DZؽǵɡ

 

ħߵػΤеġӢ*


(תԡʥɽ֮˼վ)

In my youth, said his father, I took to the law,

And argued each case with my wife;

And the muscular strength, which it gave to my jaw

Has lasted the rest of my life

---Lewis Carroll, Alices Adventures in Wonderland

һ һ Ի˵ɣΤ

սԺ󣬵¹ѧ𽥻ָ˶˹Τ˼ȤŶΤ˼о룬ѧΤܵԽԽ㷺ѧռλġΤ˼Ф񡱣ͨΤʵ֤ѧȥʷ͡滯Τĸ򻯡ΪѧݵĽѧ˵ֽΤһԹ淶ΪѧۣΪѧʵʶ̬ṩݣΤڽѧ֧ѧġѧѧ˵WissenschftslehreƵˡ

ͬܵսĻijŷ֪ʶһռҪλΤֽ͡͵ͻ¬棨Georg Lukcs˺ķ˸ѧɡ˵ѧġΤ˼Фһֹ۵ġż񡱣ô¬λΤں±еġѺѧʹһ۵ġż񡱣ֻż񡱣ûԻĽµִϲ硱гԻıаǰˡHerbert MarcuseΤУǿԷ֣Τ֮ʵȥԶ[i][1]Τ˵˵ɭ˹ͱϿ˹Reinhard BendixΤĽ⣬ֻǸԵļֵͬǶΤȴƵĽԭΪֶġͼͬһռIJ[ii][2]ֻһΤԻִһνִġԻǹ޼ɵţʵ컯˵һʮķ[iii][3]ԵЧ֮мƻɰˣмƻػͶһٵԴȪ[iv][4]

1975꣬Щͣ¹ѧڲ³һսΤĺ⵹ʲôڲ³ָеΤص⣬ҪΤҪŪΤĺʲôΤʥ˵ǽ̿黯չʷעΤиֲͬı̬ϵIJ𣬽Τ³ġȷĹ۵ЩУڡδɡʵֿǶȳڲ³ָΤ˼ĹؼΤȥΤ¿˶˱ġᡷΤǰֱඩġڽѧļΤǰΪһļ׫д޶ļƪ£ļǰԡVorbemerkung[v][5] ڽ̵ľ [vi][6]ġۡEinleitungԼġм䷴˼Zwischenbetrachtung[vii][7]ЩΤġԿס[viii][8]

ܶڲ³˵ľ۵㣬д[ix][9]ڲ³˵ķɾҪļֵΤƷġħǣһ棬̽Τĸʵ⣬ҪΤ˼·ۣӹΤ֣һ棬ֱѵʶΤ˶עЩĻش𣬲δһṹиɻϵ෴ΤɲͬʱڣڲͬĿ׫дıɵһͻġսЩΤ˼뷢չ̵IJͬ׶γɵıȱΤ¹֪ʶĸ⣬ҪǵıġʵԡϾΤֻdzԵ̽մ𰸡Ȼ沢ìܣΤı͹еġѧѭҪͨӵöܹ࣬0ͬʱڲ³ע棬ҲпһΤ۵ҪԭʹȥΤ˼룬ͨչ˼·ӶһΤͬ̽ĸ߶ؽΤıǽЩıԲ˼ءѰժ䡱ʥ¼Ͼ׷Τ˲ҪȥΤѧɣҪΤһʡ[x][10]

չʷķڲ³عΤԻ⡣ڲ³˿Τ⡱ǡΪԡ⡣[xi][11]Ϊ˽һ⣬ΤоԻ̡Τı£һʷ̵ĺľǡħ [xii][12]ˣҪԻʷ׶κ͸ڣͱ뿼ħʷ

ڲ³˵ڷϵij㲩˹㷺ͣľȴܵ顣ѧָΤĺΪħ⣬δڵƺ֧ΤĸԣϾħһ˵ڲ³Լ϶ļƪΤؼıУҲֻζѣѳƵΤĺĸ[xiii][13]ңħĸܹΤһЩѧҲɡʩ·ؾͶڲ³˵ڲ³йءᡷġ⹹ڷش󣬵ȴǿڽѧļҪ壬ȴˡᡷ[xiv][14]Ҫԡ[xv][15]ܡᡷΤѧаķḻΤ˼Ҫɲ֣еĴıرǵһΤ1915ijƷΤ˼вɺӵļֵ

ЩѧУΪصǣڲ³˵Ĺ۵ҪʽΤʵȴںѾΣĹҪΤ˼룬ͱ볹ִӡִǶ˼Ի˼·صΤԼС[xvi][16]

ں˹Τνѧرνѧעţ༰[xvii][17]ҪΤĵĸʲôҪΤ·Żصʱ¹˼磬һ˼봫ͳУܽרҵѧϵӽ£Τһ汻Ϊ¹ѧѧͳһִˣֱӼ̳˵¹ѧѧԸѧˣر˸ԣĹעһΤάԽ¬пάΪľѧͳѪעĽִ˵֮ĹϵΤĺ˼봫ͳĽ㴦 ִ˵ķչ⡣άصľҲһרûоû顱ġħ硱Уϣ˵Ͼ˵ɣûɣҲ̸ʲôϡ[xviii][18]˹ǿֻдΤԻ⣺ΤⲢһϵԻ̣ʵΪԻ̡ΤעġֻЩ롮ʵʽ͡ʽԻйصġԻ̡[xix][19]һ˼·Τľ½ʱ徫񡷵ĹؼΤⱾйĵⲢ½ͨʱġ񡱣ٽʱķչΪ1902꣬ɣأWerner SombartѾġִʱ塷һз⣬Τȷ߶ߣĵɣزͬ[xx][20]Τĵ½һϵethical Lebensstil־ʱ˵ġꡱеʤ

˹Ľɷdz壬Ȼص⡣ΤڸΪ㷺˼뱳вûд˺Τһѧؽ˼ŬĹ۵㿴ľˡΤһټԿѧȡһְӵҵϰ[xxi][21]˹ȴǡǡڽΤҵ໯[xxii][22]ңں˹۵㱳ƺ˻ɣΤΪһִԳɣԹϵũҵʽɱǿһߣıϲǺݣȴΤ[xxiii][23]󣬺˹ڲ³һҲδܾؿΤıˡᡷԼڽѧļййӡڽ̵оΪЩоϺ˹ġѧanti-sociologyȡ򣬷һԡ

ҲΤ⣬ҪΤͬ飬˻ʬҪΤһҪߵøԶվøߡڲ³˵Ļ˼·άأ˹Ľʹͳʩ·صıؽϣΤִģ˼ʵжʼӱܵ⣺Իɡ

2½⣺ԻԻ

Τ꿪ʼע⵽һ̬ԻйȷͬԻʽǣΤʼշԽʷе塣[xxiv][24]ΤУ ̬ԻȻСԡ[xxv][25]֡ԡԻǡһϵоձձЧԵķչΤĻ˵ǾСձʷ⡱[xxvi][26]ڲ³һָģΪձʷġԻǴżȻʷ¼ڵ߼[xxvii][27]ҿԻձʷ壬Իǡչġ仰˵ԻĶԣ֮Ծձʷ壬ԻܶԻ

йΤ˼еġչdevelopment򡰽evolutionϷ硣ﲻϸһΪӵ⡣ָֻܼ֡չ롰Τ¾ֵġչһʲûκʷɵ⺭⺭ǣ1ʷ˶߼ǶɵľЧ2ΪҪǣСձʷ⺭ԻڵӶ˽һչĶơʵϣչ⺭ϵһġΪԻǿŵģԪģԲܶģӶձʷ壬ܹͨԽԽͨͻչ[xxviii][28]

ôصԻĶԺδأΤй½ķУΪʷ˵ԻΪ˵ɵġԻ֮ĸϵ˹ΪΤ˼еһ֮ҲҪԻԻ֮ĽŹϵ

ΤΪڽѧļļ׫дǰָԻĶϵͳܵʷѧ˼ͷϵԵĺг֡ԵġϵͳġרŻĿѧְҵԵĹҺ͡Եʱ֯ʽЩΤνġ򡱣die geselleschaftlichen Ordungen[xxix][29]ЩԻͻ־Ǹϵͳijķչʿѧеĸϵͳ߼ԼϵͳΪֶεĺ滭еĿռ͸ӷΪԹǰĿƲƣԼΪʱҵĵԸʽƶΪĻʽʱȵȡ[xxx][30]Դӡ½ʱ徫񡷣ΤĺͲֲͬв̬ͬijġչ߼ҲDz֮ͬϵӰ˳ķչ[xxxi][31]dzķչ˵ʵΪԻԼ˵ĸ֮ĹϵڡڽѧļǰУΤȷرעһ㣺ȻķչֵԵļԵķɣͬʱȡijЩ͵ʵԵΪȴҪȡ˵򡱡[xxxii][32]

ˣڡ½ʱ徫У˵ʽʵΪԻͳΪĽ㡣ΪԻij֣ǵΪļɻdisciplinieserungmethodisierung[xxxiii][33]ʱڷѧϵĹؼڣ½νʱ徫ϵһ𡣶Τ½⡱һƹ㵽Ի̣һ˼·;ձʷ⺭Ҳ˵ԻΪԻֲ˵ΪԻž˶ԡֶԾڣԻĶڰԻ̵ijͻ Ϊڽ̵ľ׫дĵУΤرһԻ̺ƪִԻ̶УΤָڽʷУƶ򳹵ԻǡǡǾڽйر˰ġԤԵĹdie ideellen Macht ethischer Prophetien[xxxiv][34]ڽ̵ԤԴתԵͼķչܵϵһ𡣰֡ijħ֪;ڽ缰֮䣬γ˳־õĽŹϵ[xxxv][35]ֽŹϵ£ڽ·ıˣڤءӱ硱תеءı硱ʦʽڽVirtuosen ReligiosittͨͽĹϰHabitusʹճʵԻ֡Ӣ塰򡰴ʦʽڽ½ɣڽʸ񣬡ճġһϵճΪġģԻճжճжԵķʽΪְ˾ı֤ڽ̴ʦǵĽɳΪԻøЩڤĻĻľߵǵ䵱״̬Ļ[xxxvi][36]ˣ ΪԻĹؼԻԭԶճеʵΪԻԻҪݾڽ̵ġʹԤԡÿ˵ճжתΪضϰͼɻˣΤָһԻڣѧĽǶǰġ˰ģЩѰ˵ǡǡģǵĹϰ[xxxvii][37]

ڡ½ʱ徫񡷵ķУ˵ĹϰΪĵԻִԻҪ壬ְͨĹʹճеΪԵĹؼӶΪijṩҪƶάָƶΤ˼뷢չԭ ڵ˵ˡ˵ˣͼʱΪִ˵ϡ[xxxviii][38]Τı£˾˵ɵķ[xxxix][39]˼ʢе컯෴Τġ½⡱УԻִ˵෴ɣ߹Ļھһ½ͽġְеĸܵļ

׺Τڡ½ʱ徫񡷽βԸµĸԹۡ[xl][40]Τָ۷ʱڴġ˹صʱ͡ʿ¡ĵڶиǣִĸԲǹŵ׷ĸԡҲʽԡִ˵ĸԣճijȥѰҸܵĿռ䣬ճ̽һ˵ĸԡ[xli][41]ְָԵ֡ˣΤУִ˵ĸԲͼרŻĹ֮⣬ȥѰֿ壬Ƿˡձԡuniversal personalityĿ[xlii][42]һ硱world in fragments꣨fragmentation of soulִ˸Եġ塱ĹУĹмɵĿԡΤ۾ͰִгĻɻаʽ[xliii][43]ͨרŻĸԻԻһڲ³ǿġijħһҪչֳˡǡħ硱Ҫʵһ֡ӢÿĸҪֻеͬѰġܳ״̬Упʵ֡[xliv][44]Τڷڽ̵ľʱָģ֡ܳ״̬Լճʵ֮ĽţӱֽŻֶ߽ЭߵĽţֽţΪ˵ԻĶ½ͽѡһ˵ְ֣һְġճҪ[xlv][45]ΤĻ˵ִУҪøɣʵܼ򵥣ֻҪÿ˶ҵٳ֮ҵػdaemon[xlvi][46]

3Իɵۣ֧ѧ͸Τ Τйء½⣬ʵԻɵԻ֮ҵһҪνӵ㣬ɡһ湹Իļһ棬ֳΪ˶ȫ֯밲ŵļܸԵļҲ½ͽɵļˣɼǡħ硱еʷˣǡߡػвٳֵĸ˵ˡ

Իܹʼά֣չħ硱ʷ롰ߡ֮ǷԻתĽζţ޴ʷվÿ˵ĸˣΣϵķӳǽħ硱ʷ˿ϵͳĹţ˵ļʵͬΪ˵컯Щϵ⣬ҲʵסʵϣΪ޷άijħŻᵼ¶ԡԹ޻һα۵Ҫ[xlvii][47]ڸù񻰵İڲͬʱҲΪȱִĽʽҼDzԶ½ͽĽɣΪһֹ߼µġûоרҡ

ɴ˿ΤۣȲͬЩԻͬ˵޹صijĹʵ֤壬Ҳǿ컯Ʒ̵˼崫ͳȥԶʵϣоͳͬԻǶԸɼӵвֱӵİᣬ˵Ĺһȫģ廯[xlviii][48]ԼԸɵĹʶĹͬ塣

ΤԼо룬йԻɵȴϾ׫д½ʱ徫ʱΤѾѵʶ½̽ʱ֮ġ׺ WahlverwandschaftôڡΪȫʤʱ壬ڻĻѲҪ־֧ˡ[xlix][49]ΪĵijԻƶҲ١ͼѰʲôΪ֮绤ˣʵеʱ壬ִ˵ѾͽƮƮĶ񣬱һֻڼΤֽһָʱҵȨ뾭ӪȨķ룬ǵ¹νġĹƶȣֳһ򣺡µū۵[l][50]Իġ֧֡͡ʵԻǷջݱΪһַ˵켺 ͷ·һвϼٵг֪Ƿȷúһת򡱡[li][51]

ǵΤıȽʷʵһ֡ʷthe history of the presentͨʷоǺԳΪڵӡ[lii][52]ôΤڵϾͲ޹ؽҪθпˡɭһǿģʵιעΤһףѧоʼվǿӰ졣[liii][53]ڵ¹ŵĻ˥΢ʱΤһԴʹϧһҲһҪμҺѧʵνƲƵʱ̽ɵĿԡ[liv][54]ΪʶƲ밲ִԷʽʷڣƲƸѡ[lv][55]

Τʵֹע1915ǰ󣬰˼ĽһͻơԻ֮ĽŹϵشĺġ

ɭʩ·ش磬˶19141915ңΤ۷˷dzҪı仯[lvi][56]һ棬Τоԣͨνۡһ棬ڽѧо룬۵ķ۹仯Τ۵ҰҲشı仯ΤעͨԻڽ̵ͼӰԻʱķչһһǸṹضʱģ͸棩Ӱ죻ЩԻ̣ҲΪΤעĶ[lvii][57]ΤԵЩУ֧ѧϵͳķʽΤ֮С˵1915ԺΤͬʱڽѧ֧ѧǶ˼Ի⡣

Τ֧ͨѧоһֱע۵У½̽ɵԻʱԻ֮Ļ˼·ȴΤԷʱġԤԡƵ ˵Τ˼֧ѧ˼ڽѧ˼·ûиIJ졣ĵĺԻ֮Ĺϵ⡣Ҳǣڲͬ£رǸ߶ȿƲ㻯ʱ£ǿܵġ[lviii][58]Τ֧ѧ˵롶½ʱ徫еķؼIJͬȣΤ֧̽ҪǴӷѧĽǶȳ[lix][59]رע˶ԿƲƵijصķԻԻ֮ĹϵرǾԻΤķΪģΪԻĺĵĸֳΪΤֱӹעĽ㡣

ΣΪҪǣΤַͬеԻ̣Τ˼еġ֮⿪ʼռԽԽҪλá1915ԺΤᵽգJohn Stuart MillĹ۵㣬ھУֻӵж۵ľ顣Τʹָʵϣκϵ磩˶ֻܸеԼԲͬļֵ֮ĶеÿһֵּƺǿһѡҪһΪһ񣬻ߺʱΪһ񣬶ʱΪһ񡣵κʱᷢԼһڴе֮ȣܻ֣ᷢԶ˻̵ϵۣɽϱѵǸϵۡ[lx][60]ΪΤʵϣ֮ǡħ硱е֮壬еִ˵Ǽֵɵǰͽ

ϸǾͻ֣ᷢΤġ֮ͼֵ½ڡԻ͡ɡ֮佨ķṹ֮䣬DZڵijͻ[lxi][61]Τġ֮ζִУԻζҪ볬ġ񡱵ϵΪΤʶʵУκξԵֵߣӡethics of consequentialismΪһַ[lxii][62]һսڼ׫дһ⹫УΤͼ˴Ӹĺƽ˼ΤЩа뵱ڸѧѧڵľְݽоͿʼġʵ塱ȡȫ㣡Τǡа壬ǡа壬һЩ¾ɻ߿նĹԵʷˣʵ[lxiii][63]ҲΤע롰ϵһԭ[lxiv][64]

ִԻ˵ԲݺӵһǣΤִεһȴɥʧˡ½⡱гı˰ճĴ˰֮ĽŹϵˣΤ֧ѧķҲɥʧڽѧнһŹϵԻƶѾģڽѧķУԻԻڷѧϵġ׺ҸΪҪǣԻԻָ֮ӹϵΪ˵ṩ˿ܿռʵ ֧У˲ܹһֳġ˰ɫʵġ񡱣Ʋ㻯елΪΤڷ֧ѧлʱֿ̽Ʋ뷨ƶеĹϰʱû½⡱ԺͨԻijԻϵǡгһĶ[lxv][65]

һرִСӪ£οƲ㻯ԻԻɥʧˡڸ߶֯Уְҵʿ½ҵһΪζlive for politicsǡılive from politics[lxvi][66]ǺΤڡ½ʱ徫𣬡ͽһְйǹdzڱȡ[lxvii][67]ˣڽѧозֵԻԻ֮ĹDDְDDִθûλã֮ĶɱĹʵҲɥʧˡһΤһҪԣ˿˹ĹͼҵԿͽлɥʧɫʵԻij·

1915ǰΤеĿ˹Ҫָһִͳ͵ȨŨɫʵȨʽ19141915ǰΤеġ˹ꡱ˺ܴı仯Ϊһֱ˰ʽĸֵΪȡĴжԴȪ[lxviii][68]Χ֧ȨĽԻԻɣĹϵһ⣬ͽһ廯Ϊл˹ֹ֮ĶˣڽѧУͨʵֵԻ֮ϵѧС˿˹ָ֮ijͻ[lxix][69]һⲻᴩΤҲӵġᡷм[lxx][70]ɭظΪΤ˼еĶɱṹantinomical structure[lxxi][71]

˹꣬Ϊʷеġܹ֮Ϊ˶̬ΪԻ⺭ڲ³ΪΤĿ˹ѧ˵ܵ¹ѧӰ졣ָҪĺ͸Ե˶Ϊڽ̹ռݵЩ˵ĸԡЩУDzڵȨˣָص߰ij־ǸԵģ±κʱֵͨļභȷġ[lxxii][72]붷ʹЩ˵жǵĸԵӡǽǵһԣΪʷ˸ԵԿΪлϰ߻ͳ

һǶȿΤڽѧз½̽ɵġӢ͡ʹԤԡʵ֧ͬѧ⺭֧ѧУڽѧһһͬԳ־áΤѵʶ˹ĸҲ޷лˡһ˹л֧˼޵½̹ʱ״Ϊơ[lxxiii][73]Уšרûоû顱ΣδΤ֧ѧǿ˹лֶ֮ɱĽṹ˷չڶӶʹΤ֧ѧеԻˡ½ʱ徫зѧƷΧձʷ⺭Τ˼еĶɱṹ½ʱ徫зֵķṹ˷dzҪĽչĽչ˾޴Ĵۣǿ˹֮ĽšԻУԻij˵Իߵġ׺ƶԻķչԻĿնơ෴DZڽӲлɫʵĿ˹нѡ˵ļѹΤҵɵĻռ䡱أ Τ£ִеĿ˹Ҫֱ֣һǸԵһµķǽԵġڶԱʽplebiscitarian leader democracy[lxxiv][74]ѾָΤΪαġijֲɺӵΣգˣΤdzע֡ĿԡڴڶԱϣΤлġĿԡˣΤУԻɵˣһҪķ棬ǿƲƵĻ֮ĸӹϵΤڡΪҵĽָģ¹ֻ֮ѡ񣺻ǽƲ㡮ƣƣûְеְҵμҵ֧䣬ЩְҵμǡǡȱһڵĿ˹ʡ[lxxv][75]ΪɵΤͬԤеDZΣգ˹¹ŲطһΣյʵӳ[lxxvi][76]

˹˶ԣΤĿеĿ˹ĵλѪࡱ쵼³ʿΪĵ¹ͳһ̣һ˵־δͳΤȴɿ˹ɫʵΰ˽еͳδʷЧɡΤָ֡ơһͳΣ¹δ˾޴IJҡһμҵĸԵĺ޽ƵľȻʹһ˺ޱԼĿ͹[lxxvii][77]λΰμҵĴ棬ʵϽϰľĹĻϣӶʹ鱤Ϳµ壬ɥʧԼ־

ơ֮Ե⣬˹ܾ֮κζȨζţƣԼ⣬κθжˡ[lxxviii][78]ʵϣΤһֱʹϧĵ¹׼Ե˥һҪԭЩһΪɶ׼˹ΰԺȨıǰͶأٽж˼ȡȨҲˡʱ徫񡱵˥΢Τ¹εIJȱ쵼ȨĽ׼¹Ϊ˹˵ĸԸĴۡǵ¹ҡײĮп͹˽׼ġԹޡ [lxxix][79]˹ֿ˹ͳΣǽ˴ڶԱνԡձ鹫ȨΪӣʵȴڽϰڱӵĴڣͨѡ[lxxx][80]ñ֧֡[lxxxi][81]

ˣΤԡơ[lxxxii][82]ǿԷ֣ڽ̴ʦӢΪоп˹䣬ôԭЩΪԹΰ͸߹Ը[lxxxiii][83]Իȴֻܿᵼÿˣײ㣩ԼԵܣɾһˣ䣩ĸԳݡɵĶȴɱɵĵˡ

ˣУҲɵĻռ䣬ƺԻĶҲʧ䡰ǿƣǼҳơͳʽСʽµ壬ȫ֪κνҲȫκ־ʵϣûκδͳֻ֪Ա̬ӿʽȨѣĹûʲôԸԡ[lxxxiv][84]һȺһͳΣͲɡ[lxxxv][85]

ôѡǴΤ˼бIJ֣Τν塱۹塱˼ɭͺ˹ЩΤΪ¿ռԡɭĻ˵ǡбҪв϶޶ȵĶֶ̬ٽ[lxxxvi][86]άؼؽ֮ΪͨɡҲ˵лɻڵijһֳķضǡɵĻռ䡱⺭[lxxxvii][87]

