ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis


ˣ̫֮ʿӲ


Դйѧ2001,2,ܵ
תйѧ

һԣӦ̫Ļ̸
ѧҰйѧ״ڸԹйͳ֪ʶȱϸϵͳѧֻ"µڽ"ȱֵۻ֪ʶֻճֱ֮ѧжֱءҪԭֲڣйѧҿų̶Ⱥұܲ˵йѧ(utterance)ͲʶԻʮޡˣ̫Ҫѧҷйѧ()̸ȷʱ㲻ֻDZijѧ̬ҲijֵעĻѧζ"йע"ڲǿ⻪ѧ˵"ͳ̽"(tradition enquiry)ҲڲƵĻѽѧоȤΪйǻ۱ʽйѧɴҲʹе"й֪ʶ"ʼһֳԽաʷĻ걸̬
һƪΪ(ɹԡʿ߹µĻỰ)ij֮β̫̹ϵرʾ�"ջһֱԹııȽʿ֮۵ijʼ⣬ʿµķչԤʿԡȻ֤(Ϊһʿߣܱѡ?)ľ͵ȷǶʿ֮ڶһʿʽIJ(Щʿ߻ֽܾ)ҶԴɻȻͬIJͣɴҶԴIJͣҲDZĵҪĿ֮һ"
̫ijֻijЩ⴫ͳ֮κ""ͨ͹۵κѧĻѧIJͶضҲֻ--ҪΪЧIJ͵Ļ--ij⴫ͳᄈеԲ͡ͲͬѧĻͳ֮ĶԻ˵ԻĺЧҲֻܽڶԻ˫ԸԴͳ»ϵ໥ȽϺ໥ﵽ໥䣬ǽ׶Եij˵̫ͬĻţ䴫ͳµķ
ڱУҽͼṩһҵͣǶʿࣺʽIJ(̫)ɴ˳Զ"ʿ֮�"һʽĻش𡣲̫ȣҵһıȻͬһ棬뾡ܶҪŵϵ̫˽ѧṩһΪͼṩͼ෽̫"ʿʽ"󣬾ⲢųҲͬ⡣һ棬ҶĽͽɱǣ浽ʿ۵ĿĻȽϡڣҶʿܿܲȫ̫ͬһ㼫пΪҵ̫ijЩ硣ҪǣƪлһҲЩðͼҽŽ̫۵Ľʽ"ͳ"һ"ʵ"һ"ͬ"ȺĸȺɵ֮ͼʽԼ̫֮ͼʽĺЧɴ֤ĽͼʽǷڶ̶ձõġ˳㽲һ£ҵ⣬̫20һֱڷǿĻ"ձϵĻϵ"Ȼάѷ(DDavidson)""ԭ(ҲӦ׷ݵ[WVQuine])ľԻʱߵ[FNietzsche]"ϵ"ʱ򣬵͵Ŀ̸[Cicero]ḻ﷭ҵʷԹʱʵʲδȫձѧ󣬺οԼ"ͳ"һ"ʵ"һ"ͬ"άͼʽִűҲŶijձͼʽȷ!Ҽٶ̫һ۷ͼʽձЧģҲԽIJʵ֤һͼʽ(truth assertion)̫ƷʽͷձִԵıһ
ڻشӢ֪(Cogito)־IJɷʱ̫Ѱζ⣬ǣ"Ǵǹͬʷм̳еĹͬŲʲô?"'ӦǵĹѧϰʲôԱ?""ʲôдͽ?"Ľ"ͳ""ʵ"'ͬ"ĸ(̫ѧ)Ľͣһǡǡֹ̫۵ĹؼڣҳŽð¡벹һ£ڱвõ""̫õ""ˣΪ̫ʾѧʼûиκʽ¶أʹڶѧۻǷȱ״ƺҲδܵõĹۡ룬̫һָǻ߼ѧ֪ʶ۱׼ģ˵µġƪʵϣһغѧ˼άĻᄈĸ죬ijһ֪ʶ۱׼һʽĺ(ƺҲͬϺ̫"ɹ")ˣΪ۵ķ㣬ԸԤȼٶָ̫Ǻġ
ףĸӲ
