֧ͨƲߵȨ͵ڰųɣΥƵԺоҪ⳥Ƿݻӣ[29] ƵջȨ(ejectment)оΣ

߷ԺûлشЩ⡣[30] ȻԺоѳDzΪ(Stephen Girard)̳ˣƶΪƶ˵ŶѧУ[31] Ȼ߷Ժ˵ȫǣмѧԺĶ»DZݵһˣܶ»Ϊ̳ˣܾ˵ľݵӡΪʮֹ¶ͥ(Orphans Court)Ϊ̳˵ʸ񣬲ȡ֮оΪά֡[32] ߷Ժ˽һѰߵ롣[33]

߷ԺһҲṩ˻ᣬ¿ǡԼӰԭݺͷΧ[34] ڸð̸Э鱻ΪԱɿġɡ۵㣬Ϊ˿ݸɶϷ͡߷ԺĶĽǣоֻ漰ͬĽͣӦʲô׼Ҫ͵ݷ֮Чԣɲص⡣ֻгַϯ󷨹׺͵˹벼˷ΪݷԺֿ֧ʱ漰ԼӰԭ[35]

ǣϲӳѡԼзԹ㷺ƹԭ򣬲ǿܷʩϵơ[36] ʵϣҵͬ²(A.A. Berle, Jr.)ìͷָ˾ΪرʺһõѡΪDZϾͨ³̶ģʹűȨ[37] ҲŷԺջòҺԥ˵ҸڿͨЩ⣬Ϊ̴ŷԺ߱ĻĿռ䡣ǶԵģôᵽԽΪضĽȡ(ad hoc)֮ܲκοֵ֧ԭ УڼУǼ̵ijͻҲųҿص⣬ôҾͳڵһûйķصĹˡ

˵ҶⲢǷԺƫǰоľΪܷҪĹʩƽȿΪѧУ㡣ͬԺijڴͳ˷۵㣬ôǰľͱܵ¼顣ҲǷԺ˹ҲֵȷʽһҲ뱻Ϊֹܷ֮ΣСҲʷδ϶ʮܵձܵĿǽֹѧУǷҪ֤ݱΪǡ෴[38] ǹģʱŻ״仯Ϊں˿ռ䡣ҲǷԺоػܵij̶ȣΪԤǹطԺоijŵ֪֮ҲǷԺûнͻصᣬʵʩֱо⵱ȻһֿܵĽʽݵ½ڵ۵϶ǶԵģ[39] ǽֻǻرš

ϸںо߶ԸĽôʵԺûϣʮֹȡ򣬾ܺЩ˵ѾߵôԶ纺·ָ[40] 뵫ƽȵ߲ûСʽϡƷֻDZоڹڡûеλǸѧУǡڲƽȡģɫĺӲһ֮кӶչʵϣǵԺڿ˹ݵİ϶ʵ߷Ժ϶һ֤һЩִȨѧ˵֧֮[41]

ô˵ЧǷȡ֤ݻ˾˵ij̶ֳȣάֹڴ˿漰ĺ˺֮϶ʵϣijЩڿ˹Ϸ֤[42]Լڰĸǰ֤ˡױǴѧĸؽ[43]෴Ĺ۵㡣ں̶ܴȡ֤˾ʲô⼫ȷġڱȽϺ˺ڸѧУĴڻ(integrated)ѧУĴںѱܺͿڱȽϸ״̬Ĵͻ״̬Ĵں߰˶ڱʾӣ뷽跨֪ǵĸܣĺصģĺôʲôȫԼ֮ʧЩ⣬Ƥ(Topeka)صʵ϶ǷϿݿ׶ء2799ɫѧֻ295ѧԸȷԸĺ˸ΣǷȾкأͱԹѧһƱ仯ҲȫЩѧˡ

Ϊѽоȡʵҿой۵㣬ԭϰԵȺ֮ƽȣЩȺϲ֧ԣҲܾ漰ѡ񡣶ַ֧Ժ˶ԣ϶ǾɡҲ⡣漰̽ѯһDzԺġ[44] ǶȿʹЧԵı׼ͬӰ֮ĽͷʽǷվסţָشƽʩĸǰƽȵı£밸ѵûһҲʵʩĸɫִ˵һȵӡǴΪԱѡ񡰽ڹͼԼϡ[45] ʵʩǷΪŮ֮ҪжǿӶŮԣԻѪ(miscegenation)ĽֹǷֻҪһеɫԱŹӣ