Ǻ˹ɭʽάصһ֡ԡƺȻܽΤΪΪġʵΡMachtpolitik[lxxxviii][88]롰ơٵʵûʲôΪνͨõУûΪÿһ˵ԸκλãijϵġԻ͡ڸDZĿ飬˹һȻijϽһΣΣαۣ㲻 Ϊ֧ѧ֢޷ҵڽѧеġԻ͸족ķṹӦνġ˹꣬Ŀֵζ޷ΪлĶԿ˵Ǻͺ߹˹ıĹϵıɵIJдռ䡣ˣѧĽǶԻƲ㻯ɻǻ£ΤɷֿܵĽΣգһΣǣ˹ʽ䣬ôյĽͨɣҲ̸ǵԸ񣬶Ǹרõġɡ֡ɡ˵ɣ˵ǡ⡱һΣǿʽĶ壬ĽաĶ˵DZ˸ɵĶ˵Լѹ˸ɵĿռ䣬ԡˡսΪڳװɵĿԡΤȥ¹ʷҲʵδ׷ɡΣյдա ԣΤʵΤ֧ѧķУ޷ִҵһ׼ά½ͽԻľʹԻʷˣǸ˵һ棬˸˵ʷ档ڽѧıȽʷУħ硱˵ɵ෴ɡѧоУڡħ硱ƺûκθɵĿԣҪɵĿռ䣬ƺҪħ֮зûнߵػκλãߵġػ񡱲òҪڸָġα֮ϡ ɭΤһݾɡ liberal in despair[lxxxix][89]ı£ΤıˡɭûпΤΪһߺһλִԵѧҵĸѧдµһУΤǣǡԽԽлԡijħʹdzƽȻлѭǡǡ֡ԵIJʹʵг׵Ի[xc][90]Ψоٵʷˣɸ˵ˡһ仰Ψоſʼ֪ˣҪ̽ʣԾΣΤг˼֮⣬Ƿ񻹰DZڵġ·ǷпܴΤ۵Ļ˼̽ѰһɵĿԣУ轫ɿһ츳ȨռеIJƲȻ򣬶һֲŬΪͨӮõɿռ䣬һɵ񣬶ͬʱֲڵ¹ʷʾʵΣգ

ǣʱţǡǵĹŰաڣΪЩڴڣЩȫĸǣӮáöɡԵĿռ䡣ڣҲ¼ʱڣþá˼롮ܱӵġ״̬ͬܵӵġsubjectivismд۷ʱΪǣֻǣʹܹԵĿռ䡣һھϡ֡չϡ㡯ͨ˵ҲԶٿӮЩռˡԲɶδǵ˫ܹģĽ[xci][91]

ҲܹΰδͳģȷûԻ͵οںдڶԱΰˣĿеЩԱġĬĴ[xcii][92]ǡЩȫܹҵԵĿռ䡱ŶˣԼչֳġԽճĹϰein ausseralltaglicher Habitus[xciii][93]ҲΪʲôҪ̽֡Ӣԭ

Ӣ⡱ιʵʽ

1ΤеӢ

ɭ˹ΪΤʵѧֵĺģȷԾáĴڽѧķѧ[xciv][94]Ȼѧ߲ͬɭ˹ڱϿ˹£ѧΤʵѧеĵλҪѧоѧһ֡[xcv][95]׫дרоΤķѧ˼Ŀ¡ҲָھʱΤԷ۴ע⣬磬Ȩ;жʵķ[xcvi][96]

ϸ˫ķ粢濴ȥǰָģΤ1910굽1914ҵ˼뷢չһҪ֧ѧΤпʼռԽԽҪĵλѧǡǡ֧ѧһ֣ǺĵIJ֡Τ͵ĽǶȨΤ֧ѧĸϵռŦλᡷвϵҲԿ֧ѧ߸˵ԷȨƶȻĺ֯ġ磬йִҺִ֯ǴӷɽǶԶġ[xcvii][97]رǡᡷдĵһ֣һͻһǶһ棬DZڷΤķѧʱ֧ѧ⣬һǡǡΪΤѧѧӣһ棬ҲͬҪʶΤѧ֧ѧռеλʹΤķѧвɺӵҪ壬˵ΤķѧΤ֧ѧĹؼڡ[xcviii][98]ijϽΪԭ򣬲ʹΤѧеνӢ⣬ΤгΪһҪΤӢʱٵͻΤ˼Ĺؼ⣺ڡ֮ijħУԻ֮ĽŹϵ

ֱ۷ѧ֮ǰΤһЩ漰νġӢ⡱ѧ˵ġӢ⡱England problemڡ½ʱ徫УΪ֤ķչڲͬвDzеģΤԷԻ뾭Ի֮ĹϵΪָ

Ʃ磬ǽ˽ԻǶԷݵ߼򻯺°ţôԻڹŴڵоѾﵽ̶֪߳ȡ˽ԻһЩԻﵽ൱̶߳ȵĹȴȻʮӢԣĸΪַɹǿܣ෴ŷ̵ĸһֱ֧λ[xcix][99]

ڡᡷеġѧ֣ΤŴ̸ӢԻ̶Ȳʿʱȣŷ½ͨļ𽥷չĴ½ϵȡڣӢϵ͵Ի̶ƺδijϻӢʱķչ

ܵĻˣϸǾͻ֣ᷢΤйӢԻ̶ľ൱ӣЩģɵ ȻΤҲϣijЩ棬ӢͨҲ൱̶߳ȵԻһڳ棬Ӣ൱ߵԳ̶ȣ෨ɼ״[c][100]ΤָӢ;ڼϸ߶ȷչ[ci][101]ΤΪӢͨϸʽһ棬ӢڱԼɷ棬뾭ûйصĺͬ棬ΤΪӢпӡȷᲢ۵Ի̶ȣڱóףijЩ棬ֻйŴ͹֮ȡ[cii][102]

ǣΤУӢطֳ ԡҪ档һ棬Ӣܾϸʽ壬ȴȱΪ߼ϵʽԡӢûڷϸʽԣҲûܣԸʵ֡п뵽ʵ龳߼ȱݵĹϵͳСϵͳĿ꣬ˣӢûʵ֡߼ϵԻֻԲһʽĹһַɵġlegal casuistry[ciii][103]ֻƵԭ򣬸ҲܲɵϵͳҲͲܲɵԻ[civ][104]һ棬Ӣвõ༼ţ׵овԵĹ淶general normsͳһܵضеĸ־أлΪļֵУӰ죬ΤСʵʷԡķɵҪ[cv][105]

ԣӢʽʵ棬ǿҵķɫʡȣΤɵʽʽһǡʵij־й̶⺭Ϊһϸ͵ķʽ塣һǡ߼ʾʵ뷨йصܹһָ߶ȳĹʽӦȷķɸΤǺߵ֡߼ԡ־زڷɹзҪá෴Ӣȴɱ˴ľʽʵȷһǿԣӢֻͨһ֡ڡġϸʽ壬ȴδγġ߼ʽԡߣΤУǷʽԻ׼[cvi][106]ԣӢܾͨԱȽϷġʽЩȴûб߼ԡΪһĹϵˣġʽûʹӢнϸߵʽԣ෴ڵʽ壬ӢϵʽԵ֡

ʷĽǶȿΤһָӢͨϸʽ壬Ӣͨ˴أӶŴŨʽɫʡ[cvii][107]磬ӢŽо൱ǿĿ˹ɫ[cviii][108]ŴеͣoracleӦое˵ԵģΤ෨ɼȴΪȱϵͳ߼̣ΪǷԵģɫʵԭʼɵִ֮Ӣд˴ɫʵļҪΪӢб˴ͷɵĺۼΤУͷɵ˼෽ǡ󡱵ġ[cix][109]

ΣҪرǿָǣӢͨϵ͵Ի̶ȣʽԻ棬ͬҲʵԻ档[cx][110]ΪͨõĸַɼȻûбκηɵġ߼ʽԡҲͬûбκ׼׼ΪһȱݵϵˣӢͨгš˾Khadi-justiceĺۼ[cxi][111]ɴ˿ɼͨڡʵԡҲܡ󡱡[cxii][112]

ǣӢʽ棬ʵʷ棬δʵֽϸ̶߳ȵԻȴһ棬Ӣƺû谭Ӣʱķչ[cxiii][113]һ棬εĽǶȿͨҵνΪȶڷչйУȶεĹЩͨϵĹҡ[cxiv][114]棬ΤۣѧνġӢ⡱

ͼ̽һ֮ǰҪһҪػأһһΤ·ɵʽʵԵζʲôӶ̽ΤνӢ⡱ʵʡ

2ʽʵ

ΤѧϵУνĿ[cxv][115]ֵһֱΪҪĶ룬ԷҲԺ۵ķչ൱ҪӰ졣˵ʽʵԷӰҪСöࡣΤԡѧԴ˱̸ܶ[cxvi][116]ʹ̸Է룬ҲʽԵͬĿԣʵԵͬڼֵԡ[cxvii][117]ҪΤӵġԡ[cxviii][118]ͱʽʵֵ֮塣ҪʽʵԷ룬ҪĿ/ֵԷΤеIJͬλá

ΤУֱ1913ų֡Ŀԡһ÷ֵԡֵø1920ΪΤʽá[cxix][119]ѧǽԼΤǰųεķΪΤ۵ĺĸûдΪӻݵĽǶȿԷ˵һֱΤ۵ĺĻڡؼڣԷ뾿ʲôֵأָܽΤԸͬ˹ġͬ塱롰ᡱԷ룬ΪΤѧУС͡ͳΤνġͬԡVergemeinschaftungжĿԺͼֵͬԡVergesellschftungж[cxx][120]롰СԺ͡ͳԲͬĿֵԶǷֻежǶ漰ж߶ʵжʶġġ̣֯Ҳ˵ͶֻµԻ[cxxi][121]еĹϵ[cxxii][122]ǶȿĿԺͼֵȷʵΤѧĺģΪڡᡷУǽΤϵͳĸϵ˼ԡ½ʱ徫һֱĵԻ⡣ҪԾ֮Ĺֱ漰ΤʼչעԻԻ֮Ĺϵ⡣Էǿ˵½ʱ徫񡷵ǣ½ͽԻУ½ġֵԡΪʱġ͹۵ľӪġĿԡԻ֮佨ˡ׺ǰΪṩƶҲϣ½ͽԻǡֵԡģҲǡĿԡģڡᡷڵƷУǶ֧ѧķǶԾļЧʵĿ֮ĹϵΤעĺȴԷһ棬ڼֵԪĸУֵĿ֮ijͻֵ֮ͬijͻԼĿֵּԳͻݵĽɫΤйطѧ͹˳ǷпҵһʽȳȻмֵԵġ֮ҲͬȻڹҿƲ˽ҵĿƲĿ֮ijͻ[cxxiii][123]ɣΤйʽʵԵĶͺһŬйء

ΤķѧУνʽʵԵĶȷʵֵĶ[cxxiv][124]Ҳ롶ᡷһ۾жеʽʵ[cxxv][125]ͬ׼ȷ˵߼ϵͳֵϵͳĶϵͳı˷ʽԻ֮临ӵʷ۾

ΤҪʥsacred lawԻĽǶ취ɵʵԻ⡣[cxxvi][126]ΤָʥԻȾӦڽ̵ԭҪʻʽʵʽ塣[cxxvii][127]ⷽ棬̵Ľ̻֮ᷨĻеʥռλãΪ෽涼ҪԶΪԣرʽʮַ[cxxviii][128]˹ѧɵġȻѧ˵ķɼͽ̻ԵĿƲȼ֮⣬ڽ̻ᷨԻУΤûֱᵽĻͼҲ˷dzҪĽɫ[cxxix][129]ڡġ̻ʸܲЩƫĺͿ󣬵Ȼ֤ˣھ׽֮ǿϵƶԻŬһԵĽ̻ᷨԿֵطϰ߷Ķķɴͳ[cxxx][130]ڽ̸ĸ֮ʥƶ׷Ի˸ΪԵá·ڶ˴Ϊ÷˷Ȩһ㱧л̬[cxxxi][131]νڶڽ̸ĸ˶УżӶĽɵ½̽ɵconfessionalization[cxxxii][132]½̽ǿոԵͼܹĹϵҪIJɺͿݣǶ֧䡱һ£ԷɵԻ׵塣һ㣬ͻ½̽ɣرǼӶںɵķۣԺܷ롰߼˼̵Ӱ졣[cxxxiii][133]ˣɵʵԻں̶ܴΤڡ½ʱ徫кܴԣħͼͨԻĶѧһ׷ʽ[cxxxiv][134]

ΤĵʽԱķչܵ¹ѧɣPandectistķѧ˺ĸѧBegriffsjurisprudenzӰ죬ΤǿһϵͳԵĹ֧ȱݵϵһΪʽԵı׼[cxxxv][135]ָѧӽɡԶͶʵԤȾνɹ涨ȻԶۡ[cxxxvi][136]һʽԵġװáܹ֮ãǰǷܹʵԷ룬ɡָ桱self-referenceķ򡣻仰˵ɵʽԻΤ֧ѧвȡһһµģDzòԻԻֱ֮ӹӶֵ֤ɡ

Τ£ɵʽԻʵԻ֮ĹϵʷչĽǶȿҪִ͵ĹӵöࡣΪȻʵӰ죬ǿԷʵԻʽԻչһҪǰᣬҼʹʵʵ൱̶߳ȵʽԻʵԻȻһ֮ȥıӰΤΪʽԷĵijķƶȽṹȻĻϷչγɵġ˴ѧĽǶȿȻʵĹ淶׼ҪǣȻʵڷѧĶ ʽϣȻѧ˵ǿ߼ϳķɵƣرǿ˷˼άʽ߼[cxxxvii][137]ԵĹȣֻȻеķ壬ԴʽʵĹ[cxxxviii][138]ˣΪֵԺϷԵ͡[cxxxix][139]ȻҲͳ˾ʽԵʵǰᡣ[cxl][140]Τһ۵㣬۵Ҫ壬Dzþͻῴ

ˣijϽΤķѧУɵʽԻʵԻ֣֮ʵǽֵĿִ໥ͻһַʽΤϣͨɵʽԻʽԻΪ̶߳ȵļֵԵĴȻĹ淶׼ĿΪֵɵĿռ䡣ʵʱʽԷʵ֮ijͻȻǰֵ̽Τ۵һһ˷ѧ⣬漰ԻijչʱԻɵԻͷΪɵ򣬶һ߲òԡǴ˼ˡļѡ񡣶ͷѧԣһѵѡ¹ιѧ˵еֲͬء

3ιĶѾ

¡ָΤķѧĺǴӷαadministrationһֵģһ⽫Τ˼·뷨ѧ˼·ֿ[cxli][141]ΤѧĺĸԣʽԻʵԻ뷨ɵĹϵģȴѧۼ

ȻЩѧѾע⵽ΤЩ˼¹ġιRechtsstattĹйأȻɲ꣬ȱʵԵķ[cxlii][142]ĵĵķǿԿΤйʽԻʵԻĶԪ롰ιѧ˵չʷŷdzܵĹϵǴһ㣬ǿԷ֣ΤԷԻķ֧ѧ۵Ĺؼڡ[cxliii][143]

ιʵʹ׷19ͳ[cxliv][144]һʼһ;зdzԵĵԡһǿʵĿǣһܵսŷ˼Ӱ죬³ʿȵ־ͼΰPolizeisstaatĴͳ[cxlv][145]ιΪȡΰĹģʽͼǿµɵͬʱԭеȨرǹҽṹĴͳײ㷺Ӱ죬1830Ժ󣬡ιԽԽΪɵ˼Ӣкܴ롣ھʹһѧDZɣɣǽΪԹȨƣ˵һ͵Ĺʽ˵ǡһֿɵĹҵ·ʽֹͳȨԣʶؽڡ幫ɡ͡ɡϡϣַͨʽųеأˣǿιǡԹstate of reason[cxlvi][146]

֡ιɫʵ𽥽ԪľԹȻѧ˵ϳһ壬ҵľĿ꿴ִȻ[cxlvii][147]һǶȿȻΪΰΪߵľ֮ĶԾȻΰܡιաڣҲٽɵĵˣ෴ȴΪɵıӻߺ·ˡΪһУĸˣܶԿʵɣܵ״ֻ̬йҳ棬ͨʵĹȻԭ򣬲пܱϸ˵ɡ[cxlviii][148]һλʷѧָģȻɥʧΪ淶Դĵλʵ½綨Ϊԭķ֧ѡ뻯ĹҳΪһֵ´ˣһֽƶȣˣԼƵתΪĸ˵ɡ[cxlix][149]ԣ¹ιʽġΡصڷɵҾвɽѵĹϵ[cl][150]߸׼ȷ˵ǿƵԻɹһελ¢ϵãȨṹķЩͨιʵֵġ[cli][151]ṹĽǶȿνڲšintraadministrative constitutionalism[clii][152]˵¹ײ㡰λıҲ˺Τۼײϰ߷ӣdz־ų͡״̬[cliii][153]

˼ʷʷı£ܡιѧ˵Դ19Ҷʼʽִǿɫʵʽѧ˵ûʹҳװΰʱĹ񣬶ͨʽķ֯ҵĹʽȡġι۵Ĵ˹Friedrich Julius Stahlԣ

ҪΪιһںʵϱִչơбҪֶ׼ȷؽ綨ι̵ȷҹɵͬʱ綨ȷõķͽޣˣֱֻʵЩڷɷΧڵǷιĹֹ˵ֻʩûκιĿķҲǽϸ˵ȨָIJǹҵĿݣֻǹõķʡ[cliv][154]

ˣιĿͲǷǡͨ͹۷ʽʽУܵʵȫĵԣʹǻҸΪһûʵpositiveĵ׷ĹҾһλһͥͽ߷ʽȴûа顱 [clv][155]

編˸ѧɵıԵ¹ѧŦָģνιĸԭǹķԡָҵճҪܵɵԼͬʱҲζŹҵκθԤԻԭΪɣɡ[clvi][156]ҵĿƲƣҲͨķ˺ϷԣνͨԻúϷԡlegitimacy through legality[clvii][157]ͨԣƲƽĹܼһ߽⴫ͳȼеķνϵġ¹ʽɡתΪιܼ໤ɣȫΧڣΪҿƲƶ½ΤƷо۵ġȨ״̬[clviii][158]

ιµģʽΪʱĶԪΰĹȻԣһijԣȴԭеľһȻ֮ڶתΪһڵġζԪۡpolitical dualism [clix][159]ڵġζԪۡж˫һȫճķ棬ȴѭʵķԵΰ[clx][160]һûйȨ֧ţҲδ˾ʵֻ߽ģȻԷɹ[clxi][161]ڵġζԪۡ¸ͬһ֧µĶԪҲ˵һ棬ιͼͬһԽɵġҵϵһʷɣthe general lawԭǿҽʽԵķ֯һлͬʱҲϹ밲ȫں̶ܴϣͨҵַ֧µĹϵġһ棬ķ ҵĿݡ롣ԣʵġʽģĿĶԪۣ𽥳Ϊ19ͺڵ¹κͷʵ۷涷Ľ㡣ΤйطɵʽԻʵԻ롰ιֵζԪйءιġζԪۡʵǹҵʽʵķ뱳ȻͺϷ֮Ľšܴӡι߼ΤעġʽԡȻԭĻϣɵʽԲܹ֧ʽԽ˷Ȩһϼȸ跨ִָҵ֧ԺϷԣϷڹҵʽʵϻ˽ϡһͼ÷ȨʵΡȷʵĿ꣬ôʵеȻԭrightness of the lawͲٽʽԣʵԵģʵȻļֵԣʽʵĿ֮乹˼ijͻһͻǡιζԪ۵ڸԴ19ڣ ιijҪǿʵ䷨ȨʽԣȨ÷ȨʵֵʵĿϸֿ 19Ҷʼѧͼͨʽɵʵʻ˷ιζԪۣҵĿݡ뷨ԸܵؽЩѧУмѧߣҲбѧߡɵѧͼij֡лҡķʽҵľɫʵȨ幫񲻿ַȨһ[clxii][162]ΪȨԱǵȨùҵġȨtotal power[clxiii][163]ιѧ˵ͽ϶DZϸ˵ɣΪһߣ뵽ҵĹ֮СȨ빫ȨΪǿġȨղƷֱ£ɼɼȨ[clxiv][164]˵ɵѧͼḣ뷨ιķƶС˫ԣڻ˼·ȴûʲô𣬶ϣιʽʵʻҪиĻ븣Ĺܡ[clxv][165]νɷѧɡǿһԭ򡱺ɲȨȡʽԻνᷨԼᷨι SozialrechtsstaatĹֱ²ģ20ͳʼ¹аԽԽҪĽɫ[clxvi][166]

ΪһλʵѧߣΤ֡ɷչķʽ򡱱иٹ̵Ļ̬ȡ[clxvii][167]زιʵʻ̺ġԡtotalityΣգǶԸ˼ֵɵDZвһ㣬˹ķյУͿԿ[clxviii][168]ɵġӦȻ롰ʵȻĽǷ۷淸˿Ĵ󣬸ڵ˿鱤[clxix][169]ΤԤе ιͨʵʻתΪνᷨι[clxx][170] Ϳܺҵһ̺ΣաˣΤೡϱԽʵʻ˼ƵĵǣһǿҲκڵļֵֻʵȫֵּͬһ⼼ԵĸֶΣֻܴЩֵԼϣҲֻеҼԼһжʹʱܱסһϡ[clxxi][171]

Ϊһڵ¹ѧͳгɳۼңιĹ̵Τķ֧С[clxxii][172]ԷʵʻаĸȫڹΣգΤΨһõ۾ǷɵʽԻǰΤѧѾָģɵʽԻƲƵлһͬҲܻκθɵĿռ䣬νĸȫڹҾϸŵķУϽɵʽԻһ߼ϵʽϵعΰܹ룺Ҫһݡ㵽ع涨䳼ϵ[clxxiii][173]Ϊֻ걸ʽϵ涨ķΧڣ˲ɺȨԡʽԻķɣΤڽѧооصɵԻλãΪףַһּ໤͵ķɣ˵ǹҵһӳˡֽһΪΪһûȱݵϵķɣʹЩԶ󣬻ǸָһȷĹȥѵ䳼񣬼ʹΥԸӦԼļһ[clxxiv][174]ҪԤпܵżȻΪķΧ涨΢ļͥ¡[clxxv][175]ˣܹҲʵʵܣȴȻʽܡʵϲûжٲԲ һʵķ˸񻯡[clxxvi][176]ٴΤѧٵֻѧԸӼʽӳһ֢״ûɵԻսǴµū۵κ¹ʷ֤һ㣬ɴʽԵijߣǡɷɲȨĹĴߣܡ[clxxvii][177]

κ¹һЩѧҵı£ɴ¹һȻޡBehemothij롰ιȱйءӢĵķΣthe rule of law¹ġιϿЩƣʵȴྶͥ[clxxviii][178]ôӷεĽǶȿΤУʵϣʽϵġڱϵŷ½Ҳͬŷ½[clxxix][179]ͨԻɵĶǷζһֿأ

ͨǡӽ[clxxx][180]ΪԵ˾

1ͨȻʵ

˼ʷͷѧʷпΤѧӢͨԡĽϵۣҲûʲô֮ͨӢܵһЩ˵Ҫº͵öࡣ

ڱߵУʱӢķɣ˸ȱݡ񻰡鹹⣺ƶ壬̸ۣͥӡȡ֤ʽȫΪԡ𾪵ĻЩ⣬λḣѧ𾪵ǣӢʦİõЩײªϰȻġɱģŹܾĸ[clxxxi][181]

ڱ֮ǰ˹鹹ġѧҡ롰ͨѧߡ֮ĶԻоָͨƵνԡlegal reasonһֺ첻ĶΪķԣϵУֻһԣͨȴܾһ㡣ȨߵȻԡ[clxxxii][182]

Τһ˹ߵͨ˶Էְҵĵӵһ֡ѧ[clxxxiii][183]ЩԻʵʣֲͬʽе壩֮ijͻ

ڱ߶ͨӱ̢ıΰ룺һơȫķϵһ֡ȫpannomion[clxxxiv][184]ùص˵ǽ΢Ӭ֮ȫֵIJӥ֮۽ͼձ顢Ƶķ֮۶ÿ䡣[clxxxv][185]Ŭڱ߿ʹҪײͨҪӢСձԵIJ׼ȷ֮[clxxxvi][186]߶Ӣij幤ĺģǽͨȥػdemystification¶Щ硰ڻʦлװŪĹŹװţһŬĺľǽɱɱ׶ġʶܱ߲ܻ˹˼еȻУȻͨ߼鹹һ񻰶ѡǣһߺͻ˹һµģǶʶͨʦֵءԡʵȴǾܾԹΪȨԡ[clxxxvii][187]ڻ˹ûȨˣͲܴƷɡˣͨѧΪ˹֮зټһ𣬹νƵԡsumma ratio鹹[clxxxviii][188]ڱ߿ͨʦƵġȻԡȻġȻdzʶԵĹһͨ˵ͷԾܹ⡣[clxxxix][189]Ͽֶԡʶؼ̳Ӣͨǡcommon law mindĴͳʵΪͨȨعƽ˵·ڱ߿ڷʦЩרҵʿ֧µķУķء׵ķɸĸܽԵķ

