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˾Ժ󷨹ֵһ˶ŽͣΪծ˻˲ٴֳִֹͣУء֮
֪ڡ᡹򡸾ءʵΪϵԭ򡹣ΪϵʦΪв֤ͬͬϾҡȻۣڽ͵ķ룬νͨ͡˵йڷɽ͵һʦ䷨ѧУҲʮӷɽʹһ֣˼ʵȨϵp.254£Լ֮
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ʦΪʵ߱ɹ淶Ҫʼ˷һķЧڴ˺ĹУҪʹõķɸԽͣ񷨵һһǰǷծȨ񷨵߰ʮǷծȨΪȨΪ˷ɵĽͣ˳ΪõĻ⣬ɱ뾭ɽͣʼã⺭ӲȷķɸԾ廯ɵijͻԵ͡
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ʦᵽɽ͵Ŀʵֶλ;ֽͷЭĹϵһֻ֧֡䡢˴ɣ۱̡͵ķܱ֤۵ȷȷɼٸжϵԡѡһֽͷΪ֤ݣӦʵΪָ룬͸ֽͷͨԵ˼֡ ƽԭ
һۺƽ뷨ɵĹϵǺƽⲿ棬ʱΪʽϵĽ
·ɵϸԣɷ֮֮ΣǷչƽĸʹ
ƽΪУӦ֮ΡӢEquityƽڹ
Common LawͨԻϸԡƽĹϵںƽڲ
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壬ʺƽΪһԭڻϸķɼ͸ͨ£
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ģйںƽΣ߷ԺоãԾټʦҪ

ƽԭе壬ڸ𻯵ĴͻԼϵ벻ض˵ԼӦһԭ򼰱׼ܲɸ𻯵Ĺ۲췽͸Լ˸֮¶жϣΪɶͻԼӦɳʵԭ򣬶߱дԭڵʮȷ֮淶
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ƶϵʱǷϵĹ淶֮Բ״̬֪Ϊ׼Ϊ
ʶ©ƶ֮ʣ©ѧ˵Դγ֮һʶ©IJΪ˾ءѧ˵γɹ淶淶Ƚ򲻳졣
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ʦΪϵ̽ijɹ涨Ĺ淶ĿģжǷûڡͬһɡƽԭƼδ涨֮ò©Ϊ϶©֮һֶΡïʦΪ©϶䲹һ𣬿ܻɽ϶벹ȺIJ̣Ϊһ֮ηȻ©϶УҲԷ©IJṩʾϣβ۵𰸣ˣïʦǰp.387p.388
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ʦΪõĹжһΪƣһΪƣ
ƣָijɹ涨Ϊã༴ߣΪ涨񷨵ڰʮ涨ڵڰʮ֮Σ֮
ƣָͶͬ෨ɹ涨Ϊãɴ˳һ㷨ԭֳƷơ磺¹ͨ˵ͼծ֮ϵгһ㷨ԭ򣬼ծ֮ϵһˣش֮ԭʱֹԼĵļծ֮ϵһ㷨ԭԢڸ涨ֵģʦоٳҹ񷨵ڶһйڡйʧĹ涨šʧΡһ㷨ԭ򣬶ծȨεڲ󳥹ϵ
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߷Ժڴ˵о飬Լ£

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߷Ժֵ̨һΪijϣȨˣ̳֮ˣijϵծΣ񷨵һһʮڶ֮涨ƽ͡ӦijϾ͸÷뱻˶֮ԼΪЧ
ʦΪ֮ƽΪ֮󣬶ãּڲ䷨֮©ڱijڷ֮Լϵ֮ԼϵծȨΪծȨծϵȨ䶯ԳдȨΪҪʳ֮Ч񷨵һһһ֮ã޷©֮ڣ񷨵һһڶΪ֮Ҫ
ڡáƽ͡Ȼ͡ʮһʦдĿ⣬ϵ壺
ƽ͡ƽڷɽ֮һ֣ʦΪߣȸԮ֮νڲ֮㣬༴ijʵзз涨Ԯ֮棬ʽʣͷ룬ʷ֮ɫ
Ȼָ͡ڷһ˽Ŀ͹۷ΧڼԽͣڷĵȻΧڣз©ʱھʵĺ
áǰ߲֮ͬ˽ʵ÷̣֮༴尸ḷ́漰֮ڷ壬ֵĿ巶Χɽ֮ϵǾԵġ
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ʦɽõ𣬲μ̣֮񷨵ڶٶʮڶν⳥Ƿղѣۡʦ߷Ժʮ¶ʮյĴֱͥͬ˵ΪȻ𡹵˹ϵġʧ뱾֮⳥ͬڱ涨ǻڹƽԭʹծ˷ܶȡ֮棬ԿΪղڱ֮Χڣֱñ֮涨ʦѧ˵о()p.253()p.179
߷Ժʮʮյߴͥ飬ʦش壺һΪ϶ȫΪծ֮һ֣ΩĹ涨ڸ覴òܲʱø֮涨ڸ覴ÿԲʱø֮涨һΪͲȫ֮覴õ涨֮ùϵʮ¶ͨծУ񷨵ڶΪȫ֮涨ծȨ˿ֱӻ֮涨ʹȨ޴֮

