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Խйѧѧط˼IJѧط˼йѧļⲽɣйѧѧط˼ƣҲѧؽйѧһҪĹIJΪйѧչ䡢ˡ֮йѧֻܴʼIJѽйѧݱΪ׶[1] 굽ս19111937Ϊһ׶Σӿսйƴ½19371949Ϊڶ׶ΣӡǨִ̨19491985ңΪ׶Ρֱйѧѧϵѧʡ׶εѧ

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IJ꣬عйѧѧϵйĴѧѧϵȽĽ廪ѧѧϾѧѧϵҡ⣬ڱƽ񱱾ྩѧ͸ʴѧѧϵϷ人ѧɽѧѧϵ[2] ǰѧϵʷڵһ׶εġ.ġĻ˶ڼ䣬ѧϵţ Ҷѧܵҵȴ٣ǿջѧ֮ð¡Ļ˶һԵ˼˶thinker,һѧңƩʾһͣԡ.ġ˶ѧûгɾͣ ûһ˼ҿվס[3]廪ѧϵ߼н쵼֡ ѧʵۡΪڶжܾĴ[4]棬긮߼ȥ廪Ȼ˸ͬѧ˽ ż棨ãϵΣ ̫ע߼DZȽӹŵѧҲֻӢʵۡżѧӢоڸڱ󽲿ѧǷкڸͷԣ⡣ѧǿԽѧǿѧҪյסס긮أ˼ĸϤر˵ѧʣȴԣһѧûдйע⣺IJDz֪طûСݡ¡֮Ƕڶ˽⣬ﲻǸ̶ȡ˽ĶֻǡHow we think\"еĶ ϺŶȤûж[5]ϵѧ൱ʵ Գһ֮ԣܲܳѧҶ⡣˽ϵһײ׵ġԺĶûдйʵʵ塣ע⣺IJDz֪ûݵ¡ء޷ʮ͵Ŀ£͸ˣҪ첻Աѧɾͣѧ֮šԺרŽйѧйѧʮΪģ֮ͮʷսڼ䣬ǨȫͮΪġȤҪڷʷķʷעؿݣǴѧԺѧ磬Է̵Ľ塢ûжȤ費IJǷҵѧֻǷʷĹŵѧѧϵı֡ˣѧϵʷãʦ࣬ɡѧѧϵ㣬в廪ѧϵܵ˵ߵġɾ;󡱡[6]⣬ ྩѧϵ˸Ŷݥǵʱѧò֮һ[7]ѧѧϵ͸̸жٳɾˡ

1949Ժ̨ѧϵз¿¿ʿרңȥ̨ûӰ졣ߣʹ̨ѧϵϹϣ˶ΣԸйأIJΪ˵޿ɡ̨ѧϵ廪һϴͳѧΪûгɾ͡[8]սԺ ܰѧѧȥ˺١һ˵ȥѧ룬йѧƽĴӣ޻ѬϰҲ˵ϡѧãйѧ֪ǶδսԺѧķ[9]

֮ѧѧΪģֻעġ֪ʶġ߼˼磬ӴһЩ߼⡢ѧ⡢Լڵ˼ζѧ⣬ûע⡣رǾĻ˶Ժ󣬡йĻᾧɵʵѧʣնˣһС[10]ԣй˼ǻҸdzɥ䱾[11]

ϵԿIJйĴѧѧϵ˳Ĺۣ廪롢̨ΪģԶĸУϵѧϵΪ꣬ɴ˶йѧ緢ۣͣڡжԱ廪ѧϵʳԱȡɣIJйѧѧϵйѧʾǿҵIJۣһӡ޳йѧѧϵԽѧΪѧĴʵʮѧ߼˾һ͵ӣȷ˵ѧΪ㻵ҪѵǺܺá[12]ΪѧѵDZҪģǾɣѧʶԽ룬йѧͻԽ͸٣ǶѧѵǷֻһԵض߼ѧѧۺѧʷԼĿIJйѧķʡ֡ԡ壮ġĻ˶ĹϵһġӦ˵йѧѧϵѧѧʡϵģģվλüߣҪ˼һв롢ϵͳϽȻIJûзйҲ˼Ƶѧҵ