ԣԣŷͨʦ򷨹٣DZȻѧңЧԭĸɣԶǽֵĸ˫ͬʹõʱȴȻͬķԵĹ

ӻ˹ߣϣһ֡Էɡlaw of reasonϣܹйıԳҵһԭԵԭһȱķƶȣһԵƶȳ涨ÿԱµĹӵеȨ෴ͨʦͷٿѰҵһַԣlegal reasonһϵԣһơʶܹɽܵɣԡ[cxc][190]ǰһԣȴһ˾ԡ[cxci][191]ߵġȫ һֽ߼ϵԹ壬ġԲμ panopticonͬ[cxcii][192]ͨ˾˼·ķԣһֲ֡Եʵ[cxciii][193]һֻʽŷʽmixed forms of social order[cxciv][194]֮IJ˹۱벼˹֮ͨʱľٶԣ߾һΪһֹҵˣ˹ͨȴ֪ΪһѧʲôӡһҲͬʵ򡰷ι߼ͨ߼֮ľ޴졣[cxcv][195]

ˣӢ֮ΤķѧҲһǡλãͨһӳȻѧ˵Ƿʵ֤壬ܱ˴໥ڦȴķѧ۵Ļ򡣵۶ڷѧۣȷʵһλۼԣͨɲͬѰ˸е󡱡[cxcvi][196]ԭͨѧռġԡķϡ

˹͡˵ӢоתоͺһͺڰѳһȽ͹Ĺȡ[cxcvii][197]Ҫͨԡ˾ԡΪĵķǾҪӡιߵġȫ͹ĹȡصͺڰĹȡ̽ȻѧҺͷʵ֤ǡУҲоĸּա[cxcviii][198]

2ͨһƵ

ڻ˹У¿˲Ƿɺϵ̣ؾɡͨʷѧҿ¿ʹӢִҪ[cxcix][199]νӢʽɵͳѧ˵ûһԸ˱ȿ¿˱øӵиѧ[cc][200]˵ǿ¿һֽӢͨʹִӶ춨ͨԴͳ[cci][201]ڿ¿йͨԶصķʽ춨ͨķԵĻȷִͨѧ˵ĴͳһιΪõУ¿˶ԣ

ǷɵͨDZģԡӦðΪͨо;ʵֵһڼ϶Եƣan artificial perfection of reasonÿ˶еȻԣΪûмյģnemo nascitur artifexַߵԣsumma ratioˣʹɢôͷеԶһͷУҲȻܲӢķɣΪǾʱ棬ΪΰIJѧ֮ʿһȥȡƶɣľ飬ַɲųɳΪһ״̬֤һϵķûˣԼ˽˵ԣܹȷɸǻۣΪƵԡ[ccii][202]

λ˿¿йͨķԵаݵḻ⺭ȣڿ¿˿ͨ͵ԡͨһԴͳص㣬ͨѧɭ˼ĸͨƶУ˵һЩضʽѭɣ˵ԵġĻĽʽʵϣ˵֮ûȷ𡱡[cciii][203]һõͬ巴ǾзdzҪ⺭ζ֮ͨ⣬ʵ⺭ϣʽ⺭ϣġ߼ԣΪͨԵĹ淶ֵݡ[cciv][204]̫ǡü̳п¿˼Ӣ󷨹ٺͷѧҹգSir Matthew HaleĻ˵ͨӢȻ[ccv][205]

һ˼ǿ˵ͨķԵصڷɵģûԵԹ˶ûԵ־ֻ̣Ծڹϵ[ccvi][206]

Σڿ¿˱£ͨƵġƵԡ˵ɱûκȱݣζͨеκӦ[ccvii][207]ңͨЩĻӦǡһᡱġһԡconsistencyͨΪƵԵĺ⺭ָÿһֵж򾳿IJͬˣûκεжڸ涼һģһʹɺIJȶԣɵġһԡΪ˿˷һΣաˣͨΪԵѧ˵ijضķɷչģʽ[ccviii][208]þIJһʱ֮١ǽܳĹʷѧ߲ƿ˸ġͨǡcommon law mindsҪص㣺ͨǡ䡱immemorialķɡ[ccix][209]

һ⣬ٹһdzӣͨӢ۵Ĵܾọ́촬вϼѾˣȴȻԭĴ[ccx][210]ͨķ١ʦѧ߶һǿͨ߼꾭ĽᾧǻһԵɣDzź͹һԸõ֧ӢƾҸ˵ijµۣܱķɣҶԼ۵ĺ֮ҪϤƽҸ̫ƽ[ccxi][211]

յһͨҾİӡЩңȻѧңʵ֤ߣУͨġԡ͸Ӣ˼У谭Իĸĸʵϣ¿˺͹ЩͨٶһԵǿ̺˷dzҪͨԣͻ𡰲㡱inconvenient롰˺mischiefѧ˵Сν㡱ʵϾǡһᡱinconsistency[ccxii][212]ǶԵһвڿ¿˿κβ֮ԷǷɡΪԵķɲκβĶ֮£ġ˺ӰСöࡣˣϳܲңܶɵIJ㡱 [ccxiii][213]Ϊһ㽫Թղ˵һIJDz̵ģˣijֶٵһЩ˺ķҪá[ccxiv][214]ʵϣȫԭ˾ԻʹҹͨġԸĸСıߣҲͨһԣԷΥ[ccxv][215]

ͨ֡ԡͨյ߼ʽϵģͨŵķɼɵģǿ¿νġԡartificial reason롰ǻۡաϵһġ[ccxvi][216]һ֡𽥵ģԵġgradual, discursiveһ̡֡ratiocianationǡΨ̣rationalisation[ccxvii][217]Ƿͥ۱ʱر˫໥ִʱΪԼṩݵ޴ѧϵԣ߼ѧϵԡ[ccxviii][218]ҲdzͨΪһ˾ԵһҪԭΪͨġԡǽ˾ʵй㷺õļά֡ɵġһԡͨЩʱϵĻơ

ͨ֡ԡȻѧ˵ʵ֤峫ġȻԡȥԶ1608꣬ղķ˹һͼԼϰʱ¿Ԯܾ˹һҪղķ˹һĻشǣȻǻԵģôͷһһԡ¿˶ȻܾǶǵ˵У¿ָȷʵϵ۸ȻΰDZ²ûϰµӢķɣµij̳СƲйصİоdecidedȻԣݼԺͷɵоjudgementһҪڵо뾭飬֮һ˲˽[ccxix][219]

ˣͨļԾһ֡ͨϰϰߵġreasonable faculty[ccxx][220]ͨڷְҵͷɽȷصصļԣͨ˾Եĺġ

3ͨ˾ԣаѰ

ͨķһ˾ԣҲ˵ͨķһԷͥΪĵԣǼԵʵ⺭ּУаѰе˲ͬĽɫͬͨij

ͨ˾˵аroutine cases[ccxxi][221]Ѱhard cases[ccxxii][222]зdzҪ塣Ϊͼһ֡ȫУеİӦòܹΪаʵ߼ҲǽȫϵеİͬаνѰǷɹϵȱݵIJʵԵһ˰̡ġʵУûλõġͨУѰڣҶͨķչ˵Ѱеķ̾зdzҪ塣 ȻǿѰͨеҪԣζаҪ[ccxxiii][223]ͨļз˲ͬá

ͨΪаУõķɹʮġӦκβԵʵpҵӦķpôqԷͥӦִӦķɺq[ccxxiv][224]ǣķʵְͨԭΪƶ˾ԻԭΪԡ[ccxxv][225]ʵУаķҪԵѧ΢öࡣ

аУٵĹʵϼ漰Ե⣬Ҳ漰ν⻯Ĺ̡ǰߣǺߣ߼ʽģǾcasuisticʽģ˵޴ʽġ

κηԵİǾ尸ζŰ¼ɸӵĺʵɵġԸӵʵҪҪͲҪʵһϣΤ˵෴½ͨûʲô[ccxxvi][226]֮ڣ˵½еķѰҵʹͻķɹΪܵIJʵνpĻôͨķͥУʹð֮ƳΪܵνƹؼanalogy key[ccxxvii][227]ʵܹһ¼࣬ӶԮʵʽ仰˵һеIJʵ尸һ÷ΧھоԵĹ淶ϵʹ if/thenʽܹãʵķɹ淶Ļʽ[ccxxviii][228]ͨУ尸֮ĹϵĹϵһձԵķ룬һexample淶ͬ[ccxxix][229]尸߼λͬģضʵҲ˵Ϊʹ÷ΧڣҲǾԵģֻһԡ[ccxxx][230]ˣƹؼҲҪһ尸ԭΪһһԵģ壬尸֮佨ϵȻڽʱǶ尸˽DzͬģǶ˽⡱޷ҲûбҪˡ[ccxxxi][231]֡˽⡱˵̺š淶Ϊеоṩ˽ʵʵmaterial facts[ccxxxii][232]ַԭϵķûзԭĵطҲûа취ʹơ[ccxxxiii][233]еġоɡʵϲһֹ淶ǽʵʵ롰ԭϵʵԷʽƵḶ́ʵϾʵԷʽ졣ͨʵԣγÿ尸еʵij˶ԵءǷ٣ʦרעеʵġͨǡ籾ͳ˹ѫLord HalsburyоָģÿһоӦΪҵϿɻٶ˵ʵΪозֵıһԲҪɣܹ֧ЩһһЩʵЩҲʵлһԵʸ񡣡[ccxxxiv][234]

ˣа˾УϸԭҪƵ޴߼ۣ˴ʵʵһԣͨеʵʵƣڱϷɵġһԡȶԣ֤ͬȰͬȶԴͬʱʹʵܵӦеӡ[ccxxxv][235]ʵϣһͨ⻯ձķʽ߸׼ȷ˵ͨأΪձĶַʽͨͨԭֳеҪԣӳ˾Եص㡣ΤйͨʵʷʽԶйأͨԡԻɷչص㡣

˾ĽǶ˵а÷ɵĻôѰǡַɡ߲þͨ۵˵ǡʾdeclareɡ

ͨУѰĸصڣڰУ˫ܹʵ벻ͬġԭϵ֮־棬ҪôΪ˫ڹɰ¼з˲ͬġƹؼӶ벻ͬϵнƹϵҪôΪ˫԰еġƹؼûз磬еġоɡĿȴྶͥҲ˵˫еġʵʵûз磬ȴ֡ʵʵַԭϵһԼϵķʽ޷ȡһ¡[ccxxxvi][236]֡ѡ״ԭ򣬼ȿ ߲㣬ҲΪ⣬Χ壬ʱԶԭʧ顣[ccxxxvii][237]֮ѰζŷͥаһƣҵһּеĴʵķʽ

ˣѰо̾õȷĹ̵̡֡ĺľ¹ʵ롰ԭ֮ĹʽӶƷԭ򡣶ѰḶ́ͨչҪʽҲͻͨ˾ԵҪص㡣 һ˵ѰУ˫ܹ˵ݵܹڰҵصʵʵֱ֧ķţclaimsЩı漰໥ִIJֵͬЩֵǵµġڽ̵ģǾεġЩͬļֵУԱֲͬȨЩ໥ͻļֵڷ֮⣬Ƿ֮ڣǶҲһ֡ԪֵӶЩֵ֮佨ȼƵĹϵ֮໥ͻǶѰʵǡħ硱ڷе֣ڡ֮Уûһ֡˽ᡱִжԪֵͻijԽԵһԪ;[ccxxxviii][238]Ѱִᡰֵɡһͻӳңһ֮֡໥ص㣬һνжԵĻadversial cultureͨУҲ̺һֽ˾Ե޴չֶԿԵķʽ[ccxxxix][239]

ͨѰĿоУʦǷ٣ʵ϶ֱЩ໥ͻļֵĺȴǸַԭЩԭܵͬЩֵ漰Щֵʵַʽֶλ[ccxl][240]ڹΪ۵ġ˹Ĭ Riggs v. Palmer[ccxli][241]У׷ʵϾ˲ͬķԭ˹ʤߵĶΪκ˲Ϊ桱ˣɱ游ԻŲĬȨõŲָֽģĬʤߵĸ׷پûԣҲһԭ򣬾DzͬԭһȨϷŲȻڷٶЩԭ漰ļֵ˵־أ紫ͳȡЩֵף˵һЩȨ ˣѰ޷Эļֵٵ񲢷ҪͬijֵӶϿijȨ߷ijȨ[ccxlii][242]ѰУٵĹʵҪȷ֣֣ͬļֵͻʱǽѡ񣬲ɲͬʵͻĿܷΧʵϣκξżĻУͬıȨطͻʱٵκоûֱӴЩȨֻǽֹƵ龳вijЩȨʵijЩʵ߶һЩʽȡ֮Ųʵ̬ȡ֮ͨеķоʵʣǶʵȨļĹǶȨĹ͡˹Ĭԣоûзϸ׷ļֵһ˻ŲȨԼ˵־ءһԽֹһ˲ıɱķʵȨͬȷʵ׷ԣܼܿʹ游֪ĬᶾɱԼԻὫŲĬһҲʵԼȨijЩʽˣٵоǵжϣǶԼֵͻʱʵijжϡ˹¶·˹ΪΪһʽġˡΪΪ˵ʵʽ

ͨļܷٵо漰໥ͻIJֵͬʵΪȴɲȨIJҲζصӡͨķͨѰоʹɶʵȨļĹСһԡҲǶѰоʱٿҪԭ򣬾£еоֻнԻȰԣоԵˣͨͥеķٵĹԵҸ˹С˵ıѧߵĹΣյģΪҪеĽѧߣʥѧңġ͡еijɫʡ[ccxliii][243]

Ȩ⡱weightȨءһҪԾ˳ΤһָģֵDzȨģΪֵǾԵģġһѰʱֵ밸ʵ֮ȴûֱӵϵΪʵ漰IJǼֵֻǵ˾ʵЩֵķʽˣ˫ִĽҲЩʵֵķʽϡ˫ԮԭʵǷڹʵʱġһᡱʵеʽ̬ķɹͬûȷĹ涨ҪôҪôǣeither/orνall or nothing漰ͬȨءһûκһԭܹƼоԵȨء[ccxliv][244]Ҳ˵Դڼֵͻеĵ˵ΪѰʵܻҵһЩݡѰоһȷ˷ɶļġһᡱǷɵġԡڡˣѰ֣ܳһзʵĹһЩ⣬ѰоĽζŷɶصʵȷ˱ȽȷĹʽ[ccxlv][245]

Ѱһ淴ӳͨķԵijص㣬ͨúַʽڼ뷨֮ĸ໥ͻļֵ֮佨ϵ˵Τضִиֵּ֮䡰ڲɵ͵ûԻЭĿܡ[ccxlvi][246]ô֮֡Ľȴ˾ֵܼ֮䲻Э໥ͻļֵĸʵʽȷʵԡȨ⡱͡áӹʷĽǶȿҲӳͨԱʿԼֵͻʱʵǻۡ[ccxlvii][247]

һ棬˵ֽȨκĻôѰڱȨ˵ȷʵζһƶȻĹ̡ΪȨֵģģȷģ˵ǡաģǿԲ޶ķʽȨʵȨɵҪڶʵȨķʽйȨǷɹ涨ģȨʵʽҲԷɣɵķչȴʵȨļķչζŷṩʵıȨķʽɹĹһ棩ҲζųʵЩȨķʽΪЩʵʽУΣͬҪһЩȨɹԼһ棩磬һҪıȨȨûиЩ԰ʵȨЩʽǿеģͬҪļֵȨɵ̵ģЩʵɵķʽطֵʵӶ᲻̡ͥȷdzڶеĴ󱨵ڷ̰ôһͬʱζijЩdzʵɵķʽ÷ϿɵĿռ䡣˵ףеļֵΣյģΪеļֵǾԵĺģʵֵּǿܣDZȻ¶һЩֵ𺦣ǼֵʵʽDz̵ģֻijֵּʵʽֵDz̵ġֵDZΣգɵѧʾʵֵķʽǷ̣ȴǾͨ˵ʵ̽ͳԣɷ ˣ۷ʵ֤壬Ƿɵĸֵ»ʵ϶ͬĴǶֵȨʵ˵ĻȨһֿܣ໥ͻļֵͬҲֻһֿܣǶжDZڱƶȻĴӲǺȴھԵЩ˴໥ͻȨʵȨļˣƶȻγɵļȷʵ֤еķɡȨҲͨϿɵĻȨǵĿеȻ壬˵ǼЩȨļϣƶȻζżڸ ʵ巨У˶ЩʵȨļĿܿռĹ涨ԷɷչıȽоķ벻ķ֮IJЩȨľʵʽйصԭ򣬶ڻȨ溬ġһ[ccxlviii][248]

ͨʵȨķʽ[ccxlix][249]Ȳ󡰷ιȡԤķҲʮḣеġ塱ʩһ ķʽͨǵȴжȻϿɻһжȡʵ[ccl][250]Ω䱻Ͻͨһֱӻ͵ķɣһ͵ķɡһ͵ķУٱ˸ġԻѹҪͨƣ߷ԺԵѰͨԭάַɵġһԡ[ccli][251]һ棬֤ڡɡʱļԣһ棬ΪҪǣɲǽ͵ĨDD޶ı߽磬Զлļռ䣬ȴǵġŬˣͨоҪֳͨ߼ϸѭԭ򣩣άͨġһԡȷڴʵʱԲοɵչеļֻʹַ֮νʽ 򡱵İŵԽУʹÿ˶ΪԼġ١[cclii][252]ˣΤͨзֵϸijص㣬ǡڵʽ塱ͨΪ˾Եͻ

ΪΤڷʱʵ̸ֲͬ⺭ķԡһǷϵ߼ԣһʽ򡣶ΤйʱУҪIJ߼ϵʽԣǶ˾ʽԵĹ[ccliii][253]ĵʾһֱǿȻͬķΤҲȻڡѾָģΤķУԵΪķѧҵķ͸½ġУرǿзɡ빫ͷлϵͳ֮Сϵͳԭ֧µơ[ccliv][254]ķֵһַԣʵѧжڱԵλַԵĴͨΤеġӢ⡱ʵΪΤķѧУܵ¹ι͸ѧӰ죬ͨҪ˾ռλķԣвҲǡλá֧µӽǿͨġ̥۴ʵԽǶȣǴʽԽǶȣƿɳ¡

֡Գ̶Ƚϵͨ͡ԣȴṩһΤԻɵ˼·ڳħȡɵĿԡҪͨԣҪӽǵķ۳ɹ̱Ƿɵĺġ[cclv][255]

ͨǿй̵ķԣΪĵĵ¹ιȣʵһȫͬķι[cclvi][256]ĺdzԡ˵ͨķһԳΪĵġȡķɹ ȻΤ˾Ѿע⵽ͨij򻯣ָģΤΪͨԳǿһڵʽ壬һִŨʽɫʡͳɫʵʽ塣ͨʷԨԴΤһĵͨԳǿԷ⽨磬ΪӢɹġ¡йء򡱵ĺԭⲻسԷ⽨ɡ[cclvii][257]Ⲣζͨijص㣬һʵݵʽ塣ʵϣֳͨ򻯣Τ˵߼ԵʽͬҲΤΪڵʽ塣

¹ѧګִָɵĽʽʵʻ׶ΡǷһԪ۵ĹǾͻ֣ᷢͨɷչص㣬dzʵ巨ͨڣ˶Գ򳬳ѰĹע[cclviii][258]ֶԳĹעΤԣʽĿǣΪ˾ܵ˾оеء[cclix][259]ǻῴģͨγɽǶֶԳǿζܹͨյʱӢʢеĸֲͬʽķɣЩԴḻͨˣͨڷɳԼְҵķԣȷͨ˾ĿԡͨһصҲ֤ګ򻯵ķɣ߷ԣҲ߿ԡ[cclx][260]

ͨͨճʵֵĿԣܹͨɲͬķԨԴͬʵġԡķҪء[cclxi][261]ͨдСɫʵķɳʹͨķܹӦִḴӵļֵԪ֡һڿ¿˾ʿооͻ֡

۾ʵԿǴʽԵĽǶ¿˾ʿڿİCalvins caseķBonhams caseеоìܵġ˾ĽǶȿڰķУ¿˾ʿǿ˷ɸھڿİУƺȫ෴оDZڰķУ¿˾ʿļԵԭ򣬶ڿİУԮȻѧ˵[cclxii][262]Ŀȫ˿¿˾ʿеĶͨԵĽ⺭ǴӷɹĽǶͻᷢڿİԮȻ⺭½ѧߵ̬Ȼشڿ¿УȻӢһԨԴӢԨԴһȻӢһ֡ȴӢĻҸΪҪǣȻûйӢԣ෴ӢļԴȻġǹν޵Ȼlimited law of nature[cclxiii][263]ˣ۰ķǿİܿ¿˾ʿԮ˲ͬļֵȴͬԡ[cclxiv][264]ڿ¿˵ѧ˵УûͼȻѧ˵[cclxv][265]ͬҲûȻѧ˵ΪоѰݣһܹͨʹȻļֵõļԡ

ʵϣּԹӢĹؼڡΤ۵ĽǶƺȷʵԣʽԡҪηչһ׸ӵļԪʵи໥ͻȶԡԤԺͳԵʽҪЭּԣʹͨɻûݱȻѧ˵ϵʵԷҲʵ֤ĿеʽԷܹضԷʽӦʵԵļԷһ㣬ͨġԻȻԵʵġԻ·ֿ

ˣͨijȲܽ䡰ʽȻͬҲҪʵʻΣգ ɽ䡰߻ͨijУ̺˽ɵڹļֵֵǰ½ķʽֹͨʽһҪص㣬¹ʵ򻯡ѧߵֻͬϵͳͬʱҲdzͨжߵáһǿ˵Ŭġǿɵijƶеʵ֡ɡ

˵¹ġιʵɹθɵıߺͱӻߣˣַһԤ͵ķΡôӢͨΪĵķΣֱ18ͣʼҪһֵ͵ģ͵ģȡСѰļʾģַɹҪǽ˵˾жɵġøյĻ˵ַɹһֽԾжߵķʽַУǣܳΪһεжߣܹ⡢ѭ򣬲ΪΪΡ[cclxvi][266]һ֡ǿ˼Ŭ[cclxvii][267]ķƶȣܹø˵жɵĿռ䣬ͬʱܹ÷ɵijάַɵȶԡ

Ͽ˵ͨһֲ֡Եʵ ͨľΪٲûдƷɣֻʾɡ˹͡Ϊ˵һֺʽ鹹ͨķѧҲٽۣһš[cclxviii][268]ʵһѧ˵ȴȷطӳͨķɹص㣬ͨԤȹ涨ǵΪģʽ෴ͨԱķʽͨ˵ʵйͨһصҲͨġϡ

߼˵ͨķ÷֮ǰûַ֪ʲôʹʦҲ֪ԴԼĹһѵʱ͵һԺ˴ͨٵûʲô[cclxix][269]һܼ̣ȴijϽʾͨԵҪص㣺ϵ˺ͷ١ʦһijַʽ˷ɱĽʵϣѾָģͨκһоûСΪоδƾµԭ򣬶ֻһоһϵ֮佨µϵӶڲͬԭ֮µȨ⡣ͨķѰûΣƵķԡ෴ͨͨӦϱ仯ִᣬڷɵĹɵġһԡͨصַɵĵʼϵ÷ɳ˴֮ľףʵǶҵѷȨʵʽ϶[cclxx][270]˵ϵ˵Ȩʵ˷ɶȨʵʽй涨ǰᡣʵϣпζһһĵ˿ܵij˺пΪȨʵΪۡҿͨƶȣȫоϸŵΪ涨ߡһкնȨ涨׽ж߱ɰ͸ĹһûˡʴӡʵűͨǡķɡΪֻйŲҪɵĻռ䣬ԸΪνɡۡ ԣ粼˹ָͨģνӢʽɡʵʾͨǾ֮ġ֮ɣΪǵķԼġǵɲΪӵ֧ȨʹΪãǸоȫ֮ڻһΪһ֣ȫ[cclxxi][271]