ʦΪν棬ʵΪۣϵھἰõһ֤ɷڷɹ涨ĹҪ뷨Ч෴ۡʦǿҪΪЧijұҪùҪѱоٳܷķЧ϶ij涨Ϊʱų˷©Ĵڣõء
۵ӣʦٳ񷨵һ涨ֺı֮ĸŮżDzƲϵ⳥νŮӦŽͰǻŮڡδޡӦۡΪ䲻
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׼ãʦĶ壬ϵȨ֮涨һ֮ϣг֮ΪȨʽáïʦǰp.343书ڱⷱظ涨һ©ʾ涨׼õݿɷΪ࣬һΪԭ׼áҪЧ׼á񷨵ڰһ֮涨Ĺ涨վֵʹߣֻǻȨһᾭ֮ǹȡȨߣ޷֮ԭ˶֮ˣԲ֮涨һΪЧ֮׼ãֻЧ񷨶һ涨Լ֮໥׼õڶʮڶʮ֮涨
׼֮涨ȫ̼׼ãӦӦ׼׼֮Ӧ׼ߣ׼֮ķʽ񷨵ڶһΪ˻ΪծεĹ涨׼񷨵һٰʮ֮ΣʦΪֻ׼ùʶ޼ƽ֮涨䷨֮涨ծ֮Լ֮δŮծеϵУ˲DzĽǶԹۣ׼֮
񷨹涨á׼á֮⣬֮أʮڶͥ飬񷨵߰ͨȨĹ涨˼ڵͨȨͬڰڰھһ֮涨׼ڵȨˡȨ˻Ȩ˼䣬òȨ˼䣬鲢ΪΪּΪһʾ涨ѣӶڵͨȨû׼֮⣬Ȩ˼䣨ˡʹýڣӦԮáưӦΪ֮֮ͬΪ֮ͣã᳹ѧ˵֮ͨ˵Ϊ񷨵߰ʮйȨ֮涨Ȩ˼׼ڵȨˣ񷨵ڰ˰ʮ⣬ȨȨֱ֧֮ʣӦȨȨ֮涨᳹Ȩ֮
ʵΪжΪûԣνġͬһɡͬһ״̬淶ּΪ֮жϣвͬںͬ
񷨵һãʦծۣp.146
񷨵һ涨֮ˣߣ޳ˣⷵߣܷ֮ƶڣΡʦΪ涨֮ˣ֪޷ԭ˶ʹȨǰȨò֮崦֮Σʱһ˶һ֮涨⸺򳥻۶֮Σ򲻵Ȩ֮Ϊȡ棬ڴΪϵ޳ø棬˵ֵñ˹涨ڲ⸺֮޶ڣ为ǹ񷨵һΪһȨ֮˵Ч֮޳루֮Ȩ֣֮֮
һΣ׽֮ȨתȨʱΪ⣬񷨵ڰˡһھİ֮涨ȡø֮Ȩ˳Ϊ루ϸԼ֮񷨵һ˶һ⸺ΣκιʧΪӹҸȨΪ⳥ʱʦΪҿ񷨵һ֮涨󷵻Ȩʱ֮Ҫã˱ȡø֮ȨǾɲ˼֮Ȩ֣ǻȡ֮涨ʲֱ񷨵һɵĽ񷨵һͬͬաưӦΪ֮ͬӦ֮
񷨵ڶͬʱпȨãʦͬʱп磺񷨵ڶ涨֮á׼üãѧ˵о()p.179
񷨵ڶʮһͬʱпȨ֮涨Լ֮ŴȨʱӦ߱Ҫ
ͬһȫ˫Լծ񣺼Լ˫˻ծȨծ񣬶˴˸жԼ۹ϵ֮Լ
Դѽ峥ڶδΪԴ
ȫ˫Լ֮һΪ񣬻ΪָܾԼ֮Υԭʱ
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