꣬IJġձ<ѧܿ>רϣѧΪйѧ緢ҪۡIJ˵ܳƵѧҵˣȷмܳϵͳˡˣй࣬塤ġʱһҲûУڡ塤ġԺλʮŶݥλֱѧʣԪѧ֪ʶۣ߼

IJΪѧͷѧͳҳԽͳڴ˳ԽԳΪѧҡԪѧļǰãѧҵļͨˡصں˵ѧ۱ҪͨԵ֤壻áá[13]һңֻͬ˰ƪ£һڽ̼ңһ˵ѧңѧҡ[14]ڴ˿ԿIJкڣ50Ժ󣩶ѧ˽Ȼбȷе˵ֶļ⡣DzɲġIJϼܵġΨʶۡ1932ǡʱ¼ԪƷ[15]ΪѧϾãʹѧһˡĴ£ӱ˵Ϸڡİظɭغйĺ⣬ǵѧܰã֤࣬Ԫѧļ¡IJܻغظɭӰ֮䴦ŮسѧΪѵ֤ȻIJ϶ԡΨʶۡеɫͬ⣬ʵȴ΢ʾܵ˵IJӵۼߣΪйѧĵ䷶ġΨʶۡϵͳΪʱѧʹйĻĻĿԴǰ;[16]ʵϣIJƾ㡢츴ѧij֤ʵIJжϲ

IJŶݥΪѧңҪǿ϶ġԪʶۡ˼롣ʵϣIJ˲ӦĹۣΪʶŵĶԪ۳ԽӢ֪˵Causal theory of perception),뿵µ֪ʶ˵Possible theory of Knowledge)[17],ڸϽ֮·ʿLewisΪ㣬ܱʾԲɵ·[18]֪ʶԪѧĻǶԪѧһԪԪ֮۵ĸı䣬϶ġٽĿһȻϵͳ[19]Ҵ巽ָ֤ϵĹףֻϼ仳Ŀ͹Ե̬ȣָһ̬ϡ롱ΪعĹ۵ìܣΪûߵʵۣȴƫΨۻΨ壬մȾƫƧ˼ãµʶԲȻΪȻĺۼ[20]ʶʹϸδȻIJϳֿ϶ܷʣȻ̬ʵǿɱģʹԴϵͳԳĻһܳס[21]IJŶݥۣ߶ijɾ빱ףȴй֮ӣӳIJʱѧʶIJ㣬δӶԻغȤаѳIJʱд߼ѧغάظ˹̹Уʵ۵ȻIJŵȴһˣΪĶԪʶ˼롰ûʲôֵϾʱƣֻܵһij̶ȡ[22]ֻ϶ѧܵĿΪšѧ⣬Dzܡ롯[23]һ䲻˵ȫʧȴδƫˣڡйѧһжŵ[24]ÿƽʵIJ϶ǰˣ̫ˣʴӣԽܡΣġʶۡ1934йִѧʷϿԳΪʶۡĵһȻġ֪ʶۡ1983ڿʱڣIJġʶ֮Сϣ1956£1957ͬնڽ˵ʶۣ俪ȺӵͷԳϡ

IJ϶ԽΪѧҵĶλҪǴ߼ۣһһֱֵ꣬ûиı䣬ֻ˽ѧΪڹ۵һֲ䡣IJԽ߼ϵŬǡġҲǡܻݲdzġ[25]˵Լϲµˡ[26]ġ߼1937һԡƷһõIJο飬ѵ顱[27]ٽ߼ѧȴ߼֪ʶ֮ĹΪ̬dzһ߼ʹͳһı׼Ψ֤ս֮ʽ߼ܵѹ[28]ڱ֤ɵйܱһ̬[29]ܲ˵һ֧[30]ͬʱIJҲָʵʵϣδϸ̬ȣԡҪĶڶֹûŪԡ[31]⣬߼רĽ˵Ҳδơǽûʲôϵͳԣ߼һõϵͳ飬Եľ顱ʹIJľʧ[32]ʱġ۵1940֪͡ʶۡ[33]δдѹIJҪеʧˣIJ۽ΪһЩ߼Ե⡱[34]̸ѧ˼룬ŶݥȽϣҲȶĸ߳һIJΪԾ弰ʵۣʱνʵۣķ˼оķǿдȷʵܴѧIJ档Լ⣬⡣ⷽҪŶݥã߽˵˼룬ԼʱͲˡ[35]ۣȷһλѧңžҪһˡIJҲָ˽ľڣ˵ҲֻӢ˼룬ٽһͲˡ[36]ܵؿIJԽϵ߼ѧۣ߼ijɾ۸һЩ֪ʶۿ϶࣬IJ˵ҹһȽܾͨ߼ѧߣѧ֪ʶ۵ѵҲʮС[37]IJûпġ֪ʶۡһйءIJһԽص࣬϶Ҳࡣ