Ȼһָģַͨɷչģʽʵͨļͨ˶Է֮ĸֵּеʵԡͨеĸַԭ򲢷ƾƶģǷٵ־IJһַ֮ļֵֿŵĹһִкͷḻ䡱ͨļԴͳЩͳһǿķʽʵַ֮ļֵʵضϵ

ִᣬѰӣ֤ΤĻ۵㣬ִһ֮ijħ硣󻯣ͬʱҲʻĹϵ֮乹˼ijͻֹ淶ġ[cclxxii][272]ͶԷɵķ뿪ԡȶ뵯ԡս⣬ʵ֤ͼͨ㷺ļжɣͨø˵˾жϣɵġˣѰʵʣͨ˶ԣǸ˽˾ֶΣʵȨļ١ɻĿռ䡱ͷٶԣͨЩͬȨij򻯸ԤȨⷨԭЭЩ֮ԡ

˵ͨİ취аѰʵ¬νḴԵĹ淶֪ŵĶ⡣[cclxxiii][273]ͨҲ濴ȥԣԣԡΪͨһôɱطӳิӶľ飬ʵĸԺĵطǽЩһַļνṹС[cclxxiv][274]ǵҪĵطڣͨƶַԻܹжٵΣյĹͨζҪΤµͽһǻʶϵֻЩˡ [cclxxv][275]

ġ ġ ͨǡӽǣ˾Ե

1 1 ˾Եͨγ

˵¹ķιһΪӢΧͨļԽеġΡҪһ˾̬ͻصǽƶͨ˷չʵȨķʽôӢܹչγһ˾ԵķΣû½ǿҵĿƲƵƶͨļܣһֽˡߡķ롰ڡɵķȨأ

ͨγɹ˾ԵķչӢصʵʷء11ͿʼӢִͼչȨʱ൱ٵȴʮָӡ[cclxxvi][276]Ȩᡢ̻ᡢط⽨εȸ֮䣬ڸӵ໥ƺϵͨΪĹߣΪ˽ִٵ⣬ijdepersonalizationͿطtranslocalization⡣ľɫʵǣΪ˽⣬չȨͨרŻְҵγص˾ԣֽɵԻΪߵͨȴչΪСɫʵķεĺĻڡص˾ԣҲΪԱʿȨʵҪֶΡ

Ӣ˾Ե11šŵӢڹȨĽϵһҪƶȿܣҪ12ڽȸеĸȷġִԺȣһʱӢԷdzޣӢһγɽ׶Σں˾ķչӰĴ󣬲ӢƶĻ˷dz־õӰ졣

ŷ޵ӽλڼ䣨11541189־ŷ޴ҲͬͼǿҵȨͬǿ뻯ȨӳڵĽǶֻӢķɸĸ˳־áһᡱӰ죬۽ƶƶȽʥ۹ĺңFrederick Barbarossa, 11521189ǷֶPhilip Augustus, 1180-1223ҿ֮µķȨŬֱֻӿƵȡ޵ijɹҴӷͳһĵĽǶȣŷ޴½ϣձŨϰ߷ɫʵνʡնԼָķ͵ķɺȨһֱڲ档[cclxxvii][277]ֱƶĩڣδɷɵͳһ[cclxxviii][278]˵ŷޣӢ⣬еελֻеطϰ߷ȫŷϵġͨûб鼰һĹϵġͨΪ巨ͨ[cclxxix][279]ĽǶȿֱ18ĩ·δҵͿطķʽӢdz⣬ΧС뵺ķԣڡŵ֮ǰѾڵͳһĻӢܹڱȽ£ӢΧڽͳһķҲǡͨһ⺭ԽӶĵطϰϰ߷Ӣͬķɡius commune[cclxxx][280]ˣӷĽǶȿͨϰ߷ɸֵطԵϰ߷ⲻͬϰ߷IJ ڡȸĸAngevin Reform֮ǰǡŵ֮ǰ˾ҪǵطԣԵĺͷ⽨ԵģȨͳһУģԵIJճ񣬶Ǹͻ¼һʱڣķ⽨ͥ͸ׯ԰ԺЩԺDzڵģҪøϰ߷ʵĹͳ[cclxxxi][281]ʵϣʹڷƶȵĴ跽Ҫĺһλڼ䣬Ҫʽ뷨µȹġʽҲûʲôܹǾǿȨġǿˡȴлȱȶĻҪġڳ֤ɱĴȨͳһԺһԣܵľޡһûһֿġ塱һ塱֤ȶԡ[cclxxxii][282]ԣһλǿȥӢŷ½һΧơ̳СչִսѸʹ֮УطԿȨ߽ļ󣬶ȨľҲò

1819𽥷չҼ仯Χͳһġͨȣ1213Χ˾ġȸҪ޵ö࣬ǡǡһ㣬ӢġΡģʽ˷dzԶӰ졣[cclxxxiii][283]ӺһʱڣȸҷԺ£WestminsiterĸߵȷԺƷͥExchequerߵ·ԺCommon BenchͬʱΪҪǣѲطԺGeneral EyreڽжڵѲӣԺͨίɸߵȷԺķѲطͥassizeйռзİһٽ˷ɵͳһȶĽǶȿЩҷԺζŶڵġġȶͳһ˾ij֡[cclxxxiv][284]õʱһλŷ½Ĺ۲ҵ˵ӢʼҷԺصܹκʱκεطʼһأͳһء÷ɡ[cclxxxv][285]ңҷԺҪ󱣴о̺о¼ҲΪɱı룬Լԭķչ춨˻

ͨķչ˾ĸУҷԺûȡеĵطԺׯ԰Ժͽ̻ᷨԺ൱һʱҷԺһֱЩԺ໥ӦأͨҲʼֲͬ໥[cclxxxvi][286]ֱ1628꣬¿˻оӢʱڵ16ַɣֻͨеһ֡[cclxxxvii][287]ַ֮ͨIJ;ͨ˵طϰ߷̻ᷨȻȸַеѧ˵ӶγͨǿԾ⣨balance of reasonsǿַԨԴļԡϽͨչ̵ġԻһ֡˾ԡϵԻΪĵļԵķչŷ½ͨļܽеķ뻯˶һһ߼µķչ[cclxxxviii][288]һͨչһɺӵص㣬ʷѧָܶģͨչУ ûмƻһͨʷѧʱΪĻҪͻ෴ûмƻǽһ[cclxxxix][289]ԺеľУͨķԺڳȶִܹ֤Уİ[ccxc][290]ҷԺĵλʹԺҲáͨӶ𲽴ٽͨķչ˵ͨһɢ̣ͬʱҲͨɵĹ̡ İ»һĸĸӢķչһӢеķʽķչһ𡣶νͨҷͥȡҪϰ߷оĵطͥⲻܽΪȨȡ˵طԵΣǾиΪӵ⺭һ棬ͨķչʹԽ˹ɼ壬ͨijʵлɾ[ccxci][291]µĹ̶ԺӢȫѲطͥĿĶʹͳһܹԽľơ [ccxcii][292]ЩʩʹԺΪ˾ƶȣ𽥰Ϊƶȵǰ֧䣬γȶձġͨҲҷԺܹԽԽİԭ򡣶һ棬ͨζͨɵȡ˵ط׵ķʽΪҪʽҪǡ̫ƽKings peaceǡ˵̫ƽmund򡰿ص̫ƽsheriffs peaceŷ½ϵ֮µ̫ƽthe peace of God[ccxciii][293]ˣͨͨӢʵġط ͹һijϣҲձ黯Ӷνִʽ

ȸĸͨԵγ˵Ҫڣŷ½ҪͨٵȣҷԺһνԵģ͵һֲνнƵĸԤߡ[ccxciv][294]ֱ18ͣӢؽеʼǷdzģһֱͥ־кܴڵ־һʼպܱġ¹ʽɡڵ¹ͬʱڸǸγУһȴЩڲáΰϸŵʽ[ccxcv][295]Ӣ֡ҡ˾ֶ񣬶ͨġӽǡļԵķչг־õӰ졣ĽǶͨͨеȨҲûȡطΡȨط롰ͨԺϵͳ֮ĸӹϵνӢʽɡҪˣ˵춨ͨΡġȸĸǻڼȨԭ򣬲˵ǻлƲ㻯רŻ[ccxcvi][296]

ΤΪ֤ͨԳ̶Ƚϵͣӣһ״һšȻͨռĵλУͨͨлʵʽijͿط

״Ӣɽѡγ̡[ccxcvii][297]Դڰ³ѷ״ںͳʱڣ˾ͨڷչ׶ΣҷԺһ˾ʽҪṩ˾ȵֶΣѸٻָɺ״˾״ҲȨϵһص㣬˷״ʱƫƫŵר⡣ˣ״˾ԿǶԾɵIJȴʩ˽˱ԹҸԤ˾[ccxcviii][298]˾״뷨ϵľܵϵһͻͨ˾ص㣺ƶʵ巨[ccxcix][299]ͬʱ״ķչʹְԽԽ˾Ȩ״ͬʱŰԽԽͨҷԺбԭе˾⽨Եͥõĵطϰ߷⽨ɣյͨУή[ccc][300]˺ֱ16ĩ17ͳͨҪۡGlanvillǡ˶١ֵ̽Ķ״йصij⡣1534ʱһλͨٶԣ״Ļ[ccci][301]

˵ͨѧϵĵһſ״ôڶſξǿ硣18ĩʼYear BooksҪݾйطͥݡͨķͥϵһġΪͨɵģDzϵۣϵ۲Ҫúֹ򣬻ʾԡͨɵȴҪͨŽеۣӶٽͨԻ[cccii][302]ͨ԰ʵĹעҲԴŽеĿ̡[ccciii][303]״һҪṩ˾򣬸̸ʲôɵıݡֻȨ˾ʽȡйذʵȡ֤ʽһ̫֡ƽıֶΡ[ccciv][304]ˣŵʽȥԶԱDzʶϵ˵İˣǡǡھӣͥǵĸʵС˳塢͵ķչŲŴ֪ʶĿ֤ˣչΪʽʽ֤ͥеʵоִġš[cccv][305]Ϊͨĺģšķչʷչһͬʱ¶϶ͨγɹ̡ͨķչУͲܹͬҲνڵvos populiˣΪӢ巨ܹͨõطϰ߷ҵϰ߷ͨǿӢͨĹͬϰߡʱҲͬʱǿϰߵĺôνڡǹƶġ[cccvi][306]ҲͨٺʦΪͨΪһ֡淨leges non scriptaԭ[cccvii][307]

ȫŷĽǶ1314ͣŷ½ӢһҲͼչһԷɵġ򡱣due processΪĵġͨius communeѧ˵νͨһ棬ͼ÷ԼȨȡһǿȨı˾Եص㡣[cccviii][308]ѾָֻӢͨ巨ʵһ㣬ŷ½ȴҪ18Ժ󣬽ļһ̡ʱͨ˾⺭ѾΪҵĹԺԵĽѹŷ޸ҽ϶µҲDzʿʱΤģƲȨܽϣΪѧҵķʵңΪȡķɣǿ߼ʽԣŨıӻɫʣɥʧȡ򡣶ӢͨͷɵĸַɼȻijЩͼȴڷٵġʾ֮ۡ£Ϊ˾ȡķɣǿھʹͳܵļԡоͨѧ߷֣һȴڵķչо˵ơ[cccix][309]Τָģͨ½һشĹؼؾӢŷ½ڷְҵ뷨ɽIJ졣

2ɵijְҵ

ʷѧָʦŷִĻĹзҪá[cccx][310]һӢ˵ΪáһλʷѧԣͨʦκְҵӢӰ춼Ϊ޴[cccxi][311]

ǰָģͨķչͨԽ͵طʵֵġַչΪɱṩҷԺƶȡ״ƶȺƶȣһж˷dzҪáⷽ棬ҪķչǷְҵ

ҷͥķ٣ͺŷ½һҲҪԡԱ12ڵ14ĩһ͵ʱҷԺķչϳļ븴ӻ[cccxii][312]ʹͨͥרŵķרңι䵱١ɴrepresentationƶȵķչٽʦķչŷɳĸӻ13ĩγ˷ٴӸ߼ʦѡĹɵļлcentralization뷨ɵרŻרҵһ[cccxiii][313]ͬƶ˶ķרȺγɣһȺӢռԽԽߵĵλ

ȻӢͨʦӵãǷõķʽӢ˾ʽ֮еĹϵӢɵĸԺԣҲӢʦְҵĹϡֱ16ͣͨʦ;ְִҵһȻں̶ܴϲûȫƶȻһ棬ͨʦһֱԽ̻ʿʦľһ棬ְͨҵڲطϵİְҵʿҲҷԺرǸԺϵһľнϸ;޴ĸ߼ʦĵλȺ壬ʦ绮ΪӵIJ㼶ϵһƶȻʦ˷ְҵ൱ȶĺģΧԵԵķɴҵʿɡ[cccxiv][314]

ӷɵķչ߼ʦõȻɺӣǵ˸ַɱУΪӶͨԭĺġԼСеϵ磬Щ߼ʦ[cccxv][315]Ϊְͨҵĺģ˷dzҪáͨԺķ٣ҲҪǴЩ߼ʦв½дԱļЩ֤ͨԣڵְҵǶȷ涼άɵġԡ

ӢְҵеıԵʿֵطɴҵʿְҵԵķרңͨӢĹУͬҪáΪӢҷԺΪĵġΡ12;ͿʼԷչֱ17̸ʱӢķȻһֵ͵ġֲ뷨ȣӢĴطʦȨֱ¡ɶӢ͸ǡǡͨЩְҵȼдڽϵ͵λʦͨṩѯݺͬճ񣬽ͨӢεճʮλ߼ʦ뷨ٵĹչӶγһ½Ķķƶȡ

ĽǶȿְַҵȨĹ𽥷չġΪٺʦйȨҪɵȨάȨάַɵȶԣһУٺʦγļԡּԣǷְҵԵڻ ǴνͨǡIJ֡ǰѾᵽģƿָͨʦӢˣǿͨǡġӹһֱͳӢʦֹԿǿƶ͹ľͻαʷġͨǡص㣬һӢ˼Ļ[cccxvi][316]ijϣѾָģͨûߡ[cccxvii][317]ͨΪ˾ԣŷʵ֮IJˣͨٺʦУdzģûߡ[cccxviii][318]ĽǶȿǶԡŵķ񶨣ǽͨʷ׷ݵͳ֮ǰӢŬǵ񻰻ʶ̬ı죬˵ͨļȥϵ֣һʷļΪνġͨǡУʷΪʷ֤ʹõģҲ˵ʷѧұµʷһ֡ͥʷforensic history֡ͥʷͨʦܹνȻԡͳȨͬʱ˷ԣʹͥǶţԺоķģΪͨġԴԽǿԷֵκζķΧˣͨ䡱Խʱġʷ˵񻰡ǡǡǺͨġԡġһԭ[cccxix][319]ͨνʷеķʷ÷[cccxx][320]ʵ˶ʷʹܹͨԽȨġʱ䡱ͳԽɫʵķɡ̸ڼ䣬һλͨԣ棬ͨ桱[cccxxi][321]ӶʹܹͨαУȶԺͿԣʱۼƵĸϰʵͨķչ[cccxxii][322]

ǰ̸Ŀ¿ղķ˹һĶԻУǾͿԿͨ֡ͥʷְͨҵĻʹٺʦչȨĹߣҡһ䣬ΪԼȨơͨġͥʷνɵķѧ[cccxxiii][323]ӢִʷеҪ塣

3 3 ͨΪεġͨɽ롰Ӣɡ

ͨӢ˵ںܳһʱڣʦְҵ൱ߵӢ˹㷺Ӱ졣ȻΪְҵܹʹһлø߼ְΪձǣɽΪһַdzҪĻ˽ȨҳΪӢ˼Ĺԡ

ͨķɽ½ķɽ֮IJ죬ַƶ֮ķ˵вɺӵáһʵΪʷѧҺͷѧ֪ΤرǿӢɹĽʽǿյͨԵҪԡ˵ŷ½Ҫѧ淨ѧְҵʿ淨ѧͳӰ죬رע߼ϵʽԡ ɽֲͬķԣǿ߼Եǿյ˾ԣҪӰ죬ҶӢŷ½ĻIJҲ˲ɵ͹Ӱ졣ߣܵٵע⣬ǵо˵ȴиΪҪ塣 ڶʱĽ룬dzҪѧϰ͢ǡѵ⣬ʿ׼ӵͬҪӴ뷨ɡ[cccxxiv][324]1415γɵʦᣨinns of courtУЩӵܷܲɽͨͬδλϵʷѧ߹ƣӢ֮һʿμӹʦѧϰ׶صĴʦУѧպרŴ·ְҵҪϣ˻һЩɷ֪ʶ֮⣬ǵȷ֪ʶӶӦδˣЩʦĽӢԼĻ˼뷽˵18ǰӰܲţ뽣ţܸԱΪӢġѧ[cccxxv][325]ҲǴַɽĽǶDz˵ͨķչӢԸ[cccxxvi][326]

пάָ˼ԴҪ׷ݵġѧΡΪӢͬδճУⷴʹγ롰ͳεĸӵĴͳϰߡӳձԭ̽ƻġѧΡ[cccxxvii][327]ǴӢ˼ƶȵĹؼڣԼͨеҪá

編ְҵӢŷ½ͬҪһȴԲͬʽһɽŷ½ҲͬҪһ֪ʶײҲͬܵ淨ɽĹ㷺Ӱ졣ŷ½ķɽҪǴѧΪĵĽӢͨķɽֽͬҪһʵյĽ˵ŷޣҲӢĴѧţͽţѧķѧߵĿѧĻôӢʦᣬǴΪ˾ԺĵļԡʦУѧϰķѧγ̣ľо״ɷȸӵijϡǰͨļʱָģЩӼΧƾʵȨķʽͷԭġˣӢķɽǴѧгȨ߼ѧһ־Ȩʵ޴ѧԣʦѧ˵ͨͨķɽʵȨļʹͨԳΪӢġͨӢ˵βǷɵһ̸֧εҪʽ17͵һλԣͨɣһʿĹʡ[cccxxviii][328]ӢʽġΡ[cccxxix][329]пάӢص㣬ճεĸԺϸڵIJӣһԵĻڱ߶Բ˹ͨм䶼Կ֡ǡ̲֮졣[cccxxx][330]

16ͻþ޴չͨĩʱӢıʼܵսпάǰҲͬʱӢʵĽṹǴͳġҵġĽṹ廨ţìܣȼɭϣλһɲ䣬ƽȡ[cccxxxi][331]ߵУֻҵķɣһĿı[cccxxxii][332]

ٸĸֲͨͬѡ[cccxxxiii][333]25ɹϣáԵһᴩֲͬķ񡱣跨һԣӶܹеIJȷԣǵǰҹԵҪս[cccxxxiv][334]¿ͬΪͨҪϵͳõʽķɹϵͨڷµİƣִķɱΪͨĽһչṩһԻĻڿ¿˿һͨʦֻͨڽİУͨļԣϣͼһ㹫еķԻӷɵһԡ յһȷز˿¿˵ĹӢͨCommon-LawsɶԣҾܱɣ࣬ȱҪѸʱϰЩо޴ĺôΪرӢķֹܹٵ⣬ʹɸȷԣЩύо˵ҲáһԵķɣGeneral Lawsȷʵdzȫ棬գΪķַضķùʱȴûʲôãƫ˽͸ָ÷ɵĿ˹أַѧҵĹûʲôʹ˴ĸЩȫһ£ʱЩĹУÿ˶ƵԼĸĿӦĽۣЩ۱˴ȴìܡˣӢǻۺҸһֱͲһԵĶ龳Ǻϵķɣֹ벻ȷԡ[cccxxxv][335]

4 4 ̡ʥ֪ͨ

ȫŷ޵ĽǶͨ16ĩԵսڽ̸ĸԺԵġ17͵ΣһԤס[cccxxxvi][336]ͼͬʱ׷νԡԡɵʱУ̡ͨʥֲ֮ͬļͻսȺƫ֮ҡڡʥ֮ļִԶԶ˵ڽ⣬漰ԻԻ֮ĸӾֱӹϵ۵Τ롰Ӣĺ⣬Ҳṩһ󷵻Τ˼ľ·

16ڣ͢Ȩ̻֮ĶΪ½ѧ˵ӢĴṩ˻ᣬӶʹڽ̸ĸ˶ܹӢӮ˹ٷ֧֣пɯŮͳκڣ½ѾȡνѹԵʤΪӢġ̡[cccxxxvii][337]ɯʱġڽ̺ͽ⡱ʵһЭIJ½̵ѧ˵̵Ľְƶȵһм·ߡһλѧָģɯʱӢǶصģŬڵһҵĽڴռ䣬ɱءͼ[cccxxxviii][338]½ڽ̸ĸΪpreciseĽ̻̻ᣬӢĹԵ̬Ⱥѧ˵ʵͻַм·ߣVia Mediaڽ̡ͽ⡱ʹͽд⣨adiaphora, indifferent thingsԶΪĿռ䡣[cccxxxix][339]

16ĩһλ֮󣬺ƽġڽ̣Σɡͬʱġּ̡͢·ߵDZвʵѹʥڽѧ˵ʵЩ·֮ļҳͻֱӴռֵ뷨֮ijͻִĽڽң֪뷨֮ĸӹϵ ܼӶѧ˵ӰӢͽΪе뷨򲻽Ҳͽͻһûǿ򣬶dzһ֪־ܲɷֵ[cccxl][340]ˣͽеļӿĽ̻Ҫȫӡϵ֮ԡζҪһ׻ڡѡ񡱵ԸӵĹʶ򡣶֡ġġڸ־ķӣǽһµĹͬĻ˼ҵĻ˵̻ӦóΪ֪ˡthe depository of the conscience[cccxli][341]ˣϵ۵봫ͳʥɯŮĹͬµIJڵǿƣÿ˷ĵķӡΧ֪ǰǡDZΪԼķɣDZûԼ£־ɵزϵ־ķӡ ÿ˶ԳΪԼߣ˶ϵۡ [cccxlii][342]ʶһ⣬ʥеġϵ֮ԡǵķɣĻȫһ˵֪

ڼӶڽ̸ĸµġֲ֪ͬķչ̷ĸ廯̺һ[cccxliii][343]ͽʥʱֱ֪۵ֳˡһ棬½ǿԸѧ˵ܻƶ̷룬ʹ̻ṹֲͬ򣬹Ҽʩǿ򣬶̻ȫκξǿɫʵ⣬ֻͽ򡣵һ棬̵УӢ߻genevatingΣգΪͽIJһֶԪȡᣬһϵ׵ᡣУɲڴˣȫܵϵۡ[cccxliv][344]µĻԭʽŶ壬һлĹͬ塣˵ƣinner integrityѡԸɵĹʶͬϵһ𡣶ֻгΪһµĹͬijԱпܻþꡣˣ½̵ġ֪Ӹ廯IJữÿͽӵеķɣΪʶͬķɣͽͬλͲһµΣգһ廯֪ͼУҷϵ۵ʩ̾Ա㡰֪ܶת[cccxlv][345]ˣͽеġͽɡҪأǼɣ½̻̽Ŀľּɡ[cccxlvi][346]

塱ʷѧΪִͽɹִ׻ɹкܴĺ⺭Ϊϵ۵־ͨѽϵ͵Ȩ˶ԸȨ[cccxlvii][347]Τͽһֶϵ־ķӣDZڵġΣգͬпһظ֪˵ɹǡǡֶ֪ĸ廯Ϊνִṩ˱زٵǰᡣһλͼ塱ƫĹ۵ʷѧҵĻ˵ȳϵͽͨԭʼȳóijַdzͻɵĽۡ[cccxlviii][348]