˵ٶƽʩʵʩĸȫ⡣ѧܷѧάȫطݰ˽ɣɵİͬʽӰſ漰κ塣ΪϣⲢûиݣϲİҲΪ븶˳شۣеУһĺôҺ˹(Charles H. Houstonʦ)һ߷ԺϵڵķԺ¥ûнDZͥڼͬȥϻվ(Union Station)緹˶Ǽ¡Ѫ֤ڴ漰ĸǽɣҪǣֻసΣΪе˫Ҷ߷Ժ1956겵ߵһе˿ҫڸðУݳԭܾϻѪķЧֱսݷ߷ԺݷԺ󣬵ݷԺάԭк´˲ߵҶΪȫûзݵijɡ[46]

˵˽ɣֽǿЩеˡѵⲻ漰ĺ⣿ͺɪ漰ɵһ[47] Ҳ漰߲ε֮ͻʵϣݱѡ񾿾ǽֹЩ˽磬ǿЩرܵ˽磻ԭǷṩκݣоܷҪֽ֧Ӧʤϣݣҵóһûдһо˵ôдУϵаս

˵˵ĻұҪǣҲûΪκΥԺṩκΰοЩϵͳ棬ȫг͹ͬʩ⸺ʱܾʾҳϣǶԭշ񶨣ҲǷɵĶ(antithesis)

ţѾ˵DzͬĶǹҵĻǰᣬһҴеõĽֻۡϣҵŬɱΪԼķ˹ٵĽֵ̳õġ˵һҪĽ̵Խ׻׻̻壺ûСڷˮ츳ΪעһͿء

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[1] Hammer v. Dagenhart, 247 U.S. 251 (1918).

[2] Carter v. Carter Coal Co., 298 U.S. 238 (1936).

[3] United States v. Butler, 297 U.S. 1 (1936).

[4] Wechsler, The Political Safeguards of Federalism: The Role of the States in the Composition and Selection of the National Government, 54 Columbia Law Review 543 (1954), in Federalism Mature and Emergent 97 (MacMahon ed. 1955).

[5] Northern Sec. Co. v. United States, 193 U.S. 197, 403 (1904, dissenting opinion).

עڴرᵽķ˹ΪġŦԼݡʾķ˹һ̣ԷԺܷͨͽԼ־֮ϣڷԺӦƹȨ޵Ŷе֮⡣˹սĵĹ۵㣬ʵɵطѡٵĴɣԶڱط档ζԺҲͬûɻԤΪ͵طȨҪӦͨζǷɹ綨 [6] Pennsylvania Coal Co. v. Mahon, 260 U.S. 393, 412 (1922).

[7] Kovacs v. Cooper, 336 U.S. 77, 88 (1949).

[8] 2 Holmes-Pollock Letters 25 (Howe ed. 1941)1 Holmes-Laski Letters 203, 529-530 (Howe ed. 1953); cf. 2 Id. at 888.

[9] Abrams v. United States, 250 U.S. 616, 624 (1919); Gitlow v. New York, 268 U.S. 652, 672 (1925).

[10] ҺԥΪݿΪͷıɱṩɵͬڹԺܳͷҪͼΣյۣΣս(forthwith)ڹԺֹܷijʵΣAbrams v. United States, 250 U.S. 616, 627 (1919)Ȼѵֻͼǡ̡ıɱʱܺܳͷıɱHand, op. cit. supra note 3, at 58-59.

[11] Sweezy v. New Hampshire, 354 U.S. 234 (1957).

[12] Uphaus v. Wyman, 360 U.S. 72, 77 (1959)ڱķ֮󣺡ȻίԱΪȨݷ⣬Ϊº߷ԺĽǾԵģʷɵرȥڶЩһ𰸡

[13] Smith v. Allwright, 321 U.S. 649 (1944).

ע¹ڰ˳ѡԼస漰Ϊ(state action)⣬ΪΪ˽˵زӵ߶ǹһԭϲܷϵʸ񱻸档Ȼݿƶйطɣֹ˻ӡ͸ݶûƶطɣԺǷԶزֱܷʮĻʮӵĽֹ߷ԺijЩܷ÷ΧΪЩǽȡģûѭԭ򡣣 [14] Shelley v. Kraemer, 334 U.S. 1 (1948); Barrows v. Jackson, 346 U.S. 249 (1953).

[15] Brown v. Board of Educ., 347 U.S. 483 (1954).

[16] B. Adams, The Heritage of Henry Adams, in H. Adams, The Degradation of the Democratic Dogma 22, 31 (1919).

[17] Korematsu v. United States, 323 U.S. 214 (1944).

[18] Newsweek, Dec. 29, 1958, p. 23.

[19] Ex parte Virginia, 100 U.S. 339, 347 (1880); Hale, Freedom Through Law, Ch. Xi (1952).

