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Ѳ߷Ժ󷨹˹ά(Sloviter)

ڵһ֡ԡָԭҪԺǩԤȽĶ޶1996 ꡶ͨѶׯطCommunications Decency ActIJģ223(a) 223(d)ԭ涨ַеܷһȨ͵ȨΪ˱ڲοҽЩȫ£

ݵ223(a),indecencyκһˣ


1) ݼͨѶʱ

(B)Ѷʩ

l š

(ii)ǽͨѶ18£κۡ󡢰ʾ顢ͼϢ۴Ϣ߷

2ɿƴʩκ˽Ѷʩڵڣ 1νֹΪ⽫κεѶʩڴֹΪġ

Բļ򷣿߲

223(d)(1)涨Ѷʩȷ޶Ϊʽʩʹá

ݵ223dڣκһˣ


1)ݼͨѶʱ

(A)ʹýʽʩij˻18괫ͣ


(B)ʹκλʽʩ18µܹӴķʽչʾ׼κԻйΪٵκۡ󡢰ʾ顢ͼϢ۴Ϣ߷

2ɿƴʩκ˽Ѷʩڵڣ 1νֹΪ⽫κεѶʩڴֹΪġ


еΡ

Щ涨ͻĵطһҪ¹涨ΥЩ涨ܵʵԵijͷڶڡ indecentĺ͡(patently offensive)ĽĹ涨֮䣬йԡ

ʹá ⣬ǰʷ߷ԺڡFCC̫ƽ𰸡жԡķйطɵġȻͨׯطûжʲôǡ

223 aδܶ塰ʹΪһķ񶨣п϶ζķ񶨣ʽϷ񶨵ʵϳϣҡ벻Чķȣ漰ӦعʱĽ͹ҪԳһµͼ


򷢱ܷ֮´ľأԼ޷˺һ顣㷨ԺԸӷɹ涨еóһۣԭҲṩ˴ֹ֤֤ͣܵɵĵִеĻͻԱɲЧӦchilling effectˣǴĹ涨żãһֱӳͷ۵Ĺ

ڷԺijʱǰ뿼ǹ棬ⲻӦκ顣̫֤֤֧ܷıʱӦܵԴμ磬Turner Broadcasting System, Inc. FCC,114,S.Ct.2445,2458 (1994)Virginia Bd.of Pharmacy v.Virginia Citizens Consumer Council, 425 U.S.748,763-65 (1976)

ˣԭ֤վסŵģͱ֤޷˺ڣǷԺʱġ

ͨׯطĹ涨ݱݶʵʩƣǡۻǡ񡱵ۣڱУǶܷۡμSable Communication of California, Inc. v. FCC,492 U.S.115,126 (1989)һԣЩӦܵϸģֹ涨ĺϷֻܽڽȵĻϣֹ涨ֻϸʵһʱŻܵԺ֧֡ݶԱƶĺôܷȨܵ𺦡Elrod v. Burns, 427 U.S.at 363

ڿõı׼棬һҲȷҪϵǣڹ㲥Уܽᵽľ֤ΣԼĽͷɹ淶ǷСƵϣо֤ΡΣ֤ݺ֤ݻ϶ʵͨžܶأǸSableеĵ绰ͨţͨŰеģPacificaеĹ㲥Ϊʹõ绰һûȡ϶˼ǵжϻضϢΧ㷺żײݣûʵҲյһЩݵľ棬Լ˽Ӵ㲥ĿĿĻ򡰹ԡassault ݵĻᡣˣͲżϡˡ񡱵ݵĻǺСġ


Ҫ֤Сȵ ԭ򣬲뷨ɵģԣvaguenessйأڰͿֶ(Buckwalter)ٵойϸ⣬ܷͬһķйء磬ŦԼеı׼ձܵݣ̫ź͹ʻ̶ȽͲдʵԵдͬͰ̲İϻϷ硶ʹȻþȴάTony Awardһ߽(Pulitzer),ңһЩŵĸĸʦΪеʺϻӦ1112꼶ĺӡͨijЩͼڻҵþ磬ٻвѧӴеݣҲп롶ͨׯطĵΧ

ڹעŮֳ飬ijЩÿ춼ڷһЩܵٷǴűԴдεⲢ׵ΪһҵĻ⡣Dzܿ϶ǣıĽǶȣЩʮŮԻȤҲйصۣҲᱻijЩݵIJϡ

ϻõĴԵIJͼܿҲڡͨׯطĵ󡣳ڹҵ־ӡȷ򸾸ֽƵĵͼƬҰǿĻͼ˹ơ(Francesco Clemente)ĻԹпܱ϶Ϊʹðյ׼жĴʻ㣬дԽйΪ١ûκֹ֤֤17СĶЩʱʲôȵ档