¶""("arete"Ӣ"Virtue")ľ䶨壬"ʹ˳Ϊɾ͵Ʒʡ"˽ʿһᄈʵйߺײһӡ󣺷·ʿ˵""ұӡԵ""ָҵ""֮""("ӵ·")ʥƷȻǡǡɴ˵ʿһЩ"Ӣʱ"(硶ʷʫ)ոסͼµijеȻȷΪȷ֮Խɫ(socid character)ĸ壬˵廯˵Ĺ塣ˣǾġ˵ɫúĿӦĿʵֵֻɡڴϣ¼ΪʵԲɾͣԴ˳ɾչʾΪijһƷϵ׿Խ(excellence)ǻ۵ھ"ǵ"(he arete dianoetike)ˣ¸ҵЩпȻܹսӢ¼вԺսӢ׳һΰƷʵʿ¸ĹؼڸʵԲɾͻĿʵ֡ˣոԸѷɳͷջԿȻ̹ȻСƺһۣͣһںȷ벻֮ڳͻŵı¼ֵǡǡոе˵ʵжִֵ£ʵԼԹijŵ
ȻڴͳУ弰ʵIJͬ⣬Ҳִ֮иIJ졣仰˵(е)IJͬ涨֮ҲԤ˲ͬĽᄈ
Dz˵ȱȷ""(person)ǿԴӸ׻ıмеȷȱʿеΪʵ�""(individual)˵ͳе"""""ʵ"ԡν""ߣûҲӲȷ綨һжʵ""ˣ̸""""""(myself)һĸʱᄈԵġʵԵġӡ֤𱾶Ϊ"Զ"(dependent rational animal)˵ĸһ棬'"ʵԺʵԣ"ʵ"ߴȻ""""ϵ֮У""˵ĵֻڻ˵ĵʶƷʺ龳׷֮""컯зɳֳ""˵ĵչΪΡάȵ׹ϵԣʧȥ׻ϵн飬˵ĵ޴̸ԣҵҸǹϵе"Э"淶ͶЩ淶ڻУǶĸĿԼֵɻĿʵ֡
ڣڴͳᄈо̽һ""档
йѧΪϵĹ۵Ϊҵͳʼڿӵ"ѧ"ѧϳ""ԴϵǹʣӵġΪйŴһѧԪ䣬λγɶʿµġѧ
άĿν""ʵʱ׵ȼڷεȼơڽƶȺԻƶȴͨƣڡƶۡ˵"ƶ֮ߣһԻ֮ƣǶڷɥ֮ơǶз⽨ӵ֮ƣӳ֮ơԻ֮ơԻͬղ֮ơ֮Ըټ¡"""""Ļֵȡת䣬־йŴԭʼڽ̳شĻת͡ѡ�""֮ѧȡһĻת͵ȷ֡ɴ˿ӿйͳһĻͳڸôͳݽȻΪйĻϵе֧ԴͳҲ͵춨йͳĻķ
ӴĻԴ""ֵע⣺һʱڵĵвκ͹""""ļ෴ڷ֮ƶȻӦ"Т"""Ϊĸĸϵ;ڷϵҲ˵ʱڵ岻ǸԵĻʵ廯ģ׹ϵιϵġĹϵϵᄈҲʼճΪҵǰԤƣȻҲӰ쵽ӵĽڶȻ""ӽִϵĹ淶ƶΪۻĵѧݣȴ"Т"""֮˵󴫡Ĺʮ)³̫ʷ֮""ƣ"ȾܹԻԹ۵£Դ£Զȹʳ"Ԥע"򣬷ҲϷΪ¡"󴫡ʮ꡷ؽ˥"֣֮Ҳ"""ΪԼ֮�""""Ĺֻ""֮ʽ⡣ʷں"Т"""ʱ¸ĸǺǵΪĻֵ߶ȡ⵱Ȼ뵱ʱڷƶȵĽĵλֱءΪһֵ¡һֻһҪ"Т"""ʵ׹ϵᄈܱ˵ͱֳԣ®˵"Те"ʱڵ"¸"Ȼڵʱдĵʣ漰ڽ̺ε⣬ڼֵҪ""""ƶȻ淶
صڿӵеõ˳ֵ֡ڿ"Т"ѱ""һԷ룬""""ļֵҲԵøΪͻȻԺȣȻ""""֮ļϺƽ⣬ǰԵ""""Ȼж109ε""Ϊȵ˵""գʾѧڡ
ڿʵΪʵΪ֮ķ""ͳֵĿĹ(function status)ڡıУ""ֲͬĺ壺(1)Ϊһߵ¼ֵ¾(磬"߰ʣ֪"ʡ)(2)Ϊ˵ĵ(磬""΢ӡ)(3)Ϊ""ͬ(磬"۹˹֪ӡ"ʡ)ǣ""ںĶԲӰΪͨƵļֵܡ