ڽԵִ̣֮󣬾һֱӢġжΪӢ̣ĵ¾ļչһ֪׹رνımental reservationѧ˵һһѧ˵ΪͽرǴʿӢĸڽʱá˵䣬䡱mixed speechķʽԺĴǣʵ࣬ԼݡӶĵ롰ֿǰϵۣӦȨ[cccxlix][349]̵ľѵУ˵֪һ꾡õļգ˵Ĺγķ롣˵ڵĹĿ֪֮䣬ŲԽĺ蹵׵ķɣĵ֪ͬӵȵĵλ ʥ˵ͼ̵ļͳƺӱܵ¹淶ͷɹľ֮ҵһԣȱ֪ڻ˽˻ͬʱҲ֪ƶȻڻ[cccl][350]Ϊʥѧ˵ѧ˵رǴСɫʡѧ˵ˡdzģ˾ԲƶȻԣϣͬԸɵĹʶÿеķɣķɣ͸ܳز״ػָɵԣΪĹͬ˶һǼDzܵģҶھ˵һȻDZ˴磬ͳһÿ˶ܽĹʶ͸зɻ򡱡[cccli][351]ӢҪ˼ңʥ̺ˣRichard HookerҲΪ֪ȫڸ˵Ϊ볬йأ޹ء[ccclii][352]ʥ׷ɣӦӹɵʱȴ˽Եķɡ[cccliii][353]ΪʥĹУ̻漰һǿɼڵģһDzɼǾġִеֻǿɼڵļɡ̻еĸǹɣֻϵ۲Ȩ˵֪[cccliv][354]

ˣʥ֮۵Ĺؼڣ꾿һ˵ģ˰⣬һּģ񣿶𰸵ĺľ֪֪뷨ɵĹϵһķʽִٵļֵԪ⡣

֪ѧһҪرڶͨķչкܴӰİǵ˼ռ൱Ҫλá͵ѧ֪һͨѡضΪжйصΪǿܷģ벻ܷģȻֱϵһġġsynderesis[ccclv][355]ⷽ棬ʥѧ˵ͨ۴ͳ֮ڸӵĹ

15֪ͣĹ͹ӢһЩۼҵҪʥնSt. Germanͨʥѧ֮ĶԻоָ֪һֽһԵĹתΪض龳¿ѭרŵΪǡһӦ֪ʶķʽˣʱͨҪ֪ۡ[ccclvi][356]ˣͨķѧ˵У֪ij۵ĵ»򲻵£right/wrongʥնŴָģ֪ԷΪ[ccclvii][357]

ֵעǣ֪1617ʢеľеġ֪΢һԡ֪DZĹ֪رǿ֪һ֡ȻԵ֪ʶ[ccclviii][358]֪ǡġûȷԵıϣҪͨԸָӵ֪cases of conscienceķãصļ[ccclix][359]ˣijϽͨ˾ԣòչж֪йصļ[ccclx][360]ͨʹƵļȴһ̬̾ġ֪ԵĽ㣬˵Ϊֹԣ¿˷Үֻʿ˼ΤRobert Southwellʱ̵ġıѧ˵ΪԼ绤ʱ¿˶Ȼԣѧ˵ͻȡе壬Ϊˣֻܸݡ˵ġжԴоǸεͼ[ccclxi][361]

ͨ͵֪ʥһЩѧ߱£ͬӦڱΪǹңҲйľרҡɣɭRobert Sanderson£֪綨Ϊһʵǻ۷ϰߣܹʹ˵ǽһ̣ӵеĹӦõĵΪϡɣɭĶֵ֮ע⣬ڣǿ֪һϰߣΣ֪Ϊ֪ʶӡcon-scienceǽйɷģձ֪ʶ루йʵʷʵģ֪ʶϵһˣɣɭ֪Χһʵ֪ʶγɵϰߣһһԹ̵֪ͬҲͼͽ֪ͬ岻ͬɣɭҪж򣬼ƾģcommandedǷģunlawful޹ƶоģindifferent[ccclxii][362]ͽֻжйأˣκ׷ִķǷΪ,ϵûиκηǷ֮µɡ[ccclxiii][363]

ʵϣ֪ĹͨںģرͨйءreasonĹͨУνÿ¿˾ʿĻ˵ζźϺƽõ֪equity and good conscience[ccclxiv][364]һֱͨĺģͨķٿɾҪ ֹΥ֪ķʽ桱ҲͨǿʶĻ⺭[ccclxv][365]

ˣͨԵĽǸ˵ΪЩпð֪ΪΪġġϵۺ͸ԼҲ˵ͨ˾ԣǽ̻ʽġֶΣȴעʵϰߵܣǰ淢ֵͨӽǵĻ߼һµġ[ccclxvi][366]ͨеĺƽŮ񣬾ͬƣĵȴܿÿ˵Ϊֹ[ccclxvii][367]ԣͨķͥϴġ֪ʹںƽԺУҲͽϵ֪һ֡Ļεġ֪һλͨķ˵ģְ֪ͥҵԣprofessionalģԣconfessional[ccclxviii][368]ͨʦԺƽԺǰ󷨹ٷͥthe Court of Chancery֮ԳɣΪһͥԳǡ֪ķͥͼֱӴÿ˵ģͨʦУղķͥ

ͨϰġ֪ͨġΡ¹ιһҪ֮ӷιϵιйҵĽɫܵ¹ƶĵڶڽ̸ĸ˶СӰ졣¹ʷѧлָ16ĩ17ͳͨڽΡ̻֮佨ܵϵӶٽִҵĽüɽпƵ廯֮Ľܽϣŷʵ˹ǰδеһ廯롰ΰһʹҼȳ䵱ճ΢ػֵÿ֪ߣpastorӶƶ˾ҵ𡣷ιͼѹΪճ֪ľ󣬵϶ƶɵȻں̶ܴϼ̳ҵɫʡ[ccclxix][369]ĹУһλֺ̽ڸġҡѧ˵ĵ¹ѧָģڹҨDDΪչĹҨDDԼǷ˵ԼĿ͹ݣ䰲źǣٶΪԵģdzΪʵԣˣƫ֪Ȩ[ccclxx][370]˵֪ʵǡġҵΪһ壬ҳΪĵĿߡ

16ĩ17ͳӢͨͬΣͨӦһΣķʽȴûвȡĵġ廯廯ķʽ򣬶ѭ˷⽨еһЩ򻯡Ŀ̬Աķʽ֪ճԻֽ¶ϵ߼˵ԻĹϵʥͨȡ޵ġڵ֪ʹһֽɵͽ׷ԼľԻģЭļֵʷʵôáӢ֮ҲʾԻѭIJͬĵ·

18ߵ͡ȡ17֪͡[ccclxxi][371]ͨԣ;һ˥ܵΣա˹ʱһµġȷΡ֮硣[ccclxxii][372]Ļ̬ϵľ壬ʹӢͨҲһܲɣʵǿѹ˾Ե߼ܵԺȨƺڱΣӢĹ伣ֻŤķʽؿıСҲλڼӵСͨǡļ̳ȨʵҲһ˽ӡĻԸ񵳵Ʊ֮ʿԣЩߡΪäǻۣѾڵ˵ףںȻһıըзһйϵĹ淶һºķ[ccclxxiii][373]ǿȨʵļԣΪʶ̬ΡķһַĻЩԵĽζҲġšеġ˭֪ڿ¿Թİ͸ġɹ֮䣬δĶעѺһأ

塢صΤԻԻķɹ

1

ڱĵĵһ֣ǾѾָΤйԻԻĸӷУԵְǶ֮ŵĺĻڡΤΪִ׷ѾһĸԡΤ뵱ʱ¹ʢеġĻ롰Գݡ֮ľ޴ҰΤУ鱤ʱѾȥˣִ˵ĸԣҪճְȥѰҡ

ΤΪ˵ĸԲȴȻҪŬڡԻ͡廯ͽ޿صһ˿ΤĿеġ[ccclxxiv][374]ΪΤУζ˵ϣǵռֵ˵һ˾СԡζҪijֵּȫ֯[ccclxxv][375]仰˵ֻԻʹһ˻áԡΤҲɵ⺭ڡִԵ˵ΤһҪڣʾڷѧϣɵԻƶԻķչԻijչУֻɵԻܹħԻ

һǽΤʱзֵġ½⡱뷨ɵ֧ѧǾͻ֣ᷢԻɻԻ֮ϵɥʧˣڿƲƵлһԻڡܵļѹ£άһ΢ɿռ䣬ʹܹ̽ǵĸԣǵϡָģΤ۵ġӢʵΤ۵һ

½⿴һѧ˵֧ѧ[ccclxxvi][376]ǾͻᷢһִʷչеһЩ̸ԴǶȿΤڡ½ʱ徫зֵģʵϾ½̵ġ֪еĸ廯򣬼̷򡣴Ƕȿ½ͽľûһ¶ľҵûǹֱӶ󣬶ͨеġджһ֮Լ֤Τ½̽ɵо[ccclxxvii][377]ʵǷ˽ⷽҪ壬һʽġ򡱣롰򡱵ʽ[ccclxxviii][378]֡еԤɡexperimental predestinariansͼȫԻǵľеġ򡱣ȴϾDZڵΣաͬЩͽϣȴӼӶڵġԤۡһпɼϣgodlinessĿɼ̻ᣬϣһ״ַɫʵľɣ벻֮佨ȻĻ֡[ccclxxix][379]ˣ壬ϣ󾭼еȨṹЭijͻ[ccclxxx][380]

һ廯ġ֪λҲ˵Τ½쵽Σվٴħζġ廯ʱijͬ塱ʼ廯Ŀ䵱֪ˡлֶΣǷɣͨʵ壬ɣϣ조ˡnew man廯廯Ľϣʹ̻ᡢң壬ḣĹˣǸƵļ໤ˡˣΪʱ徫½ΪеķɾͿƲ㾫½ò룬ԡ

ΤûʶΣգǡǡһ㣬ǿ˷ȨʽԻԸ֡ʵʻŬɡΤ¡ɵʽԻ˷ѧһе߼ʱͨԻ֮Ĺϵ⡣ֶȱݵķɹϵ׷󣬾ߵġȫһȻѲ˱ӻ͡ңɡ֡ȫġԶͨעֻһɵߣԷɵǿ⣬ֻǻڷɵſڣö롣Ѿָģǵ¹ι󼲡 ԻԻ֮һ֣Τѡֻʣƽ״̬ûиԺɵġΣɡ߻лΣĿ˹ʹڶԱΣΣѡʲôΪͨ˵ǶֻĸԸؽǵɻռ䣬еĻͨԱ˵ɳջƻֻаĻȥ㽣ߵƽʱĻȥ廳Իʵȴɲˣ޷ת

2 2 ܶԻ

Τǰָͬ԰աȫͬռͼĿȡԻ[ccclxxxi][381]λоߵijע[ccclxxxii][382]ͬԻк壬֮Ƿij̵ĹΤûнһ⣬оͬҲûи𰸡

ʵϣԻĶԪԺͱ˴˵ԻҪص㣬ԻչĸơԻġ⡱ʵͨѭͬԡ߼Ի֮Ŀ⣬γһϵƶԻķչ̡Բijһ־Իڴ־ģԻķչơҲ˵һ֡ܶԻ ֲ̬ͬԻܹɸֲͬչ߼Ի֮Ŀ⣬˾ձʷġԻչƣʹʷ𽥱ȫ򻯵ʷ[ccclxxxiii][383]

ӱϿΤеġӢ⡱ƺӢһ˵ͨҡھá뷨֮Ի̶ϵIJЭ⡣ΪʲôӢнϵԻ̶ȵķɲû谭ٽ˾ԻķչʱķչϣԻƽȶƶУѧ߼ӢķѰ뾭úεԻǺϵIJ֣֤ʵ֮߼һµģì֮ЩǡǡԯޣԻĶȴӶΤġ׺۽Ϊһ֡ʶ̬[ccclxxxiv][384]򡰹šۡ

ʵϣΤϵĺԥǸмֵӢɵԻȷʵû뾭ԻĿƲԻѭȫͬԻģʽ[ccclxxxv][385]˵ڵ¹ʷУΰͼͳһġ쾭á뷨ɣιͼ뷨ɵԻڡԡһԪ߼ϡôӢͨγжֶϵһ𣬵13͵16ͣȨġ͡طͨԣ16ĩνͨԻУͨߵȻԳ׷ֵ16ʮУͨűȺߵʱ̸ӽͳһԵĿܣͨĸĸ﷽ҲͨͲǽӣǼѹȻԣΪͨ˾Ե춨ۻ磬ۻ˹Կ¿˵ʱԣһҽѧԣʺΣһѧмҲʺҽѧڹУ˹ձѧҵԣ¿˵ķɵġԡһ鹹Ϊձõ֪ʶֻһЩĶܹκڲ[ccclxxxvi][386]۴ӽǣǴӽǿͨչʷͨأձĶƣͨԷdzҪɲ֡ҲͨΪһֲָԵģ¶ϵص㡣ԻͻصܶԻĶƣǶԪģȶģһġҲijϽΧͨʽӵķʽԻеձʷ⺭ܹɸָӡ໥ͻƶԻķչ[ccclxxxvii][387]

ͨ˾ԣγɵԣԹΪ׵ĿƲԣչӢԻͨڸӵеγʷʹͨΪóɶԪԵķƶȣû󡰷ιߵġȫһΪѧеij߶ȡͨͺڰĹȡʵӳ̺ͨԻֵ֮ĸӹϵһֱϵĿԡ˵ɾԣindeterminacyִᷨɵĵĻ[ccclxxxviii][388]ͨԪֵĸԡԺ໥ͻؼ䴦ЩļԣͨΪνӢʽɵĻͱϵԭ򡣳˹ԣۣǿȨȴʶûۡ[ccclxxxix][389]

ˣӢʷǡǡ֤ܶԻԱ˴֮Իơڡ۳ᡱѾ֮ͬϵͳ֮ġ׺ԴӶƶԻķչ̡

3ԻΪ

ͬԻ֮ƶԻķչ̽֡ӢѧߺӵһΪΤۺĵԻ⡣ǡǡԻɲͬϵͳԻġ׺Ĺڡ˵½ṩԻij鶯ôڡͨǡ֧µijԵķƶΪһǰʹԻܹͨ򻯵ġ໥ɫʵĹ졢ѡƶȻʵˡֵԪµĸԻĶɱṹ

һħ硱УԻһԪԵģעDZ˴໥ͻġˣͨԻʵֵԻ֮ϵҪȡ½⡱ӵöࡣĹؼԻġ֮У뷨ɵԻΪֳͻṩıϣṩ㹻Ŀռ䣬ͬʱĽУûĨɷȡԻijͻԻijͻΪԻķչṩ

ǶͨеӽǷҪʾͨ˾ⷽۼֵΪͨ˾Եصͨͨ˵ԻͻȨʵ⡣ңͨͨ˵ԻͻѰʵΪ򣩵Ի

ͨ˾ԵԻжߵԻ½еһԪԻ൱ͬĸòͨ˾ԣܹ֮ԱԻͻӦΪְͨҵԻͨijֲġְҪءϵܹ֮ڡ֮УԼԻļֵ̽ʵԼȨļ˸ǰڷܹԻʽһְġмɵļ顱[cccxc][390]άַɵġһԡͨɵijɵļĿռ䡣ˣ١ʦЩְҵʿϵ˲ͬʽԻΪͨijṩڵĶʹͨijûΪ߻ʽ仰˵ԱʵȨļԷɵijΪǰᣬͬʱֳʵͷḻ˺ߣԱּʵֵԻܹ֮һ־Ի˸񣨵ȻһȻˣܹչһ־гȡļֵԵԻڷɵһǷְҵʿΧƷɡְĿԵԻһ̵ְֽҵ[cccxci][391]һִԻԻĹϵ˵зdzҪ塣ʵ֤嶼δ⣬ڼֵԺĿֲͬȡԻ֮Ÿӵ໥ԼĹϵֹϵǡħ硱ԻɵĶɱṹĹؼڡεķ˸񻯣ij󻯣ǡǡҪһ⡢Ҳǿ˸֧šձԻ֮ġ׺ΤԵĸֿܵ塢һԪԵ壨εģǷεģεģμȨͷ˹һδڼֵۡձΣɵְҵʿĽְ֮ĸӹϵִ˵ĸԣ֮ҡڣڷ֮ͬʱҵ˫ؿ飬ԻɵĶɱӺĻ쵽е顱 ճһΪһͽյƽӢִʷһӰɡΡڽѧ[cccxcii][392]Ķ븴٣ڽ̵Ľ֮λΤ½ĴDDͿ˹أRichard Baxterĺѣȴʼͼͬʱڽķְҵ

һ棬մûͼķɻڽЩģĸֱַӱ˿¿Խͨ˼봫ͳΪһʦٺͷѧңȷִ˾ʱСĽؽԼļһߣҼҶò[cccxciii][393]

յְҵIJĺޡ顱෴ǽּƣŽʵȻ涼µΪתΪʽڽ̵Ϊ[cccxciv][394]һĻͽҪܵٵְĹͽӦˣӿء[cccxcv][395]ϵ۵ȫܣܹƷɵķʽһ˵жѡԡķʽȷ˵ľꡣյԣȴǿնձ֪ʶܹԵġԡϵ뼤飬֡ԡС ʦͷٵġмɵļ顱ʹܹͨͨ໥ͻԻԻijͻƶͨԻķչ˵ְҵʿԣĽʦ[cccxcvi][396]ôͨʦһһܣʵȴǫѷʦвûлõͼְֽЩͼֽͨ˵ļ飬ܹĿռ䣬ñ˴˳ͻɵְܹҵá첢ռ䡣ˣǷְҵʹͨԱ˴˳ͻԹһʵԹʶռ䣬ڻ˹Ȼ״̬ά̹֮ԾǨ[cccxcvii][397]ӶʹЩԪֵԻΪܡϽͨԣϵģǵϵģ⺭ģDZӻ⺭ġ

Ҳ˲ӢӡͨԵһӷɹĽǶȿ㷨Ժһаֻ߷ԺŻᴦѰԭҲһ㣩һɡѰҪľʱӦķ֪ʶЩϵȻǾȷģҲֻ˲ֱԵķɣɵĿռ䡣ϽͨɵġͨˡԻͻƺֻЩʿ׼ģŨľӢɫʡ[cccxcviii][398]ɴ˾ͼ򵥵Ϊ֧֮ͨµĴ½߾ӢԣҲʡͨǽ˽ijȨ־ѧʽԵ˵һĿʽķɻˣһɸŬ붷˾Ͻͨڻ[cccxcix][399]

Τ˼ΪԼһձԵһΤ͵ġ׼Ʒ¡׼еġʡɵԻҮָĿǺƽʵֺƽֶǶϵһзǶġ[cd][400]ڷιȱݡȫУƺûиĶ¶ٿռ䡣[cdi][401]ͽġ֪Ĺͬһͼáϵ֮ΪһƽȻͬҲܽԻÿ˵෴ȴȡɵĿԡϾֻϵ۲ǡƽߡеκ˶ϵۡΤΪߵļֵչֵжĹзչġ[cdii][402]Τԣϣͳŵģ˼뻹жУȷ˵԰Ҳɸİ֮[cdiii][403]˵ҪǣֵŽµһĶڽӽĽߵıԵϣԼĸԡԣɵػȻֻÿԼػ ͷɶԣ˾ÿһĹɿԼٹ̵ضĿġˣɲϵͨ[cdiv][404]ҲֻĹ񣬲ķκĹҡ

βߡĹȣɵɵļ

ͨҵĵչͨҲʵ18ִḴԵڴѹҪҽиάνȻ򡱻򡱣Ҳʽ֣ʽʽ˾ԡ˾֮໥͸νϵͳԵա⣬һʵ⣬ԸӵᣬΪɶǷȻ壬Ƿ˵ҪȫңɵʵʻԼ壬ǷΤԤԵǴһʹвū۵ˣҲĮ룬˸˵Ƿȱ˸ľ ˣִ⣬һɵ⣬һɵļ⣺ܷеһɵÿս֮ͬƺγɵġ׺ȨϵһԣЩȷʵִ᲻ɻȱɵ[cdv][405]ѧˣܹĸԵˣҪɵļܹĮսһ¶İˣһԾȵˡΤעĸԻֻзһ£ɻȱ塣

ɵļǵĹȾиΪҪļֵΤdzעβߡepigone⡣ڴڡβߡһ˵ǿԲκδۣòǶõɡɥʧȡɵḶ́βߡһҲپ㹻ϺĸԣҲٿɿԡ[cdvi][406]ҲǴһǿԷΤԤԵ⺭ɵƶ˸ɵļɵĹߺʽʱԻʹӡƮƮĶ˳ص

չйŷףThorstein VeblenνơЩУƶȵʽŲãͨȨ϶µƶֲƶֲһԪԵȨҾǼҳƺ͡ơɫŨġα͡ȨԲܽԪķչΪΣյǣЩԻƶȻֲȫκƶԻŬ[cdvii][407]ûκʵȨļΪԻж֧ţյԻɵķ룬ԻΪһʽġտǡֻʴӵѧһ÷˹ǵĶߣ˵ɺȨŴõļһǴһһһطƵһطԱ˻бꣻΪβߣDzң һβߵĹȡУҸµĸǿʹЩ˼жɫɫġߡˣͨ˵һЩԻļɣûκ⺭˵ɵĹֻġӡҳϵĹ»һտתĺͨ˵ѡҪôΪе˿Ҫôڻ󣬳һЩɵİ衣Իл񻯣ûκɵ⺭ʹɣҲֻƶߵġɡ ȻĹУ϶µġ족δеĹΪľ£ǡǡ෴Τָģ˸˵εԻڷļ֮ҡڡ[cdviii][408]˼ijٶĿܣʹÿ˶ǵĹڱ˰ûµ˵񣬾ǵػ

ڹϣػһĿߣε֮䡣λߣһİԣfamiliar strangenessһдչİԡصǰһĸ٣һֳԽķ򣬻һֺĵڴѧϰһİˡҪѰҵɣôɽһȶġȷ֪԰առеĶҲҪǺĽһҵÿԼˣȻڱĻУȼɻҽ

һӵԻУ󷨹ٲϣBrennan˵ģһĶһdzĶҪЩĮij򡰼ϡ[cdix][409]ЩͬҲҪÿ˼ŬҲֻЩŬܽάֺͷչ뿪̺ÿ˵ԻеɼɼʹһҲһס[cdx][410]ϾһûĻֻǽľ񡱡[cdxi][411]ǼĹУһҪζûвˣҲûɣΪÿ֮ҵػ񣬼ȲʽеĿںŻ߱־Ҳǻе飬ͳûÿԼͨ·ϡضɾһϡDzɼжDZֿDZһһظɡϣ 1906۶ĴʱΤָΪʷȱĹңҲǴͷʼ׽衰ɡĻᡣνġԡҲ淽ijͻDzߵġɡ͡׼ȡɵĶΤУձʷ塣[cdxii][412]죬һ½ԡĹңҲͬʷˣΤ˵ģʷǰΡһ־ձֵʷŬ¸ʮΤġʹԤԡջʲôĽ޷Ԥ֪ҲԵĿռ䣬ܴΤ£쵽ǰҳֽϣĵ·ͨ߼ճŬЩǵΤܴĶڽػϣΤһȾࡣ

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* ĵij壬Ⱥ쿡֣ꡢǿֹƴߺֹٿǶ˷dzѲӾл𻪷İҵһЩҪףڴ˽л⡣رлǿ֣ڷѧҵָûǵİ͹ҲоȻеһ߱˳е

[i][1] һҲ70ѧΤνȥɭ˹ӽĽǶȿνͳʶеΤ󣬻ǼеΤ˫Ĺ۵ŶȱΤĵܡJere Cohen et al., De-Parsonalizing Weber: A Critique of Parsons Interpretation of Webers Sociology; Talcott Parsons, Comment on Cohen et al; Cohen et al, Reply to Parsons, reprinted in Peter Hamilton ed. Max Weber: Critical Assessments II (London: Routledge, 1991), Vol. 2: 11140.

[ii][2] ʩ·Ҳָɭ˹ִķƵʷӽǡμGuenther Roth and Wolfgang Schluchter, Max Webers Vision of History (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979), 12, n.4.