ȻΣIJϵĿܡйѧѧòˣdzƵѧҵλִйѧĴIJǸߵָۣ

ʮŶݥִйѧ֦ûˣҲֻðѡˣйѧ粻ֻɹۣһ˿⣬ԶչĻ[38]

IJйѧҪչĻͱλѧ˼ǰʮԪѧص߼Ŷݥʶ½ں봴죬ѧؽйѧʵϣIJڽִѧĺ󱳾Уܡŵѧͬұһ¯ͨԵؽԼѧϵΪֵѧؽйѧṩһ䷶

IJйѧۣܡʵϣIJϵĿйѧƵѧҵﲻˡܡΪѧңIJϴִĿڣIJϿɵѧλ顢ƾ㡢ˡڷIJ϶ۺܵͣûзѧҵλIJ϶ƶкܸߵۣѧϵĵλԶIJҪ϶άӵѧ׽ڵǻۡ˿ӣ˿ӵʵǻ棬ӵǻ»ת¶˼䡣ͬʱҲ˵ѧ֮ţʹ֮ܽǻۡ[39]ΪġĻѧһĹסΪѧҵĵλǡǡⱾ춨ġIJҪͨⱾ϶ġһ϶IJһûиı䡣ڻϤϢIJϽ̨塶ձ߲ɷãĽиָ

⣨ָĻѧһ飩ǵʱdz˲һ˼dzǿԳһ֮ԣǶƴҴճģһᴮ£˿뼸Ե֮˵ǵһġ[40]

Ȼ˺ܿġйĻҪ塷IJΪ˽йĻףйĻҪ塷²Ļѧ[41]˵Ļڸһѧҵı£ȫʱϼУdzͥйŵĴͳ[42]IJϿ

ڽйһĻĸߣе˴ͳ˼룬˵ϾйĻ͡ȫ˼֮УֻұٴͳĻģĿ⣬һĵطĩ壨ָ䡢ء֮Ҳһѹ£߻ظž·ģ֮Կ£ΪйĻһ·ҲĻйڡ[43]

ĸбֵġй֪ʶӲӵķڡIJԵľ֮顣֮IJΪǸ˲顢ǻۡ˸ʱҪˣѾ̫ˡ۲ǶǴ֪Ƽһϵˡ֮ͬιȡʱûһġ[44]ͬʱIJҲָ˼ľޣָ䡰һIJڴϵݹ濪µϣ˶йʷĻ˽Ⲣ¹ҲС[45]δѭ֮ţټǰ΢¹ȴܿؼ תΪ彨ҵ ԼŪ˸ѽһҵС[46]֮彨ۡΪĵͼӶũϰߵĺййĻIJΪݹԲڷϡӹ˵ġһԿĵطҲʹ˽⵽йĻ[47]ҡϣҲкܶûд[48]ȻΣΪIJϵһ۶ʹйִĻʷϾԺյġҵĵλΪĻйͬʱҲйִѧʷռһѧҵĵλ

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νĻʶ˼й֮ۺԻ¡֮ʶҲһʶǿϳɵ֮٣贫򵥴ɴʶ˼ɿټֵ֮Դ˼ֵ֮Դʵ£ԻĻʶ桱[51]

IJϿĻʶ治߹ѧѧ棬ضڽ棬ƳƻЩ档˵

йûɷʽѧҲɡйʽѧҪĻʶΪߵĻɾijɵ֮ڲǸ߹ѧ棬ѧ棬κضڽģȻȴǶƳɲƻ˴˵ȵ֮档[52]