ȣ""ʵһ׹ϵ֮µļ֡ӵ""dzģڸ˼ϵ֮СڿӺͳҵУҲҪϵʵµľ"""Т"""""ǿӵ""֮ʣΪ""ʵ֮˵ĵ֮"ʼ"(arch)ŵӽ˵"񱾣ТҲߣΪ֮롣"(ѧ)ÿԼ˵"ףʡ"(̩)Ӱѻ˵øȷ"ףҲ"(ӡϡ)"֮ʵҲ"(ӡ¦ϡ)˵""""""Ļ˼һ棬""ΪѪԵ֮ĸȰŮŮТĸͳһ棬""Т֮ʵΪȰТΪ""ڿеѪ׹ϵһ־֮ȼṹ(hierarchy)Եϵ(affinity)"Т"㱻Ҫ¡
Ȼӵ""²Ĺϵ¡ǿŵģһչ""""""ڻشӷ"Ϊ"ʱش˵"ˡ"(٫)˵"Тܣţڶʡ"(ѧ)ڿӿ""Ϊ棺˵""ŭĴ֮Ԩأ"ٹʡԻ'ʹдʩˡڰԹڼԹ�"ӻ˵""ʰ֮"ߣˣˡ"(ӺҲ)Ӱֻ"ʰ"Ϊ"ܽȡƩ"彫֮ͳ"Ѽ"Ϊͬġͬ˿ʡ"ʰ"ǿν"֮"Ҳһǿ"ˡ֮"
ӵʰֱӳϮʱڵʵ˼롣ǰġУȻ"֮ν"()""(¡)ȵ⡣"ˡ֮"һͺȷʰĻֵ壬ʹʰµĽᄈȷҲˡһûʵġֵ濼ǵǣӰʻʰΪ˵ĸ("֮")ʱѧǷһ?ֻֻһ־ɫʵĹ淶?
ش⣬һdzδϸ⣺ͳҵ--ȷĻ--֮µ?ᄈǵ¸ʵΪ?ϵĹ淶?
о߶ѷ֣ڡУٶӶԵȷ˵ڸ˻κȷˡܵ幫̸"ʱؼˡ"(ͬ)һᄈе""һϵ""(human beings)ͬǽ̸"""""ɫ"һκس壬һԵ˼άϣʱͼ̸""""ʿ̸"һ"("ʽ")""("")ʱõ˼άʽǴвġֲʹDzóȻжӺйͳûֻṩһִͳڷĹ淶Ĺؼǣ˽⣬Ӻʹͳҵص۹ɺͻ﷽ʽ仰˵Ӻʹͳ̸Ļᄈ׹ϵ(intepersonal relationship)ǹϣĸʵ(Personal praxis)ڿӺʹͳʼȱһΪʵ""""Ը
µ嵱Ȼ壬Ҳ˵µʵվҪʵĸΪϡ˼ʵж(agent)Ҳµļֵ()ijе(bearer)ȻⲢζ""(social virtue)ĸͲܳ෴""ҲѧҪ֮һ--ҽijһʵᄈʾձļֵʵʱ縥˹ɽ(Francis Fukuyama)Ļѧ̸""(trust)¡ߣҽѧҿǿʵ龳ʷĻԴʱ̸""Ȼġ
ǣ(ѧͳ)ȣӺйͳҵעǸʵʵֵĹϵᄈˣڿӺʹͳûĻΪʵΪȨ(Ŀ)""""ֻдڹϵеĻΪеߵ""Ϊ˸ͻ�"˸"(moral personality)й֮ᄈĵ˻򵥳ˣ(single man)ĸʹñʮֺǿ"ָ"̸ijһˣѿ""""ȥ̸κ"һ"("one man"or "sinde man")ػһЩĹ׼أ""ֶָ""""""""ijƷʵ(磬"")ֻڼָ""顤̡"һ죬֮"һ˵ָ""Եӡ󴫡ʮ꡷ϼأȥʱ³ڳ֮ڼ"һ"ܵŵӹָΣΪΪ�"һ"һӵijν󡶰׻ͨƪͣ"νһߣǫҲν֮һ˺ΣҲ֮ĺ֮ڣߣһ˶"ɼһˣйŴһΪĵ¼һص¼ֵºϵ(seriousness)Ŵй׺˼ʹϵϸȼȷһͨġ̸ijһˣпܴεĹҲܱľٶ