[iii][3] ͷȽ϶ԣνͳĽ͸ؿΤִԵĸ⣬Ǻܷɭ˹¬˶Τ˼Ķⱳڡ۳ᡱһۣѧо19991ڣ127

[iv][4] ˹ΤеĹҵʱ塱롶ִ˵С룬ϺϺ꣬1989101

[v][5] ֵעǣɭ˹ڷ롶½ʱ徫ʱƪǰԡһǰӢͺѧ磬˶󽫴ĵ½ʱ徫񡷵ġۡһ޹ؽҪĴBenjamin Nelsonԣƪд1920ΤġؼμΤڽļǰԡԭΪۡ 롶½ʱ徫񡷣룬꣬1987119

[vi][6] 롰½ʱ徫񡱡½̽ʱ徫ȵоһͬɡļ壬Τ̡½ԺڽѧоҪƻѾɵййڽ̣̣ӡڽ̣ӡȽ̣оδɵĹŴ̷̫ԼûüƪĶ˹̺ڻ̵ڽ̵оμWolfgang Schluchter, Rationalism, Religion and Domination (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989), Chap.XII.

[vii][7]д1915꣬1920־Τ޶ƪİġ̡ݷ룬ӡݣ1995ڽ̵ľۡ340м䷴˼ݷΪо30237

[viii][8] Friedrich Tenbruck, The Problem of thematic unity in the works of Max Weber, in Keith Tribe ed. Reading Weber (London: Routledge, 1989), 42-84.

[ix][9] ֱۼһЩ⣬һĽΤǷֻһ⡣˹˹ԣΤһЩɢƬϡƬϻfragmentationΤ˼ķ϶һλѧ߱оֻΧһ⣬ⱾȻļ衣ܱĵķҪǴһΤ˼룬DzΪһǹᴩΤȫΨһ򡣶ҼʹڱĿһУΤйص½ķΤйִȨ漰ͬ⣬ȴѾӲͬĽǶȴһ⡣ʵȻҪڲ³Ϊθӵöࡣμ˼ࣨ˹˹Τ³Ƽ룬̨ͼ飬19929

[x][10] ҲΤ˼񡱣μDirk Ksler, Max Weber: an Introduction to His Life and Work (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1988), Chap. 7.

[xi][11] Tenbruck, The Problem of thematic unity in the works of Max Weber, 75.

[xii][12] Entzauberung뷨һЩۣӦΪde-magicificationʩ·ؾΪ׼ȷӢѧ磬 ħdisenchantmentҲΪȡǽΪձ뷨ҲѧָHennisӦΪȥػdemystificationĵĽǶȿȥػ̫׼ȷƺԡħһʽΪ롣

[xiii][13] ۡһΣм䷴˼ΣΤڳ׶Σ1915֮꣩ǰѾʹùһμSchluchter, Rationalism, Religion and Domination, 577-8 n.35.

[xiv][14] 롶ᡷеĸΤΪеġá뼰Ȩһ׫дIJ֡°ΤȫԭᡷЩıһ±༭İ桶ΤѡҲȡһֻáȨ࣬ǿ루꣬1998йظʷμSchluchter, Rationalism, Religion and Domination, Chap. XIII. ³ĵķ㣬ȻԮáᡷ֡

[xv][15] Schluchter, Rationalism, Religion and Domination, Chap. XII- XIII.

[xvi][16] Wilheim Hennis, Max Weber: Essays in Reconstruction (London: Allen & Unwin, 1988)Ȼܵ¹ѧߵӰ죬ѧҲͼɭ˹ͱϿ˹һΤȻ Τȥɭ˹ҪöࡣرμLawrence Scaff, Fleeing the Iron Cage: Culture, Politics, and Modernity in the Thought of Max Weber (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989).

[xvii][17] Hennis, Max Weber, 64.

[xviii][18] Karl Loewith, Max Weber and Karl Marx (London: George Allen and Unwin, 1982), 19-22.

[xix][19] Hennis , Max Weber , 45,38.

[xx][20] ΤڳɣضԼ˼ӰͬʱȷԼ˼·ɣص˼·һɢ½ʱ徫һĸ55157161ע12ע14һرΤһֱǿĶʱʽʱ壨ʱʱ壩ȷϣMax Weber, Political Writings (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), 89-90.

[xxi][21] Τ½ʱ徫񡷣178ΪΤܽԡʽ롰ˡھĹ񾭼ѧʷѧѧоУʹЩ뵱ʱʢеĸԵżݻνĻֿΤϰУìͷԵʵʵ塣Τ֡˵ķݡһʵϰߣȱΤһǿġʵкͿ͹ԡSachlichkeitҴν顱ţܼظԣ෴ȴ߽ԡйΤϰμΤѧΪҵѧΡ루꣬1998257Weber, Political Writings, 107ΤνĻ̬ȣMax Weber, Anticritical Last Word on The Spirit of Capitalism, American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 83, No.5 (1978),1125; μScaff, Fleeing the Iron Cage, 22ff.

[xxii][22] һں˹ġ͡бֵرԣ˹һǿΤǡ˵ķչȷʵֱΤıҵֵ֤˹ò˵ΤδȷزԼעĸ⣬ȻΤĵǡ˵ķչһ⣨˼ʷУڵ¹֪ʶôΪʲôƫҪأҺ˹ҲûиǣڲͳΤΪʲôƫҪѾĻһ׽ѧķܣ˼صġѧѧ˵⣬ں˹Щ˼Τ˼вûʲôĵλֻԡޡķʽչΤԡ˵ķչĹע⣬˹ƬǿΤƷҪԣΪΤӷѧת񾭼ѧҪ壬෴ȴ1908ǰΤתѧһ֮ԱǣЩ¶˺˹˼·ȱݡʩ·ط̺˹ַǡ̽ʽ˼·ƫ֮ǡμSchluchter, Rationalism, Religion and Domination, 413Τ˼ָģڿѧСáˡĸȻһֶԾĽ෴һػMax Weber, Critique of Stammler (New York: The Free Press, 1977) , 168.

[xxiii][23] ⵱Ȼ˹ΤƷƬǿйءڱĵĿĺƪﲻܴӵ⣬ĵԱ̬ⷽȡҿΤִ۵ҪһᡱGeschellschaftѧңǡͬ塱 GemeinschaftѧҡμR. Holton and B. Turner, Max Weber on Economy and Society (London: Routledge, 1989), 39ΤһͻرжԸ֡ɡֲиУرijЩ˳˴ͳġȼҡԽνãηġŽԭ򡱵IJ⡣μWeber, Political Writings, 100ffɱȻΪΤǾлıѧңرġˡϣʮͻѧĴԴˣߵĿȫ෴ĶԴۼһȫĿ죬ҲҪdzԲһġѧɵĹ۵μBryan Turner, The Rationalization of the Body: Reflections on Modernity and Discipline, in Sam Whimster and Scott Lash ed. Max Weber, Rationality and Modernity (London: Allen & Unwin, 1987), 236-8.

[xxiv][24] ֵܼͻĴ˵ͼصǡ塯, Max Weber, The Methodology of the Social Sciences (Glecncoe, Ill.: The Free Press, 1949), 17.

[xxv][25] Τ ڽѧļǰԡ15

[xxvi][26] Τ ڽѧļǰԡ4иĶοİ棬ͬ

[xxvii][27] Tenbruck, The Problem of thematic unity in the works of Max Weber, 56.

[xxviii][28]˫뷨Ϊڲ³˶ΤĽĿɫʣΤġۡĶ⣬ɭʷɫʵIJΤŬ㣡μTenbruck, The Problem of thematic unity in the works of Max Weber,64; Wolfang Mommsen, The Political and Social Theory of Max Weber (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1989) , chap.10; Schluchter, Rationalism, Religion and Domination,37ff; John Love, Developmentalism in Max Webers Sociology of Religion: a critique of Tenbruck, Arch. europ. sociol., 34 (1993), 339-63.

[xxix][29] ܺ˹ǿġ򡱣LebensordungenΤƺΤȴѡΪеáȨǺɡһ棬˹ᡱһڵ¹ѧо;Ҫ⺭ʱз񶨵⺭һ棬ĽҪָģΤУ֧ѧоĿչڽѧо룬ȷؿԣΪ֮ڽŹϵǶ֮ǺϣDzһ÷ЩӢо룬;ֱһΪ򡱣ܲףȴٱ֮ijڵһԡ [xxx][30] Τڡм䷴˼жԾáΡ԰֪ʶе൱̵֣̽μм䷴˼307330

[xxxi][31] ⲢζΤûо⡣ᡷн׫дIJҪֵ̽ľЩ⣨ԭʾģΪΤйûҵԻԻ֮ġ׺羭ͨʷһڿμ¼Լ̡УΤҲ෽津һ⡣ڽѧļԼᡷн׫дIJ֣ΪһIJ֣ԵΪĵģңҿҲΤִҪ־õĹס

[xxxii][32] Τ ڽѧļǰԡ15иĶ

[xxxiii][33] Hennis , Max Weber ,39.

[xxxiv][34] ڽ̵ľۡ15

[xxxv][35] м䷴˼3067

[xxxvi][36] Τڽ̵ľۡ301иĶ

[xxxvii][37] Τ ڽѧļǰԡ16иĶֵָǣӢĻĵķ룬Τʹõġϰ

[xxxviii][38] Τ ڽѧļǰԡ7

[xxxix][39] Loewith, Max Weber and Karl Marx , 63,n.45.

[xl][40] ҿΤһؼҪǡشΤеЩ䡣Ȳѧ糣ǿ޹ؽҪģǿѧġֵпҲ˹ΤԡʵĿѧij̽һΤȺƷѰĶ䣨ƫΤıΤΤͨźΤ˵ĴǣΤΪһˡЩΤ֮лֳĹ [xli][41] Ҳɼµġ˹ءԭŵ˹ͿⲿƷУĶȻʫĶȫˡдֻͨ˵ĸ飬Ȼȫˡ쬬棩¹ѧеĽ뷴¬ѧѡһ56

[xlii][42] Loewith, Max Weber and Karl Marx , 59ffƵĹ۵μHarvey Goldman, Max Weber and Thomas Mann: Calling and the Shaping of the Self (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988).

[xliii][43] LiebersohnǿΤ˹ȣ˵¹ѧֲͬ˼·˻аμHarry Liebersohn, Fate and Utopia in German Sociology: 1870-1923 (Cambridge: Cambridge, 1988)ScaffҲΪΤͼаĹFleeing the Iron Cage,30.

[xliv][44] ΤGeorg KaiserһţתMommsen, The Political and Social Theory of Max Weber , 135.

[xlv][45] £ȻʲôճҪ󡱣˹صʱ루ϺϺ磬1995251ѧΪҵ 49Τڡ½ʱ徫Ҳͬ仰196ҳע64еġճС¡present֮壬ˣŨĹŴѧζΤ£ɫʵĸԹҡһ䣬Ϊִ½ͽдգ漰˸ӵĹʷʷ⺭ִԵ˵зdzҪ壬ѾĵķΧˡ [xlvi][46] ΤѧΪҵ49иĶ

[xlvii][47] ΤΪҵ113иĶƵμѧΪҵ41

[xlviii][48] һ֡ȫ淢չĸˡ˼ڹʱᵽƵ˵硶˼˹ȫй˹룬磬197946ϣ1089

[xlix][49] Τ½ʱ徫񡷣142

[l][50] Max Weber, Political Writings, 68һЩѧѾָģ뷨׼ȷδܴΤGehuseߡ롰ա⺭ҲݡһЩΤũūơƲƺ͸ʱʹһǵѧѹ㷺ʹһ÷ûҵе뷨ǰȨұһ뷨

[li][51] 1889꣬Τ±ķӵǵšתScaff, Fleeing the Iron Cage,14.

[lii][52] Loewith, Max Weber and Karl Marx , 29; Max Weber, The Methodology of the Social Sciences, 135.

[liii][53] Mommsen, The Political and Social Theory of Max Weber, 3ff.

[liv][54] μDavid Beetham, Max Weber and the Liberal Political Tradition, in Asher Horowitz and Terry Maley ed. The Barbarism of Reason: Max Weber and the Twilight of Enlightenment (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1994), 99-112߽ΤHobhauseΪȣʵϲûȫΤ˼ҪΤʵ̬Ȳûʹġữǽij·

[lv][55] Weber, Political Writings, 156.

[lvi][56] ʩ·س֮ΪΤġڶͻơԻѧѧ Schluchter, Rationalism, Religion and Domination, 44ffɭΪΤ˼ͻƵĹؼǿ˹ı仯ʹͷķչMommsen, The Political and Social Theory of Max Weber, 121ff.

[lvii][57] һͻڡ̡ķϣԼͬ׫д м䷴˼һġ

[lviii][58] Mommsen, The Political and Social Theory of Max Weber, 10άغɭùΤһҪĻʢеĿƲ㻯ƣпάij˵ĻɡμLoewith, Max Weber and Karl Marx ,54; Mommsen , The Political and Social Theory of Max Weber, 35.

[lix][59] Τ֮󣬵¹ʷѧһоOtto HintzeGehard OestreichShillingȣSchillingνڶڽ̸ĸоǿ˼ӶḶ̌·ںִ̣ҵ֮ĹϵرǼɻҪáSchilling뾭Τзġ𽥽ʾģЩʷо⺭йءӢ˵зdzҪ塣μHerz Schilling, The Second Reformation, in Religion, Political Culture, and Early Modern Society (Leiden: E.J.Brill, 1992), 271-2.

[lx][60] Weber, Political Writings, 789; Ƶ˵μThe Methodology of the Social Sciences , 17; ѧΪҵ 39

[lxi][61] һϷԵķʽΤ1920޶ġ½ʱ徫СڵڶµĽβΤԭеġǿԴӸͬĻ۵㲢ȫͬķʹԻһλ֮һλǿ ڡԻоӦһƽʵľΪ㡱Ȼŵǣһʷĸɷ⹹ɵһ硱Τ½ʱ徫񡷣57иĶ

[lxii][62] Weber, Political Writings, 42.

[lxiii][63] μScaff, Fleeing the Iron Cage,29ffΤӷѧת񾭼ѧҪ塣

[lxiv][64] μʩ·ضһķ: Wolfgang Schluchter, Conviction and Responsibility, in Paradox of Modernity: Culture and Conduct in the Theory of Max Weber(Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1996), 48-101.ģ룬Ρ뱾־

[lxv][65] Τм䷴˼312

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[lxvii][67]Τ½ʱ徫񡷣142иĶ

[lxviii][68] 磬ڡᡷУΤ޲˹ӶΪԵĿ˹ʽijݡcharismatic glorification of Reason, Economy and Society, 1209. μMommsen , The Political and Social Theory of Max Weber, 141һ仯ۡɭǡָһ𽥴ضʷԵġ͡չΪһִġ͡μ The Political and Social Theory of Max Weber, 12132ɭйΤۡ仯۶ϣԵòô˵ƺΤеġ塱͡ʷ塱

[lxix][69] Weber, Economy and Society, 1150.

[lxx][70] Wolfgang Mommsen, The Age of Bureaucracy (Oxford: Blackwell, 1974), 111ff.

[lxxi][71] Mommsen , The Political and Social Theory of Max Weber, 24ff.

[lxxii][72] Friedrich H. Tenbruck, Max Weber and Eduard Meyer, in Wolfgang Mommsen and Jurgen Osterhammel ed. Max Weber and His Contemporaries (London: Unwin Hyman, 1987), 252.

[lxxiii][73] ִҵķչϵһġ

[lxxiv][74] Mommsen , The Political and Social Theory of Max Weber, 143.

[lxxv][75] ΤΪҵ98иĶ

[lxxvi][76] μPeter Baehr, Max Weber as a critic of Bismarck, Arch europ. Sociol. 29(1988): 149-64.

[lxxvii][77] Weber, Political Writings, Bismarcks legacy(Parliament and Government in Germany under a New Political Order), 135.

[lxxviii][78] Weber, Political Writings, 140.

[lxxix][79] Τ뾭ߡ࣬루꣬199798£ԼWeber, Political Writings, 135.

[lxxx][80] 1884118±ķӵǵУΤָ˹ĿƵնѡת˼ࣨ˹˹Τ28иĶΤΪνġѡʵǡ˵ƽȨʵ⺭ԣıɱߡתMarianne Weber, Max Weber: A Biography (New Brunswick: Transaction Books, 1988), 117-8.

[lxxxi][81] Weber, Political Writings, 80-81,220ffμPeter Baehr, Max Weber as a critic of Bismarckۡ

[lxxxii][82] ȻΤҲΪڴڶԱĹңmass stateDZزٵһ֣μWeber, Political Writings, 174.

[lxxxiii][83] Τ뾭ߡ901иĶ

[lxxxiv][84] Weber, Political Writings, 144, 145.

[lxxxv][85] Weber, Political Writings, 69.

[lxxxvi][86] Mommsen, The Political and Social Theory of Max Weber, 29.

[lxxxvii][87] Loewith, Max Weber and Karl Marx , 556.

[lxxxviii][88] Τ뾭ߡ91¡

[lxxxix][89] Mommsen, The Age of Bureaucracy, chap.5.

[xc][90] Τм䷴˼32135Ĵ϶࣬⡣

[xci][91] Weber, Political Writings,71.

[xcii][92] ԿڶԱۣμΤԡձ鹫ȨۣWeber, Political Writings, 80ff, 220ff

[xciii][93] Τڽ̵ľۡ18ΪȷǷDZ [xciv][94] Talcott Parsons, Sociological Theory and Modern Society (New York: Free Press, 1967), 92.

[xcv][95] μReinhard Bendix, Max Weber: an Intellectual Portrait (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977),ֵš

[xcvi][96] Anthony Kronman, Max Weber (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1983), 1.

[xcvii][97] Weber, Economy and Society, 652ff.

[xcviii][98] ֮ǿһ㣬ΪΤѧ֣̽Ҫע⼯ڷԻ뾭Ի˵ʱ֮ĹϵϣΪΤķѧ˼Ҫ漰˽ص⣬ԼɡƺֱӺΤѧ֧ѧ֮Ľܹı䣬μStephen Feldman, "An interpretation of Max Weber's Theory of law" , in Law and Social Inquiry, Vol.16,No.2, (1991): 105-48; Toby E. Huff, "On Weber, Law, and Universalism" , Comparative Civilizations Review 1989, 21, fall,47-79.

[xcix][99] Τ½ʱ徫񡷣56иĶ

[c][100] Weber, Economy and Society, 651.

[ci][101] Weber, Economy and Society, 681.

[cii][102] Weber, Economy and Society, 649ff, 691ff.

[ciii][103] Weber, Economy and Society, 654ff潫ҪģΤԱᵽġӢͨһҪ

[civ][104] Weber, Economy and Society, 784ff.

[cv][105] Weber, Economy and Society, 656Լ809ۡʽԻ롰ʵԻ

[cvi][106] Χ״ƶγɵĸʽķƣlegal fictionμWeber, Economy and Society, 656ff.

[cvii][107] Weber, Economy and Society, 762.

[cviii][108] Ȼ˹ꡱ⺭Ҫᵽġͳϵġ˹ꡱΤ𽥷չġ˹ꡱ⺭ͬ

[cix][109] Weber, Economy and Society, 689һ⣬ΤҲ൱ָͬΪִʱ巨ƶҪһЩԴͣWeber, Political Writings, 149.n.a.

[cx][110] ˣٴΤķӢͨʵ֤ϵʽķɣҲͬԭϾнϸԵʵʷһFletcherӰ۵෴FletcherDzöЩͬġμGeorge P. Fletcher, Two Modes of Legal Thought, The Yale Law Journal, 90: 970-1003.

[cxi][111] ˾ָоʱݵIJԵġо򡱣ǶԸ𰸼ľֵУȡڷٵĹУԵֶΡΤš̫ƽʿط˾ӢܵĿܣӢС˾ۼ֡μWeber, Economy and Society,976ff, 891-2; Politcail Writings, 148ֵעǣӢp.806n.40жԡ˾Ľ綨׼ȷʹʵԷĽǶȿ˾ҲԻ̶Ƚϵ͵ķɹʽ

[cxii][112] оӢʷıʱѧCaenegemΪΤУͨףdouble faceϽײʽԵķɣճ²СͰȡ˾ʽһ۵ƺûпΤУӢʽԣǴ½ϵʽԣڵʽ壬Ի̶Ƚϵ͵ʽ壬Ӣڡʵʡϵķԣ˾ڹģ߶Ӣ˼άʽܵͨ˵ǿӰйأ½ϵġڷγĶμWeber, Economy and Society, 8902R. C. Van Caenegem, Max Weber: Historian and Sociologist, in Legal History: A European Perspective (London: Hambledon, 1991), 212.

[cxiii][113] TrubekָģϣΤͬҲɲ꣬໥ìܵ˵ܵ˵ΤĹ۵ǿӢܲ߼ʽԵķɣȴǿԼġһ۶ڽдġ̡ڱȽйӢķɽṹĶرԣμΤ̡15657David TrubekMax Weber on Law and the rise of Capitalism , Wisconsin Law Review, 1972, 721-53.

[cxiv][114] λѧ߽еıȽоָڷչУ52ĹҪôͨĴͳҪôܵһͳӰ졣бȽϳ־ĹǰӢֳءHuff, "On Weber, Law, and Universalism" , 70.

[cxv][115] ZweckrationalittӢһֱΪԡinstrumental rationality򡰺Ŀĵԡpurposive rationalityӺ忴ǰȻص⣬׼ȷĵı׸ijΪĿԡҴĵһ÷ĿꡱҲȡĿġõرΤһ롰ֵԡԵ⺭

[cxvi][116] Ann Swindler, The Concept of Rationality in the work of Max Weber, Sociological Inquiry, Vol. 43, No.1(1973):35-42.

[cxvii][117] Arnold Eisen, The Meanings and confusions of Weberian rationality, British Journal of Sociology, Vol.29, No.1(1978), 57-70.

[cxviii][118] EisenΪɡԡ6֣BrubakerΪΤµġԡ ٿԷ16⺭KronmanΤķѧ־ҵˡԡ4⺭ֱEisen, The Meanings and confusions of Weberian rationality5861Rogers Brubaker, The Limits of Rationality (London: Routledge, 1984), 2; Kronman, Max Weber, 73-5Τʶԡһص㡣ڻӦŵԡ½ʱ徫񡷵ʱرǿԵĸԣָ˵ƪ»һ֪ƼԸ֪Ƽ˵Ƽ򵥵ġԡһĸԡ ½ʱ徫񡷵1567ҳע9бҪǿǣΤʼΪԶбҪʹáԡһЩԡһͬڡ½ۼΤָһʷһɸַɵһ硱57ҳиĶڵһѾǿΤġԡԼΤۣͱʶΤһ濼ˡԡǸӶԪģ˾żȻԺͶԵʷ̵ӡһ桰ԡǡǡͨʷĸԽΪһͻġ͡ʾСձʷЧԣԡֵҲΤΪʲô˵ڽ̵ıȽʷijԣպȶԸгһͬʱΪ屾ѧѧһֹסм䷴˼303һΤ˼ĻʹĹؼѧȴһ㡣

[cxix][119] Gret Mueller, The Notion of rationality in the work of Max Weber, Arch.europ.sociol , Vol.20(1979)149.

[cxx][120] йϵμWeber, Economy and Society, 40ffӢİУֱΪcommunal͡associative뷨ֻΪ˱ԭ˹ĹΤȷָ÷˹ͬWeber, Economy and Society, 41.

[cxxi][121] ҪָǣijϽΤĿеԻǡǡڷֻвпܡͱѧߣо޴IJ죬IJһӵ⣬ҲҪһƪйءİˡˡ

[cxxii][122] Mueller, The Notion of rationality in the work of Max Weber150ff.

[cxxiii][123] ֵעǣѧע⵽ֵ֮ijͻԼֵĿ֮ijͻǰΤִĻεҪϣڵܵѧԽԽĹעھйЧ弰塱һٱἰͬĿ֮ijͻܵ˹㷺ĺӣڡ۳ᡱУҴһͬĽǶۼһ⡣ʵϣһΤһ⣬رǿƲԵصΪķʽ˽ʱ壩֮ʼմڵĽŹϵWeber, Political Writings, 90, 156ff.

[cxxiv][124] ǽԷĿ/ֵԶһ֣Brubaker, The Limits of Rationality, 36.

[cxxv][125] Weber, Economy and Society, 85-6ѧ뷨ѧеʽ/ʵ֮ĹΤйطɶԼɵıϺƵУбȽμWeber, Economy and Society, 668-81.