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ֳɵ̣֮ʹԼֹǻۣйͳ⣬޴Էߣʹѧ಻ܾ֮ʴֹĻʶ˸߹ѧ棬Ƴ֮˼֮ãʹ֮Ϊߡ[53]

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ƾΪĻʶеľˡȻһĿߣĴԼĩĹˡơһһļ̳ߣйѧʷĻʷеԶ塣IJɴΪĻѧϵʷλ

йѧУƾ߲֮һ硶ľ֮ؽйľ֮չ֮顷йĻֵ֮Ļʶԡйѧԭۡľ޲ᣩ龳硷޲ᣩȵȡIJҲЩ߶ۣΪʵԼڱҲ٣ȶҲΪʶӡΪдգҴҲ񷶵ʵдաIJƵЩΪ֮[54]IJ϶ƵѧҲ΢ʣΪѾʱʹԴΪƾԵؿƣ

һ־Ըڣźͨ׳ǻݹ

ȫעǣ御ˣͨãҵ˼䡣[55]

IJƾġĻʶеľ֡ࡣ

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ִйѧʷϣҲһλҪѧҡԾӣΪԼѧѧǡų콲ǣIJҡIJϻ䣺

Ͽսڳɶʱ̸νʵйѧֻɣ˵ϣǰν½½졣ᵱʱЦԴΪȿҲ˵ң˽֮ʵҡз֮ʲۡ[61]

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ܵĿIJԷϵѧΪ۾ߣԼԴˣҲ[63]

IJ۵λѧٶĹϵڲ̶ͬӰƾйֱӵӰ죬ƶ̳˴鵽ʮĵѧľ·򡣷ġѧʷҪҵIJ֣ҲһϳΪIJľ[64]

עͣ

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4 ν廪ѧɡ֮˵˵廪ѧɡָ廪ϵѧɫԳ 廪ѧϵָһϵѧ߼ѧоҲеһԱпɿǡۡ廪ѧɡһоͬоĹͬʽʽоʽʹãָ廪ѧǵĹ干֮ͬǶлͨŽ񣬻ͨͻͨô廪֮֡ͬDzܹ֮ΪѧɡDzǶһ޶ģijˣμ͹廪ѧɣ򡷣廪ѧ磬1997棩

5ںѧĹϵԲοɭ<ѧʶ>һģ ȽѧĻۡһ̨ͼ޹˾671978档

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17 ֪˵IJΪ絽ڽ缰ڽ絽һִ̼Ӧ˵ˣأ޻Խˣ֪ʶ˵IJֳΪ˼֯˵֪ʶڣָ˼֮֯ãҪĴǿ¡IJһ֮ѧ粢۱ͬϣ

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22IJʱܡҳ139

23IJʱܡҳ139

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28ģ(a)ࡶй߼ʷִݣ磬1989棩£(b)̶йִ߼ʷۡϿѧʿģ1997꣩(c)Werner Meissner, Philosophy and Politics in China:The Controversy over Dialectical Matterialism in the 1930s , Part . 12,Stanford University Press, Staford, California, 1990.

29 һ̬ȡһֱֵʮԴеõ֤󣬰˼һӦ廪ѧѧϵݽȻʽ߼лDzϣ˵߼Ļ䶼߼úһȫУԵۣһЩѧڡǽ϶ԽĹ۵֤Ϊʽ߼绤ΪȷۡԴǣ߹ѧƷʺ͸ֱѧ˷緶ΪΪѻ<Ҿʦ>ࡶصĻءɶĴ磬1995棬ҳ200201

30 IJһ֮йѧ粢۱ƪͬǰ

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40IJ<ʶĩ>ļ˳磬1993棬ҳ208

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52IJ<ƾ>IJµ塷ҳ267

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55IJ<ƾ>IJµ塷ҳ265

56μ<IJԡŽ>ʺ溺ࡶIJ̨ѧоᣬ851996棬ҳ494

57 μIJѧ֮ơһģ̨¿58ڣܵ 56 ڣ1980ꡣ

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