ɴһȤĶԱǣڿӺʹͳҵУ׻˼ʹϵ¶ijʽۻìܣһ棬ӺҾǿ׹ϵĵȼԺϷ("Ω޲")ƺƽļֵ롣һ棬ڴһȼ'ڲ˵Ĺϵṹȴ־˵""(I and Thou)""(intersubjectivity)ϵʡ֮ĵ¹ϵ໥(reciprocity)(ν"ˡ֮")ͨ;(ν"ͬģͬ")ԣڿӺʹͳҵУ""ΪϵеҲ໥飬ڹϵеκһΪ̬ȶܳΪһΪ̬ȵԭ򡣻֮ʵµʵ໥ĶǴΪģ±ںĵĶǼֵĿĵġ

Dzܷ֣ڿӺʹͳҵҪ"Ŀ"Уʡ塢ҡТȾ׹ϵЭ͵£""""Ϳرָ"š"ԴҪĵλڴˣڸǿ׹ϵ໥£ν峼ҡТѵݡ"Թ֮"ˡ˵ڿӺʹͳҿѳ׹ϵڷ±Dz˵ġһƺµҸĿ֮γաߵȻҲǿʷͳͬ("ǰ")֮ڸʵǰԤ壬̫ͬϤ뿪Խе⹲ͬϮĴͳԨԴʵò˼顣ǣЩȱٵֻ֮ҪĽᄈ壬ȴµʵȷе˵Ӻʹͳʿº̫ϵʿȻһΪµʵԵģǰߵУµʵֻ໥׵ģΪijϵе˻""໥жںߵѧУµʵֻǸ˻壬̸۵ijձʽ""ǻ۵ÿһ"ǵ"ˣ¸ҵÿһӢսʿƻʶȵÿһְijǰ˵ȵȡΪڿӺʹͳҿȻɾµĶ("Ϊɼ")ɾµʵµʵֱȴغˣµά(deontological dimension)ģҲߵġʿ¿ɾµĶǸҵģʵҲǸΪģȷĸĿ(׷Ҹ)֮µĿά(teleological dimension)ģҲյġ
ɿӺʹͳʿֲͶյҪԭǶ෽ġҵ˽ԣΪؼṹ(εġõĺĻ)IJͬһʶ̫ұƺ˼Ĺ۵㣬ֻۼ۲֮ʿбȽʱδ㹻ᶨؼһ㡣ʵϣĻʿĻмΪҪ壬ɴ˴ĻԴ¼ֵ⡢Խṹͻ﷽ʽԼ֮γɵ""(moral reasoning)"֤"(moral argment)ʽȷIJ죬Ҳ;ԵȻȻζʱеĻԴԽһ˵йͳᣬ;()()֡κһĹʹѪԵ׻ȻijȻеIJɱʥԣ֮һ¡к˼ͷҪȾǰζdzԹйĻмҹͬТͨ塢˺һȹůԻԣʵĻȻ֡ԣУȱ㹻ȷֺ֮ͼҹ֣֮׹ϵȻķ˸񻯱ΪһֱȻĻȻ׹͹ѪԵλʹ֮Ϊһ˼ʹϵ˵ϵ"ʼ"(arch)ԭ͡νṹУγɹϣе""ҲܲʽΪĿĻȨ"""ʵ"""ֻ""Ϊ֮ľ"һ"Ƕĸ˻塣Ϊʲô"йͳĻ(ҵĻ--ע)˵ȫİ"20֮ԭ
"ɾ"""۵ı׼ӱ
죬ֱӵ֮ʵֵĿĵIJͬȻֲͬҲζڴȫֱ
ѿӺʹͳҵλΪһ׹ϵеЭΪĴ󲿷ֵĿָ׹ϵеĽɫ¶ǵ͵ĸ£ҪĻΪصĵ۱׼Ҳ˵Ȳ¿һִ˵ĵ¼Ҳµļֵ׼޶ΪĿۼֵķ棬෴̺άǸΪҪġֵ۵άȹĸҲȨ֮۱׼
ˣһ¸УҹؼҪȷ׹ϵĽṹȷڴ˹ϵĽṹĵλԼɴ˶ݡ"ϵĽṹ�"(ҺͼΪᵥλ)־ȻɸĵȻ(ѪԵΪʼĹϵԭ)ڴ"ϵĽṹ"Уÿ˱ҲȻ˫ԣȻȻģģֻκ˶ܸıߵ𱰵ȲĽṹ豾Ρ˵׵ĵµλȻȶģԵȱʧŮԵĸжı䡣Ȼ޳ܵľӻа񱰱ɵĸʵϿɥʧԽĵµλϣֻҪ鲻⵽ʰĵزȶ׹ϵλͲøı䡣ν""