[cxxvi][126] Ȼ漰νϮ˾ƶȡthe patriarchal system of justiceμKronman, Max Weber, 77ff.

[cxxvii][127] Weber, Economy and Society, 816.

[cxxviii][128] Weber, Economy and Society, 828.

[cxxix][129] Τûȷᵽһ㣬Ϊڴ˴Ҫעʥ׷˽֮ĹϵWeber, Economy and Society, 828-31.

[cxxx][130] 루йٿȫ磬1993һڶ¡

[cxxxi][131] ͬ飬34ҳ

[cxxxii][132] Shilling, The Second Reformation.

[cxxxiii][133] Brian Tierney, Religion, Law and the Growth of Constitutional Thought:1150-1650 (London: Cambridge, 1982)ļ1078

[cxxxiv][134] һǿڡ̻ƶγɵĽ̻ᷨǵһϵʵ˽̻ᷨڲϵͳӦڸϰ߷ϳϰߣϰ뷨ϵУͬʱ˴ʹõķɸ༼62934ΤԽ̻ᷨʽ̶ȵһµġܲԼΤĹ۵㣬ƺҪǽڶΤ֮ϵģȷļû䵽ȷİϡ磬ͽΤײͬԷ뻮ֻ6534Treiber׫дƪģ֤Τڽѧ뷨ѧ֮ڡ׺ϧֻڷṹϵĶգûиشӺĽǶۡμHubert Treiber, " Elective Affinities' between Weber's Sociology of Religion and Sociology of Law", Theory and Society, Vol.14 (1985), 809-61.

[cxxxv][135] ѧ˹ΪΤķʵ֤ԵԸѧΪйص¹ѧ˼ķչرǸѧΤӰ죬μֶˣ¹ʷѧɣ뷨ʵۡʷͷѧĹϵ̨۴ԡ222ڣر29ҳ

[cxxxvi][136] һɣ񷨵Ľĺ룬ࡶ̷۴ԡ275

[cxxxvii][137] Weber, Economy and Society, 873.

[cxxxviii][138] Weber, Economy and Society, 867.

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[cxliii][143] ֮һϵΤй羭ͨʷĽμ¼ֵʮμάΤ羭ͨʷҦ루ϺϺij磬198028791

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[cxlv][145] μNeumann, The Rule of Law (Leamington Spa: Berg, 1986), 200ff.Ե¹ʷ

[cxlvi][146] Krieger, The German Idea of Freedom, 2535.

[cxlvii][147] Leonard Krieger, The German Idea of Freedom, 257ӱϿֹľ߿ɫʡҡιҲƺ¹ߵĹй֮ͨǿһһ㷨֧䣬ڴˣϣڷ񶨵Ĺ֮⣬һһĻң縺ְ𡣵ʹˣȻؼԵIJ졣ڿºͺ鱤ʱᣩ֮ĶԼϵԺڸġҡ֮󣬾ϴ񣬾Ϊһ廯໥໥͸ĹϵȡˡμGerald Izenberg, Impossible Individuality: Romanticism, Revolution and the Origin of Modern Selfhood, 1787-1802 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992), 5-6˴Ӻ鱤ġңˡϵĹı仯

[cxlviii][148] һ֤ιڻ˹ʱIJйʵʵȻμ˹ά̹˼͢루ӡݣ19952078 ˹ΤûиֵؿǶ֮ĹμJurgen Habermas, The Theory of Communicative Action, Vol.1 (London: Polity, 1986), 260ff.

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[cl][150] Otto Kirchheimer, The Rechtsstaat as Magic Wall, in Kurt H. Wolff and Barrington Moore.ed. The Critical spirit: Essays in honor of Herbert Marcuse(Boston: Beacon Press, 1967).288¹ѧ˼йҵҪԣڶΤӰܴҮֵһ仰ֵ÷dzԣִѧȵȻȵľ޴Ϻǿҵǿڹҡ תCharles Haines, The Revival of Natural Law Concepts (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1930), 247.

[cli][151] Weber, Economy and Society, 600.

[clii][152] Reinhart KoselleckμJonathan Sperber, State and Civil Society in Prussia: Thoughts on a New Edtion of Reinhard Kossellcks Preussen Zwishcen Reform und Revolution, Journal of Modern History, Vol.57, No.2(1985), 279ۡ

[cliii][153] Weber, , Political Writings, 801ΤоΤԡԵ˥΢һĹעGoldman, Max Weber and Thomas Mann, 15.

[cliv][154] תNeumann, The Rule of Law, 180.

[clv][155] ɷѧKarl Theodor WelckerתKrieger, The German Idea of Freedom, 255, 256.

[clvi][156] Neumann, The Rule of Law, 182.

[clvii][157] κ¹һķʡΪ֪ʶӵһ۵Ľ㣬μDavid Dyzenhaus, Legality and Legitimacy: Carl Schmidt, Hans Kelsen, and Herman Heller in Weimar (London: Clarendon, 1997)˹ΪΤʵ֤巨ɹۣʹȫϷ뷨ԵͬбҪָǣ˹ƺûעʵ֤ĹĹ֮䲢ܼ򵥵ػϵȺţȻ90Уһ۵Ѿı䡣Habermas, The Theory of Communicative Action, Vol.1 , 264-7.

[clviii][158] Otto Kirchheimer, Legality and Legitimacy, in William E. Scheuerman ed. The Rule of Law Under Siege: Selected Essays of Franz Neumann and Otto Kirchheimer (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996), 44-63; Weber, Political Writings, 165ff.

[clix][159] KriegerNeumannἰһ㡣KriegerֻǼ򵥵ἰһ⣬Ŧ֮ΪӢ·ԭĹؼҿص⣬ûѭǵ˼·ԶԱKrieger, The German Idea of Freedom, 256Neumann, The Change in the function of Law in Modern Society, in The Democratic and the Authoritarian State: Essays in Political and Legal Theory ,ed. by Herbert Marcuse (New York: The Free Press, 1957), 43ffĵIJйӢͨǡǿԷ֣תڵĻȻѧ߼ϵͬʩ˶ԴзdzٵķμReinhart Koselleck, Critique and Crisis: Enlightenment and the Pathogenesis of Modern Society(Leamington Spa: Berg, 1985).

[clx][160] ²³գѧۡ׽룬йٿȫ磬 199737ҳ¡

[clxi][161] غͿ˴ģȽϷۡ˺룬ݣ磬19922545

[clxii][162] Krieger, The German Idea of Freedom, 258.

[clxiii][163] Robert Von MohlμNeumann, The Rule of Law, 1812.

[clxiv][164] Τ˼γɲ൱ӰRudolf Von GneistתKrieger, The German Idea of Freedom, 358.

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[clxvi][166] Weber, Economy and Society, 882-95μNeumann, The Change in the function of Law in Modern Society.

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[clxviii][168] Max Weber, Critique of Stammler, 124ff; Economy and Society, 326-7.

[clxix][169] Kirchheimer, The Rechtsstaat as Magic Wall, 290.

[clxx][170] μKirchheimer, The Rechtsstaat as Magic Wall, 294.

[clxxi][171] Weber, The Methodology of the Social Sciences, 47; Political Writings, 77-8, 334.

[clxxii][172] ι19ĩ𽥳ΪѧеҪӰһ¹ѧңΤʦͬʱҪѧߣμHaines, The Revival of Natural Law Concepts, 246ffйΤķѧ۵Ӱ죬μStephen Turner and Regis Factor, Max Weber: The Lawyer as Social Thinker (London: Routledge, 1994) ֣꣬һַɵۣ˹Τ˼оѧѧϵʿģ19982335

[clxxiii][173] 1794ġ³ʿͨתԴغͿ˴ģȽϷۡ256

[clxxiv][174] 1766İ͵ҷת²³գѧۡ37ҳ

[clxxv][175] ׶١ǺͰȽϷɴͳ׽룬йѧ磬199318

[clxxvi][176] Τм䷴˼312 иĶ

[clxxvii][177] μOtto Kirchheimer, State structure and Law in the Third Reich, in Scheuerman ed. The Rule of Law Under Siege, 142ff.

[clxxviii][178] Franz Neumann, The Concept of Political Freedom, in Scheuerman ed. The Rule of Law Under Siege, 202.

[clxxix][179] Weber, Economy and Society, 890еΪ߼ӡ

[clxxx][180] ѧųáӽǡʵϣΪ֧ѧ羭ѧѧˣ԰շֻжصԡͨ˵Ҫǣӽͨ˾ԵҪص㣬μAndrew Lewis, Legal Positivism: some lessons from legal history, in Stephen Guest ed. Positivism Today (Aldershot: Dartmouth, 1996), 65-76.

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[clxxxv][185] Hart, Essays on Bentham, 4.

[clxxxvi][186] DZ߶Բ˹ͨġӢ塷˵ͬԿͨĿߣƬۡƽ룬ӡݣ1996꣩93ҳ

[clxxxvii][187] ֵעǣǺ˻˹˼Ȼѧ˵뷨ʵ֤֮DZӻ˹ϣǿԷ֣Ӣķʵ֤ѧ˵ͬ˵¹ιijЩתͨȻеһЩؼԵΪʵṩDZڵ֧šйؼԵĹɻھǻ˹ۡ˹ġԡdzΪδṤ̵ԼݵĻ߶ȡμNobert Bobbio, Thomas Hobbes and the Natural Law Tradition (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993), 44-6.

[clxxxviii][188] Hobbes, A Dialogue between a Philosopher and a student of the Common Laws of England, 5.

[clxxxix][189] Hart, Essays on Bentham, chap.1ֵעǣԿ¿֮ͨͳٳͨġԡΪȻԡ֮ΪԡΪԣ

[cxc][190] 編ʷѧָܶͨе֡ԡԷ⺭S. F. C. Milsom, The Past and the Future of Judge-made Law, in Studies in the History of the Common Law (London: the Hambledon Press, 1985)216⣬ͨʵߵġԡгϵ⺭μNorman Doe, Fundamental Authority in Late Medieval English Law(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990), 108-13ͨԡѧʷĽǶȿڿ¿˴ͨԵʱԡһ÷зdz⺭ǵʱΣɣڽ̷һ㡣йһʱġԡ롰ԡreasonablenessۣμChristopher Hill, Change and Continuity in 17th Century England (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991), 103-23ڵѧУҲһЩԷʵ֤Ȼ̫ŷѧ߳ĹرPerelmanν޴ѧһͨ˾֮еԵϵμChaim Perelman, The Rational and the Reasonable, in The New Rhetoric and the Humanistic (Dordrecht: D.Reidel Publishing Press) 117ffйءԡʷ˵μĵIJֵ

[cxci][191] μNobert Bobbio, Reason in Law, Ratio Juris, (1988) vol.1, No.2:97-108ijҪķBobbioĹ۵ͬΤĿƣȻʵͬԡһͻڻ˹СBobbioǿ˻˹˼Ȼʵ֮Ķɱʵϣֶɱڻ˹һˣ1718;ȻѧΪȻԲΪԿ־˺ij֡ʦ򡰹ʡ¹Thomasius۹ʵȻ̵һ֡ˣν˹ʱȻġ˹ʱʱĵʵȴǽȻеġԷɡʵԣϣܹԴ˽һ־Ĺҡһά̹ʱ෽ʽԶǻ˹ܹ뵽ġμDavid Saunders, Anti-Lawyers: Religion and the critics of law and State(London: Routledge, 1997), chap.4Bobbio, Thomas Hobbes and the Natural Law Tradition, 14971ThomasiusμPeter Stein, Legal Evolution: The Story of an idea (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980), 51-2෴籾ģͨġԡǡ˾ԡBobbio֮Ϊjudging reasonĴڡԷɡĴͳһҲBobbioԿ¿˵ͬμйͨȻϵۡ

[cxcii][192] PostemaɫУ߿һͨߣƺ˱߳ķɹġѧ塱ɫʣеȻԾܴͨǿġʶɫʣӷĽǶȴò롣Gerald Postema, Bentham and the Common Law Tradition (Oxford: Clareden Press, 1986), Chap. 6.

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[cxciv][194] Lon Fuller, The Principles of Social OrderDurham: Duke University Press, 1981, 121ff.

[cxcv][195] ˹ָ˹֪ͨ֡κҪΪͨΰڹɻȱġˣ˹ͨˣ߲ǡRupert Cross, Blackstone v.s. Bentham, The Law Quarterly Review (1976) 92527.

[cxcvi][196] Frederick Schauer, Is the Common law law?, California Law Review, (1989) 77:455.

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[cxcix][199] W. S. Holdsworth, Sources and Literature of English Law (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1925), 145.

[cc][200] ܸѷJames Stoner, Common Law and Liberal Theory(Lawrence: The University Press of Kansas, 1992), 13.

[cci][201] ˵⺭ָ¿ִͨͨҲָ¿˽зϵĹִ˼СμJohn Undenwood Lewis, Sir Edward Coke(1552-1633): His Theory of Artificial Reason as a Context for Modern basic Legal Theory, Law Quarterly Review 84(1968), 333.

[ccii][202] Sir Edward Coke, Institutes of the Laws of England, I97bתStoner, Common Law and Liberal Theory, 23.

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[cciv][204] Lewis, Sir Edward Coke: His Theory of Artificial Reason as a Context for Modern basic Legal Theory, 338.

[ccv][205] תAlan Cromartie, Sir Matthew Hale (Cambridge: Cambridge, 1995) 32ijϽյĹ۵㲢DZӢͨ෽Ȼ⺭н֮μDentieve ȻйءȻᷨǼ̳йͨһ˾ԴͳμLon Fuller, The Morality of Law (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1964).

[ccvi][206] ַͨԵ˼·ִѧйһ׹primary rules׹secondary rulesȫûбҪģһֱԵIJٴ֤ͨڷʵִ֤ѧԿԽġ蹵ԹһֵμM.J. DetmoldLaw as Practical Reason, Cambridge Law Journal, 44(3), Nov. 1989, 442ffҲӲͬĽǶȳƵμLon Fuller, The Morality of Law (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1964), 141ff ر˶һֵμأɵĸԵ룬йٿȫ磬1996¡齫ΪһԹ򡱺͡ڶԹ򡱡

[ccvii][207] Cromartie, Sir Matthew Hale201ȤζǣCromartie¿˵˼ֽڡɵ۹в˼ȡԿһ֮ͨԶֹCromartieǿķ档Ϊ¿˴źѽֽܵôǿġʵʡΪַɵɡԭ֧ġμֽ𣬡ɵ۹루йٿȫ磬1996رǵ9¡

[ccviii][208] Grayֹ̽յͨѧ˵ʱֲͬķɱǨģʽμCharles Gray, Editors Introduction to Sir Matthew Hale, The History of the Common Law of England (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1971), xxvi.

[ccix][209] J. A. Pocock, The Ancient Constitution and the Feudal Law: A Study in English Historical Thought in the 17th Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987), chap.2.

[ccx][210] Hale, The History of the Common Law of England, 40.

[ccxi][211] Sir Matthew Hale, " Sir Matthew Hales Criticism on Hobbess Dialogue of the Common Laws", In Sir William Holdsworth, A History of English Law (London : Methuen, 1956-1972), Vol.V, 504.

[ccxii][212] Lewis, Sir Edward Coke: His Theory of Artificial Reason as a Context for Modern basic Legal Theory, 337.

[ccxiii][213] תStoner, Common Law and Liberal Theory, 25.

[ccxiv][214] Hale, " Sir Matthew Hales Criticism on Hobbess Dialogue of the Common Laws", 504.

[ccxv][215] ߵĺôڴۣΪЧϵͳȶԵЧ޷Ტ۵ģҲ˱߷˾ֶθƷɵһҪɡμPostema, Bentham and the Common Law Tradition, chap6.

[ccxvi][216] Hale, " Sir Matthew Hales Criticism on Hobbess Dialogue of the Common Laws", 501.

[ccxvii][217] R. StoneμPostema, Bentham and the Common Law Tradition, 31HaleƵ˵" Sir Matthew Hales Criticism on Hobbess Dialogue of the Common Laws", 501.

[ccxviii][218] Peter Goodrich, Antirrhesis: Polemecal Structure of Common Law Thought, in Austin Sarat and Thomas Kearns ed. The Rhetoric of Law (Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 1994), 57-102.

[ccxix][219] ֮ʷĶ䣬¿ò˶٣Bracton˵κ֮£ϵ뷨֮¡sub Deo et sub LegeCoke, 12 Report 63תStoner, Common Law and Liberal Theory30ֵǿǣͨɫʣԡԡΪĵʵԼԷְҵķԺΪǰƶȱϣ뷨Źġ塱mixed government屳ġһ塱government by consentԹڹʷƶʷԴϣͬ⽨ɵķŹ൱ϵ ijϽӢ̸ֱ˾һ¡˾ԹԾƽеԼȻҪġϣνŴ´ͳancient constitution traditionҪ⺭μ Pocock, The Ancient Constitution and the Feudal Lawйء˾һ¡judicial consent롰һ¡popular consentĶԱۣμDoe, Fundamental Authority in Late Medieval English Law, 22ffйءһ塱롰Ŵ´ͳΪҪķμJ. P. Sommerville, Politics and Ideology in England.1603-1640 (London: Longman, 1986), chap.2-3.

[ccxx][220] Hale, " Sir Matthew Hales Criticism on Hobbess Dialogue of the Common Laws", 501.

[ccxxi][221] ѰԵģиֲͬ˵easy casesֽ𣩡plain casesأclear caseܿˣȣ֮Բáа˵ΪΤΪаᷨõطӳసо̵ʡ

[ccxxii][222] Aulis Aarnio, The Rational as Reasonable: A Treatise on Legal Justification (Dordrecht: D.Reidel Publishing Company, 1987) , 1.

[ccxxiii][223] ҲAarnioԣڷѧ˵а岢̫󣨶ԴˣҲЩɣ٣ڷɹԵѧ˵аѰͬҪAarnio, The Rational as Reasonable, 1.

[ccxxiv][224] ԣܿ˲ų֮Ϊİclear cases롰İԡNeil MacCormick, The artificial reason and judgement of law, Rechtstheorie, Beiheft 2, 112-3ܿ˵²˿¿˵˵Ϊ⣬ƺһЩؼĵط뾭ͨѧ˵е˾൱ľ룬Ũġʵɫʡ

[ccxxv][225] Detmold֮Ϊ׼sub-legislationķʽLaw as Practical Reason, 458.

[ccxxvi][226] ȻĿġʼ״original writsϳͨȷʵҪһЩڡʵǡ߼ࡱϵʵں̶ܴͨʷչйء⣬ŵҲƣμĵIJֵۡӷĽǶȿΤͨʹ½ġʽԷ֮佨ƺǡ

[ccxxvii][227] Aarnio, The Rational as Reasonable, 103-5.

[ccxxviii][228] Niklas Luhmann, A Sociological Theory of Law (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1985), 174ff.

[ccxxix][229] M.J. DetmoldThe Unity of Law and Morality: A Refutation of Legal Positivism (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1984), 175.

[ccxxx][230] һԵ𣬲μDetmold, ͬġ

[ccxxxi][231] Ray D. Perelman, Analogy and Metaphor in Science, Poetry, and Philosophy, in The New Rhetoric and the Humanistic.

[ccxxxii][232]μArthur L. Goodhart, Essays in Jurisprudence and the Common Law (Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press, 1931), chap.1.

[ccxxxiii][233] Jack Beatson, Has the Common Law a Future?, Cambridge Law Journal (1997) 56(2), 312.

[ccxxxiv][234] תRupert Cross and J. W. Harris, Precedent in English Law (Oxford: Clarenden Press, 1991), 43.

[ccxxxv][235] 𽥽ʾģ漰ġԡһ棬Ƿж߽ȶķɳڼֵɵǰʵȨĶطʽͨжԡԡӣ屳µıԡض̺ľ塱ǿȥԶֹԵ¹ιʵʻ˷dzҪӰ죬Ҳ硰ɷҪμTroeltsch, The Ideas of Natural Law and Humanity in World Politics, 210-1ܣͨάظ˹̹ѧܵ־Ӱ죬DetmoldȻȽ̵̽ͨһصҪѧ⺭رʾе˾Ե⺭ûʹ˵The Unity of Law and Morality; ر Law as practical reasonжԡաparticularity voidۡ

[ccxxxvi][236] Ȼһֿǣ˫һΪеҪʵκûнƹϵǣһ˵ʹҲԽ밸֮佨ƣԡȰԡķʽʹˣԺ塣ʵ֤ġɲȨѧ˵УȴǡѰҪʽʵΥͨͨ

[ccxxxvii][237] Summers ⼸ֿܵΡRobert Summers, Two Types of Substantive Reasons: the Core of a Theory of Common Law Justification, Cornell Law Review (1978) 63. 5: 733ff.

[ccxxxviii][238]ʵϵУѰIJζŷɵȱݣҪôǡ϶ʵҪôǡʽ걸޷ҵ÷ɣҪƶ޶ɡͨر˫ɵġʵԿDzġΪʹʵгҲֻ֤ȱ߽׵ġʽѡһǿؿѾָģΤƫʽԷʵ롰֮µġֵɡ֮ڵĽŹϵ [ccxxxix][239] Goodrich, Antirrhesis: Polemecal Structure of Common Law Thought, 59.

[ccxl][240]ֽڡԴȨеԼ˺ߣ޳ߡߣǷչֽ˼ѧߣƺûҵԭ뷨ĸֵּЩѧҪעǵ¼ֵİ취ָģȣڲֵּΣɱȷʵЩֵйġԭ򡱣Щԭ򡱾ʵЩֵļռصġ涨ԭʵǽɡ涨뷨֮ĸֵּϵijġںˡǶͲʲôġԭ򡱣߷ٲͬķԭΪֽʶģûǡԽͣٿԲijЩԭ򽫷ɹͬķǷɼֵϵ磬ȻAlexanderKressν硱(worst of all worlds)ΪûƻԭDZڵĵ⺭Ҳû𺦷ɵĹ⺭׼ȷ˵⺭ֳͬɫʺͼ⺭ķԭۣҲûΣDetmoldνԭ򡱣ҿָǡֵͬcommitmentҪ󡣹ֱμֽ𣬡ԴȨ168£Larry Alexander and Ken Kress, Against Legal Principlesin Andrei Marmor ed. Law and Interpretation (Oxford: Clarendon, 1995), 279-327Detmold, The Unity of Law and Morality, chap. 4ҿAlexanderKressҪΪֽķԭġʵʻɫʹأһҲʷʵȡķۡӱĵĽǶȿֹȵġʵȡǡǡˡʵʡֵġֵɡص㣬һȨ뷨ɽ۵ȱж֡йصֽ˼ʵԣμP. S. Atiyah and R. S. Summers, Form and Substance in Anglo-American Law (Oxford: Clarendon, 1987), 263ڡֵġɡɫʣѾԼָģΤռ˷dzҪĵλμStephen Turner and Regis Factor, Max Weber and the Dispute over Reason and Value(London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1984), 35-8.

[ccxli][241] μֽ𡶷ɵ۹149ñҪָǣð漰һƶⲢӰʵԵǿԼٶνͨȡķƶУƶùҲ㷺ͨġۡ˵һķԭ򡣲μP. S. Atiyah, Common law and Statute, The Modern Law Review (1985), Vol.48, No.1, 3.

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[ccxliii][243] һǣٵΪϵ˵ΪˡDetmoldԭȨ⻯ķʹ⣬ڱķdzԡμDetmold, The Unity of Law and Morality,رǵ4¡

[ccxliv][244] ԭоԵȨأԭתΪˡμDetmold, The Unity of Law and Morality, 83Ƕȿǵκξ尸ĸԺԣа漰Эijͻԭ򣬵аУһԭѹԵȨءˣ˾Եѧ۵Ҳ԰аѰһּ˾ĽǶ԰оתΪɹã£ʵġʽνġƶʱУ͸ˡ [ccxlv][245] μǣᡷõ룬磬1998214

[ccxlvi][246] Weber, The Methodology of the Social Sciences, 17-8.

[ccxlvii][247] μMartha Nussbaum, The Fragility of Goodness: Luck and Ethics in Greek Tragedy and Philosophy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986), part 3.