[20] Nixon v. Condon, 286 U.S. 73 (1932); Nixon v. Herndon, 273 U.S. 536 (1927).

[21] Grovey v. Townsend, 295 U.S. 45 (1935).

[22] United States v. Classic, 313 U.S. 299 (1941).

[23] ԺӦݵÿѡٵijԱɣÿݵѡӦ͸ķ֧ѡ˾ͬʸҪ󡣡17ԲԱѡҲƹ涨

[24] ѡƱ绤1935ġѡȱϯѡƱ(Grovey)ۣ

ܷһڶϵѡȨѡȱϯѡƱǰǣѡųĺڷͨ뷴ԵԼ֯Լ¼ѡڱѡ涨ķʹѡȨŵĴκηʽѡĻᡣ

Brief for the United States, pp. 34-35, United States v. Classic, 313 U.S. 299 (1941).

[25] Smith v. Allwright, 321 U.S. 649 (1944)˸طֻͬ޲ķΨһķߡ

[26] Terry v. Adams, 345 U.S. 461 (1953)μRice v. Elmore, 165 F.2d 387 (4th Cir. 1947)TerryڷԺ˹Ͳٷټ˲˷ٵ˸ط˵ָðûѡдϯ󷨹άɭ(C.J. Vinson)ܿѷټ˿˷ٵٷٳַ [27] ԼӰShelley v. Kraemer, 334 U.S. 1, 14-23 (1948).

[28] ȽGordon v. Gordon, 332 Mass. 197, 210, 124 N.E.2d 228, 236, cert. Denied, 349 U.S. 947 (1955).

[29] Charlotte Park & Recreation Commn v. Barringer, 242 N.C. 311, 88 S.E.2d 114 (1955), cert. Denied, 350 U.S. 983 (1956).

[30] ϯ󷨹άɭ1953İгַ(Barrows v. Jackson, 346 U.S. 249, 260)ҪԼӰֹͨʵʩԼһ⻧ҪǷĺ⳥ϡΨһַˡ

[31] Pennsylvania v. Board of Directors, 353 U.S. 230, 231 (1957).

[32] Girard College Trusteeship, 391 Pa. 434, 441-442, 138 A.2d 844, 846 (1958).

[33] Pennsylvania v. Board of Directors, 357 U.S. 570 (1958).

[34] Black v. Cutter Labs, 351 U.S. 292 (1956).

[35] ӦעDorsey v. Stuyvesant Town Corp., 299 N.Y. 512, 87 N.E.2d 541 (1949)ðоز˾ѡ⻧Ĺв漰Ϊ漰ķزŦԼеݽġȨĺͬΪù˾ûأ൱˰⡣߷Ժܾ飬˺͵˹ٶԴ˱ʾԡ339 U.S. 981 (1950)

[36] Ming, Racial Restrictions and the Fourteenth Amendment: The Restrictive Covenant Cases, 16 University of Chicago Law Review 203, 235-238 (1949).

[37] Berle, Constitutional Limitations on Corporate Activity C Protection of Personal Rights From Invasion Through Economic Power, 100 University of Pennsylvania Law Review 933, 948-951 (1952); Berle, Economic Power and the Free Society 17-18 (Fund for the Republic 1957).

[38] Bickel, The Original Understanding and the Segregation Decision, 69 Harvard Law Review 1 (1955).

[39] Freund, Storm Over the American Supreme Court, 21 Modern Law Review 345, 351 (1958).

[40] Hand, op. cit. supra note 3, at 54.

[41] оϸ˵μNote, Grade School Segregation: The Latest Attack on Racial Discrimination, 61 Yale Law Journal 730 (1952).

[42] Record, pp. 125-126, 132 (Hugh W. Speer), Brown v. Board of Educ., 347 U.S. 483 (1954); Id. at 164-165 (Wilbur B. Brookover); Id. at 170-171 (Louisa Holt); Id. at 176-179 (John Kane).

[43] Record, pp. 548-555, 568-572 (Henry E. Garrett), Davis v. County Bd. Of Educ., 347 U.S. 483 (1954).

[44] ΪӶܵս䶯ܵ飬ôĿ֤ϵIJƽȴżȻSnowden v. Hughes, 321 U.S. 1 (1944)ʹ£IJΪ֤ƽȡ

[45] Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537, 551 (1896).

[46] Ham Say Naim v. Naim, 197 Va. 80, 87 S.E.2d 749, vacated, 350 U.S. 891 (1955), on remand, 187 Va. 734, 90 S.E.2d 849, appeal dismissed, 350 U.S. 985 (1956).

[47] Sutherland, The Law and One Man Among Many, 35-62 (1956).