Ȼͳҵ""Զʿ()±׼ǰ߲ʵԵĿļֵ(the material end-value)ҸҲûʵԵĸ˹(the conception of substantial person)ҴӲ˵ΪᄈĹϵ˵ѧָ"ҹϵ"⴫ͳҺйŴѧΪؼ̽·Ϊ"ҹϵ"йŴѧ(ѧ)ձĵ¹ϵʽ"ҹϵ"(ΪԸ׹ϵһ)У²ֻڸ˻壬ͬʱ"ϵ"˼"""()"ҳ"ڵڼ""()"һƺγһͬʿ»ϣIJںߣ֮ԱʵϣΪ(1)ұйϵеһֻΪ3(2)Ϊ¼ֵʵֵĿıԤҵԡĿij˵ҶԵġǣ˻ĹϵͬʱζĿֶεĹϵĹϵԣ"ij߶ȣǴߴڵij߶ȣҲǷǴڲڵij�"(Protagras)˵Ĺϵԣ""""ȵġΪϵеڵġֹϵ""(һ)ʽģ""(һ)ʽģ(3)Ǹ˵ĹϵǸȺĹϵ˻嶼ΪʵΪֵĵλֵλκʽĹϵԼʵĸı䣻(4)ڶϵķֻʶ±ֱΪṲ֮ͬԱĹṲͬ屾γ໥ϸֱĸº¡Ҳ˵һʶе¸ɫġĺͷģ׹ϵеĽɫ»ϵ¡
˶գڴͳҵУ(1)ʼձǹϵе໥Դ塣֮ϵе˫Իλ(2)ڹϵе˫˵ΪҪ岻ijһΪĿģ໥Դĵ壻(3)µļֵҪͨϵеĶԷ˵ʵֵģԷ˶ԼΪԵøΪҪ͹ؼйϰ˵"ں"(4)"ϵ"""Դ׹ϵеĸ˲߱ʵĻΪֵļֵ壬ֻԵĻ໥ŵĵζ"ϵ"ȵʶһֹʶǷֻʶֱӰ쵽ͳйֻữ̶Ȳ֣˵ṫʶǿǵʶռ֧λʼǹϵʶʶ
ȻԱȲζͳȱ㹻ϸĸ෴DZҵȷصǣϣ˰ͻΪµķֻʶȣҵǿµΪڻΪ⻯˵ڼǿɣӵĵƷһ£ˣǿΪ(for others)Ϊʵڼֵʵ֣ʥ͵ĵԺա漴ν"ڵڼ"ͨν֮""(to become a great man)""(to realize Ren as a virtue)һ£ڹźУ""""ͨ˵ġƣ"ʣҲˡ־ʣǧġ ʣʬ"ݶн⣺"ߣҲż֮Ҳ"(϶˵ļǡ)ٺ󣬶á˵Ľ֡ӹ�"ߣҲ"һעΪ"Ҳż֮ˣ֮ԡ"ν"ż"ʵָżΪ""֮壬ȻΪס""ߣ"Ҳ"""˵""""""ͬŴй""Ĺʵһ""ļֵǵʵڵԸֹһֱӡſԶΪʲôӡ̸Եṩһѧͬ͡ʱҲ֤ʵ˱ǰ˵(ԭʼҼӼֱŵ)ûγɶĸ("һ")֮ۡȻӿʼˡԡĵȸͻǿɿԺĺĸ֮һǣˣҲڴڱ̸۵Ƶ壬˵ֻǴڻҵ·֣�""ʵת""ļֵۣȡӶ˿"Ϊɼ"(Ԩ)˼롣
ڿӺʹͳҵУ"ɵ""""ɵ"֮""ĸǰᡣڻش·ʱԾķʽ""ҪΪ"˼壬ΣҪƽ֮"(ʡ)һͣԻ"²ȻܶܶȻӦ֮ν�"(ӡȰѧ)һӡ֤""""ͨ"ɵ"""""һµҵӰѵΪ֮ޡ֮Ϊ˵ĸ׼ʵҲһij׹᳹
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