[ccxlviii][248] ȽۡȽϷо199371ڣ2639

[ccxlix][249] ͨԵص㡣ͨǻԭһṹμA.W. B. Simpson, Legal Theory and Legal History (London: The Hambledon, 1987), 282ff.

[ccl][250] ǣִᡷ136

[ccli][251] ½ϵĹɷٳеһɫ̬ȡ۾͹ʷʷԣֻɣ빲۵ķչеĹϵѾĵķΧֻۡ [cclii][252] ijϽʷƾõġself-helpԭġ˾뱾ĵIJ۵ͨʷγйءͨķԿֱӹʵȨļԶԶЩûֱӹļֵͨľȻܹ͸ЩûֱӹIJ֡

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[ccliv][254] Ҷʿ󣬡ŷ޷ѧʷۡƽ塢ս룬йѧ磬1998136

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[cclvi][256]ǿӢεص㣬Ŧкܴ롣Щ½ѧҲע⵽һ㣬ָӢġΡ˾иеĹϵμR. C. Van Caenegem, The Rechtsstaat in Historical Perspective, in Legal History, 185.

[cclvii][257] йͨͷɣرǷ⽨֮ĹϵʷѧᣬMurphy, The Oldest Social Sciences?ǿͨ͵ij17͵춨䴫ͳĺġ

[cclviii][258] ָͨųĸʽʽHale, The History of the Common Law of England,17μĵIJֵ [cclix][259] ӷɷչijʽĹʵֳڷʽϸ涨ͽɫַʽ𽥶龳Դһ龳תƵһ龳ΪʽͻLuhmann, A Sociological Theory of Law, 125.

[cclx][260] Gunther Teubner, Substantive and Reflexive Elements in Modern Law, Law & Society Review, Vol.17, No.2 (1983), 246ff.

[cclxi][261] ʽ𣬾漰ġ⺭μTeubner, Substantive and Reflexive Elements in Modern Law, 250-1Լȫĸ

[cclxii][262] ʵϣǿ˵¿оɵĺģûȷ˾ѧ˵ҲһֵϵߡμStoner, Common Law and Liberal Theory, 29.

[cclxiii][263] ȻѧνġɱȻԣCromartie, Sir Matthew Hale, 31.

[cclxiv][264] һЩУѧҪôƲѰij֡߼ĺۼעӢеĸֲͬļֵһܵǿӰ˼·ͨ˾ԣҪôǺƶϵҪãֱӷӢʶ̬Чùص˵ǵ˵ֶͨĽͣҪôǰͨһ֡߹롱noble dreamҪôǴ֡߹Ļԡnoble lieͨһΡnightmareʵϣ˵¿˵ӳͨеġ߼أøյĻ˵ij֡ͼμLon Fuller, The Morality of Law, 96μ99ffԿ¿ѧ˵ij⺭ۡ

[cclxv][265]NeumannĹ۵㲻ͬμNeumann, The Rule of Law, 183.

[cclxvi][266] Fuller, The Morality of Law, 166.

[cclxvii][267] ǣִᡷ144

[cclxviii][268] μSimpsonۣͨͬϰ߷Ҳͬڼ򵥻, The Common Law and Legal Theory, 84ff.

[cclxix][269] תCross and Harris, Precedent in English Law, 32-3.

[cclxx][270] ͨķɷչʷһӢڵĶԪƶȡ⽨ɱԼ״ƶȵķչйء

[cclxxi][271] תPostema, Bentham and the Common Law Tradition, 71-4.

[cclxxii][272] Luhmann, A Sociological Theory of Law, 48.

[cclxxiii][273] Luhmann, The Self-Reproduction of Law and Its Limits, in Essays on Self-reference (New York: Columbia University Press, 1990), 229ff.

[cclxxiv][274] Lon Fuller, Anatomy of the Law (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1968), 106.

[cclxxv][275] Τ½ʱ徫񡷣88

[cclxxvi][276] Van CaenegemΪͨγɽ׶ζصʷʱͨγʱڽϴ½ɵġִҪ磬ʱĸ˶ոտʼвṩġڡģʽԹáˣӢòһ֡ͨ ijϽһӢԵ֮ġࡱһ档μCaenegem, The Birth of the English Common Law , chap.4뱾ĵĿͬCaenegemΪһԣܴѧĽǶȼԽͣΪǡǡһѧ⡣μCaenegem, Max Weber: Historian and Sociologist, 212-4.

[cclxxvii][277] Ҷʿ󣬡ŷ޷ѧʷۡ8390

[cclxxviii][278] R. C. Van Caenegem, The Birth of the English Common Law (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988),23ff¡1819ͣͨļܹ̣νڷ巨ϵķ䡣ΤһµģWeber, Economy and Society, 865ff.

[cclxxix][279]Caenegem, The Birth of the English Common Law , 88.

[cclxxx][280] йӢɷչġԡʷԵΤӢġۡԣμJohn Hudson, The Formation of the English Common Law (London: Longman, 1996), 233ff.

[cclxxxi][281] S. F. C. Milsom, Historical Foundations of the Common Law (London: Butterworths, 1981), 11-23.

[cclxxxii][282] йعμE. Kantorowicz, The Kings two Bodies: A Study in Mediaeval Political Theology (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1957).

[cclxxxiii][283] йءȸĸҪοHudsonоμHudson, The Formation of the English Common Law, chap.5.

[cclxxxiv][284] ѲطͥԵطеġ˾ͻͨΪһߵص㣬ͨγɽ׶Σ˾ĽϡμMurphy, The Oldest Social Sciences?, 199; J. H. Baker, An Introduction to English Legal History (London: Butterworths, 1990), 19.

[cclxxxv][285]Baker, An Introduction to English Legal History15.

[cclxxxvi][286] Caenegem, The Birth of the English Common Law , 33ʵϣӷ⽨߼ûҲȡԺ˾ϽȨҴĶСͨҷԺݱΪԺnational courtԽԽǿԣܻ̻֮ᷨͥ⣨󷨹ٷԺҷԺڸӵ˾ϽȨֵγɵĶԪɸ֣ͻͷص㣬Ӣƶȳ־Ӱһ֤һ̸ֱ18Ͳ˽ϴı仯μBurgess, Absolute Monarchy and The Stuart Constitution,chap.5.

[cclxxxvii][287] C. W. Brooks, The Common Lawyers in England: c.1558-1642, in Wilfred Prest ed. Lawyers in Early Modern Europe and America (London: Croom Helm, 1981) 42.

[cclxxxviii][288] Ȼⷽ棬Ӣ½IJ죬Ӣڷչʷص⣬ҲӢƫء˽йءҷԺķɰҪΧռȨĴףˣͨķܵ˽ķɼԵǿӰ졣ӱȽϵĽǶӢΧ˽е˾ķʽʹӢġΡŷ½ǿϵġΡкܴҲdzһ㣬ӢʷѧҲǿطΪνӢɵĻҪԡйͨΪһ֡˽ΪĵμStephen Perry, Judicial Obligation, Precedent and the Common Law, Oxford Journal of Legal Studies, 1987, Vol.7, No.2: 218ҢӢ⽨оѧ磬19921248¡

[cclxxxix][289] S. F. C. Milsom, Reason in the development of the Common law, in Studies in the History of the Common Law(London: the Hambledon Press, 1985), 150.

[ccxc][290] Caenegem, The Birth of the English Common Law , 17-9; Paul Brand, The Origins of the English Legal Profession (Oxford: Blackwell, 1992), 23.

[ccxci][291] Caenegem, The Birth of the English Common Law , 34.

[ccxcii][292] Baker, An Introduction to English Legal History21ff.

[ccxciii][293] ҢӢ⽨о12Caenegem, The Birth of the English Common Law, 11Milsom, Reason in the development of the Common Law, 154ff.

[ccxciv][294] Sugarman, Law, Economy and the State in England, 1750-1914: Some Major Issues, 216.

[ccxcv][295] ΤҲԼᵽһַƶȵӰ죬μTreiber, Elective Affinities' between Weber's Sociology of Religion and Sociology of Law", 835-8.

[ccxcvi][296] Hudson, The Formation of the English Common Law, 142.

[ccxcvii][297]μBaker, An Introduction to English Legal History, chap.4; Caenegem, The Birth of the English Common Law, chap.2.

[ccxcviii][298] Caenegem, The Birth of the English Common Law, 39, 41.

[ccxcix][299] Baker, An Introduction to English Legal History, 63.

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[cccii][302] Baker, An Introduction to English Legal History, 84ff.

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[ccciv][304] Baker, An Introduction to English Legal History, 86ff.

[cccv][305] John M. Mitnick, From Neighbor-Witness to Judge of Proofs: the Transformation of the English Civil Jurors, American Journal of Legal History Vol.32, No.3 (1981), 201-35.

[cccvi][306] Sir John DaviesתSommerville, Politics and Ideology in England.1603-1640, 89-90.

[cccvii][307] ȻһҪ⺭ͨdzĵķɣμHale, The History of the Common Law of England, 16ff.

[cccviii][308] μThe Prince and the Law, 1200-1600: Sovereignty and Rights in the Western Legal Tradition (Berkeley: The University of California Press, 1993).߲δ˾ֲ֮ͬĹϵһġʹ˵ͨ˾ŷ½ͻѧ˵粩Jean Bodinһ𣬶ͨij⺭зdzҪ塣

[cccix][309] Milsom, The Nature of Blackstones Achievement, 207Ҷʿָν񷨵ġ¹ʽϵͳķĻкܴ죬ǰǿһ尸ʵΪһʵ֪ʶʵǶѣϷΪġЩķĻͨ˾ԣ޶¡μҶʿ󣬡ŷ޷ѧʷۡ6870

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[cccxii][312] 磬ҷԺϱزٵ״12ĩ14ͳĿͷϡ

[cccxiii][313] Caenegem, The Birth of the English Common Law ,19ff.

[cccxiv][314] Wilfrid Prest, lawyer, in Wilfrid Prest ed. The Profession in Early Modern England(London: Croom Helm, 1982), 69.

[cccxv][315] Prestж˶ӢʦģĹƣμLawyers in Early Modern Europe and AmericaThe Profession in Early Modern England.

[cccxvi][316] J. A. Pocock, The Ancient Constitution and the Feudal Law, chap.2.

[cccxvii][317] Simpson, The Common Law and Legal Theory,

[cccxviii][318] Pocock, The Ancient Constitution and the Feudal Law, 41.

[cccxix][319] John Reid, The Jurisprudence of Liberty, in Ellis Sandoz ed. The Roots of Liberty (Missouri: University of Missouri Press, 1993), 147-231.

[cccxx][320] Gray, Editors Introduction, xx.

[cccxxi][321] Gray, Editors Introduction, xiv.

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[cccxxiii][323] Reid, The Jurisprudence of Liberty.УReidἰʦۼңҲǷɣٲͨ, 227.

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[cccxxv][325] Sommerville, Politics and Ideology in England.1603-1640, 86-7.

[cccxxvi][326] J. H. Baker, The English Legal Profession: 1450-1550, in Prest ed. Lawyers in Early Modern Europe and America, 34-5.

[cccxxvii][327] йءѧΡ һпά⡱μпάƶ루ӡݣ1992174183Լڡᡱжԡʶ̬Ρۡ

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[cccxxxi][331] пάƶ181

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[cccxxxiv][334] ֵעǣʹķҲıһϣͨʵ֡仯һ½ġڷһġ鱾ɡtext-lawЩΪɽ񡣲μSimpson, Legal Theory and Legal History, 285-6.

[cccxxxv][335] Matthew Hale, Prefacein Henry Rolle, Un Abridgement des Plusieurs Cases et Resolutions del Common Ley(London: 1688), תGlenn Burgess, Absolute Monarchy and The Stuart Constitution(New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996), 137.

[cccxxxvi][336] йŷޡ17Σμ۳ᡱеۣ7ҳ¡

[cccxxxvii][337] Patrick Collinson, The Elizabathan Puritan Movement (London: Methuen, 1967) йӢڽ̸ĸ˶ʷѧд˸ΪӵʷͼμTyackeNicholas Tyacke, Introduction to Englands Long Revolution 1500-1800 (London: OCL Press, 1998), 1-32.

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[cccxlii][342] William PerkinsLittle, Religion, Order, and Law, 115, 117.

[cccxliii][343] Little, Religion, Order, and Law, chap.3.

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[cccxlviii][348] John Coffey, Puritanism and Liberal Revisited, The Historical Journal, 41, 4(1998), 985.

[cccxlix][349] μZagorindzʵо: Perez Zagorin, Ways of Lying: Dissimulation, Persecution, and Conformity in Early Modern Europe (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1990), chap.9.

[cccl][350] Ned Lukacher, Daemonic Figures: Shakespear and the Question of Conscience(Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1994), 13.Lukacherڴ˴ûгֿӢ̡֪ѧ˵ĸԡ

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[ccclii][352] Little, Religion, Order, and Law, 153.

[cccliii][353] Alexander DEntreves, The Medieval Contribution to Political Thought (New York: The Humanities Press, 1959), 111.

[cccliv][354] Saunders, Anti-Lawyers, chap.2һȻǰᵽ͵ķģʽйأμKantorowicz, The Kings two Bodies .

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[ccclvi][356] Doe, Fundamental Authority in Late Medieval English Law, chap.6ͨͳеġ֪

[ccclvii][357] R. J. Schoeck, Strageties of Rhetoric in St.Germans Doctor and Students, in Richard Eales and David Sullivan ed. The Political Context of Law (London: Hambledon, 1987), 82.

[ccclviii][358] ѧɶѷ70ھע⵽֪ƶȵı仯ʷȽоҪ塣һƪ̫ΪעУɶѷָ֡ȻԵ֪ʶִзdzҪӰ죬ֻڽ̸ĸѧ֮󣬶ȷԵ׷Ÿıһ㣬һΤġ½⡱ϵһۡμBenjamin Nelson, Conscience and the Making of Early Modern Culture: the Protestant Ethics beyond Max Weber, Sociological Review (1969) Vol.36: 4-21.

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[ccclxii][362] indifferentΪ1617֪뷨ɹеҪзdzӵĺ壬

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[ccclxv][365] Lewis, Sir Edward Coke: His Theory of Artificial Reason as a Context for Modern basic Legal Theory, 340ffһ˼ǰֵ̽ͨȨȨʵʱҪݣ˹Ĭ

[ccclxvi][366] ͨϰοTully˵ľо˵ʽġ˾ȷʵڽ̸ĸɵġ֪ͬǡǡΪ͸ͨ˾ԡֻ˵֡ϰ˱ʽĸ18ԺԸܵ⣬ⷽĸֻԺμJames Tully, Governing Conduct, in Edmund Leites ed. Conscience and Casuistry in Early Modern Europe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988), 12-71.

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[ccclxxii][372] Stephen Toulmin, Cosmopolis: The Hidden agenda of Modernity (New York: Free Press, 1990).

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[ccclxxv][375] Weber, The Methodology of the Social Sciences, 55.

[ccclxxvi][376] Τڡ½ʱ徫رˡɡӦϵ⺭ⲻʷϳ½̻̽Ŀ͹ƶΪǵij㣬ҲûнӰϣûзڼҪĽ̻ϡ½ʱ徫񡷣118иĶLittleָһ㣬ƺûгʶһҪԣLittle, Religion, Order, and Law: A Study in Pre-Revolutionary England,26Τ1910RachfahlΧơ½ʱ徫չļУ򵥵ἰһ㣬ָɡзdzҪ塣һսԵ¹ؽ⣬ԸɡģʽԸΪҪ⺭ijϽΤﳫһ̬Ĺͬ壬ȲͬڡĹҡҲͬڹĸˡⷽ⣬д̽֡μWeber, Anticritical Last Word on The Spirit of Capitalism,1118; Roth and Schluchter, Max Webers Vision of History ,116.

[ccclxxvii][377] Max Weber, The Protestant Sects and the Spirit of Capitalism, in H.H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills ed. From Max Weber (London: Routledge, 1991), 302-22.

[ccclxxviii][378] ͨԼͬ롰ȨΪtortʷչʷѧ࣬Milsom, Reason in the development of the Common Law, 154ff; Baker, An Introduction to English Legal History, 27, 73-5, chap19.

[ccclxxix][379] йءеԤɡ롰Ԥɡcredal predestinarians֣μPeter Lake, Calvinism and the English Church 1570-1635, in Todd ed. Reformation to Revolution,1835.

[ccclxxx][380] Weber, Economy and Society, 593Լм䷴˼311¡Τδ¹ʷѧоЩӰ졣

[ccclxxxi][381] Τڽѧļǰԡ15иĶ

[ccclxxxii][382] ѧ߽λΤꡰֵԪۡķӳȻ˵δӼ򵥻ʵϣйΤġԪԻġձʷ͡ԡ֮ijͻѧǣʩ·ΪһɭΪһ۲ȴҲδܸĴ𰸡ʵϣ⣬ǡǡΤԻ۵ĹؼڡԣǶͨԻķҪӶԪΤ˴½ϵġŷ½ĹۡΤ֮ԱǵġԹޡdzͨԺԻУָ͸ԣӶҲǸܶԵΪһԭͨžձʷ⺭HuffBenjamin NelsonӰ죬Ҳע⵽һ㣬"On Weber, Law, and Universalism".

[ccclxxxiii][383] ΪʲôΤñȽڽѧԾиֲͬռͨĿȡԻоǿջҪһ屾ѧѧΤм䷴˼303μĵڶйΤԡ˼

[ccclxxxiv][384] бҪһŦӢΡͻ˴ͳ۵⡣ŦʶӢʱǵ˹ϵͳ䡰Ȼѧ˵ȻӰ졣ŦЩ˼˼·ȫӢͨǵ˹ܵȻ֮ķʵܷdzͨȴܵӡν塱ĹǡǡոνߵĿѧһ֣ոһȻ̻ᷨӰġȡͨңӢķźܴIJͬһһ塱ľͬŨȻʥı塱塱롰塱ͬһ֡塱˵֮µԵĻϣһϵġ塱Ҫ

[ccclxxxv][385] Τִָڵʱ岢ûв ƲĹȣֻڽ졲һд1918DD߰ƲʱŽܵؽһWeber, Political Writings, 149n.a.

[ccclxxxvi][386] Hale, " Sir Matthew Hales Criticism on Hobbess Dialogue of the Common Laws", 501.

[ccclxxxvii][387] ˣ¹ιѾʾν͡ġִҵ󼲣Ҳ϶µؽijòơִƶȣijִĹ̬ȴؽԪܶԻơЩƶνִƶȽһԪȨԡ򡱻ʧиٹ̵Ŀ־壬ͨŬ볢ɡˣ¹ʷչֵһſƲƼڲ˵ʱڣͻνġɡִƶߣתΪԻϰ׸ࡣⷽ棬ǰۼΤԡơзdzҪ⺭ [ccclxxxviii][388] ֽΪ֡ɾԡȱʡ״̬Ҫɣpositive reason֧ţ񶨣롰ȷԡuncertaintyΪһ̸ˡִķԵġɾԡҪԶȵֽķӡɣ˾ԣԵֽʽġɾԡҪνġȷԡګʽġɾԡ͡Ԥԡ߸˾ʹԽԽѹͬʱ˾ԻҪ󷨹ܹԽνġաߣִġż䡱ɵԷɵij뷨жߵԻҪ󣬱ȵֽګ¬øΪޡҲֽŵһģоƻĶĸõؽһ⣨ȻҶЩɣֱμRonald Dworkin, Indeterminacy and Law, in Guest ed. Positivism Today, 1-9; Gunther Teubner, "And God Laughed: Indeterminacy, self-reference and paradox in law", in Christian Joerges and David Trubek ed. Critical Legal Thought: An American-German Debate (Baden Baden: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, 1989), 399-434; Detmold,Law as Practical Reason.

[ccclxxxix][389] ˹˼¼룬ӡݣ1995140иĶ

[cccxc][390] ΤԡѧwissenschaftһְԼйءֵɡѧеġ͹ԡķ෽ְⷨҵʿԻ͸ͨԱԻ͸֮ĸӹϵ

[cccxci][391] Weber, Economy and Society, 601.

[cccxcii][392] Cromartie, Sir Matthew Hale.

[cccxciii][393]תSaunders, Anti-Lawyers: Religion and the critics of law and State, 59.

[cccxciv][394] Cromartie, Sir Matthew Hale, 235.

[cccxcv][395] Charles Gray, Editors Introduction, xvi.

[cccxcvi][396] Fuller, The Principles of Social Order

[cccxcvii][397] ¹ιʷǣûԻԻ֮Ķɱṹά̹Ҳڲ֮ͱBehemothȻޡ

[cccxcviii][398] ͨʷѰύ׶صҷԺã۴ʱ仹շ˵һɱ߰ѡ񣬸˵ʵй㷺ڵĸ֡ܡһֱ17ͳڿ¿ƶ˾ĸƣֻʿͳе¹ܹijɱʹΪͨջķְҵʦͥʦ֣֮ӡķɼ˾ϷõӣӶʹΪǮ˷Ȼȴƫġڴ½ϵУ¹طϰ߷׵İ취ҲһǴ۸߰ġӢɡҲǵ¹ѧν硰ɡ롰նɡִһ㡣Ҳ漰ֻձġ⻯һ⡣ڷԡձ뾫ӢʽIJԽ֮ĸӹϵۺѧͨĹ۵ҪӵöࡣȻҪϵִνȨcitizenshipķչһֻ֣̽ˡ

[cccxcix][399] Ȼġܷͨʵִڻ򲢷һ򵥵⡣˾ѧǶа㷨ԺԵ޴İʱ䡢ȷı߽Լ֮ijͻйأֳͻľ޴ѹͨγҪij߷ԺٽµʵЩԭһʹͨʼԡһԡȶʵ壬ƶȵ֮ĽţֽţǷܹͨԡĴʩԻ⣬¶ۡ [cd][400] Ү֣ΪȨ룬ࡶ̷۴ԡڶ12йҮֵһ˼Τļֵ۵ĹϵμTurner and Factor, Max Weber: The Lawyer as Social Thinker, 55ff.

[cdi][401] ƪ򵥵ȴԵ̽񷨴ͳСͨҼ֮Ĺμ񷨴ͳıСˡĹۡ19981113042

[cdii][402] Weber, The Methodology of the Social Sciences, 55.

[cdiii][403] Τд1909һ֣RothSchluchterΪǡμRoth and Schluchter, Max Webers Vision of History , ҳ

[cdiv][404] DetmoldLaw as Practical Reason,470.

[cdv][405] ڡ۳ᡱУ̽ˡܶԻ⡣ִ˵رһἰġƽȻ˵ԵķչͬзdzҪ壬ͷνԣͼܡcorruptionĹ۵ľ⣬Լڽսġҡ͡Ⱥ⡣Щֻһƪˡָ֮һ㣬DzϣΪƪһƪԡϭġִֻУͼͨƲԵĽϣΪΩҶ𡱵һԪԣγɵıӻ͵ķȨȱķչйңͼ϶µؽνִԡƶȣ¹ġιһ԰ʵʻʽĶԪ֣ʹԻɳΪԼ˵ĶѾ񡣶һΣԣ۷棬ȴûֵľ裬Ҳȱ㹻ӦԲԡϾִУһֱѹԵӰ죬ͨʽ˾ԣȴܵ㷺ĺӣˣбҪͨ´ִ۵ġСԵΣգھ鷽棬dzġ뷢չ滮ʧУμHuff, "On Weber, Law, and Universalism".

[cdvi][406] Weber, Political Writings, 69.

[cdvii][407] ԻõֱһȷãһѾ¹ĻЭʷϿúӢֵЭᣬڵ¹޼£ͽһЩնΣյʽа

[cdviii][408] Weber, Political Writings, 55-6.

[cdix][409] Nat Hentoff, Search and Seizure: Fragile Liberty, in Joshua Rosenkranz and Bernard Schwartz ed. Reason and Passion: Justice Brennans Enduring Influence (New York: Norton & Company, 1997).

[cdx][410] ԱΤ羭ͨʷ291Ƶ˵μWeber, Political Writings, 148.

[cdxi][411] Weber, Political Writings, 158.

[cdxii][412] Weber, Political Writings, 71-2.