෴ԭṩ֤ȴ֤Щܻᱻ϶Ϊݣֹͣǿ(Stop Prisoner Rape)̲ؼ; (Critical Path AIDS)ĿṩݣһЩͽϴδȴǷdzҪġ磬֤ʾ¸Ⱦ̲˵Уķ֮һ1320֮˵Уûзһжϡڷͥṩ֤ݵ֤˼ţ֯ϹЩͼƬǺܵġͨׯطãӰȨ

˵ϣԺӦصĽۣƳоʱ䡣ȻܷһȨܵвʱöڵķ磬ӦΪ˾ɡSable, 492 U.S.at129( Landmark Communications, Inc. v. Virginia, 435 U.S.829, 834(1978))κԴöIJֹͬǶܷԷйصʵ

⣬Ԯöľ֤ͳҪ漰߶ࡢͯɫƷͶͯԽϢڻϷġƣǾе֤ϣͨ¡ʩ(Howard Schmidt)ľ֤ܵдԵݵ֤Ҫͬ͵ijдΪɫϣ´ӼϽϣɣĵйأҲˡˡͳ־ܡԭǿDzûɷԲܷһıƣࡢͯɫƷɧŶͯݡǵϽǵ֮ϣǵ֤ݺǵĵ֧ǵţͨׯطֱù

Ԯ߷Ժǰͼڹ淶ͨׯط漰漰Ĵݷ棬нȵ档һ㣬Ҳġˣһdzϣʹ൱δԶʹƶͨׯطݷ棬൱ڣȻҵжϲһṩЩֵ֤ݡ


ֹδ˽Ӵϡ񡱵ݷϣ֤ʵԼܹж棬ѡʵָķʽ˶ʹ˵ıܵӦеƣʹܷһȨ

ԭΪͨׯطΥܷһΪܹӻϵطЧֹӦܷܵۡӦӱʵЧϿ÷ûнֹȨѵݡǰһʵ⣬ǡͨׯطԿɻõġܷIJϿܲӰ졣ʵöϸ¼Ĵ˵֤֤ʵڲֹԭϷȨȡIJϵ£ԭءͨѶׯطҪôڼDzܵģҪôھ޷ܵġ

˽ʼ͸⣬ṩ̶޷ȷȡϵûݺ䡣ʹԵؿԽṩ߻ûзּܹڸ顢ȺĵʼеݰڱΡʹЩʽͨѶߣܿƽϢĶ󣬲ڶ£޷ϤڵݡýЩʽнвͨĻΪ˻ɱǾͱ뽫ԼĽ͵ʺ϶ͯˮƽijЩ˱ҲȫֹЧSable492 U.S.at131IJöȻdzȨѵ ݣҲΪǷݡ

Χṩ̣ά(world wide web)ͨؽӿڣܹҳ߲ϢӦļڼϾǿܵģʵĽȴΪʵдڵһ⣬ʹάķҵ֯һЩҵ֯ṩķʽĻ÷øܴ߰󡣴⣬ʹЩվƳɱͬεûȫδ˹˳ıϵҲǺСġ

ͨ÷ö޶ҵɫƷṩߺǿΣǶͬȹٵΥˣͼܿһ⡣աͨׯطƶʷû϶˷öֻҵɫƷṩߡ

ӡͨׯطıʷûн˷ö޶ҵɫƷṩߵʵǷdzԵġ˷ö޶ЩĻ϶֪ôʵϣڹ淶ɫ绰ϾġڡͨׯطУᲢûƵơΪҪǣĻ鱨رᲢ뽫˷ý޶ضṩߣչʾЩҵϵṩߣǿһʵ᲻淶ҵṩߣҲ淶ҵṩߡ

ͨׯط÷ΧܹӭΪ֮һΪͼķΧ㡣Ҳԡ񡱻޶ֵųڵΧ֮⡣ķʽС÷ΧΪܷίθְȨһµͲϷط޵˾ܡ

֤УҼᶨصóĽۣͨׯطַܷһɣַ˳˵ɡѯ֤Լʦʱһúԣ ԽΪ񡱵ĻﺭǵķΧͻܹ㣬ӺдΪ硶뿪˹ά˹leave Las VegasĵӰϷ飬ԸչʾٵƬ,ܱijġġݣ޲ ÷նдһ˵Ƭ


֤ͬ໥ṩ޷ݵû޶˵ķΧڣΪЩṩûʵеķȡݵ˵䡣Ϊ֮һǷ֣ڻչʾݵıߣڱֳĬܵ׷ߵΣ֮ѡ񡣡ͨׯط223(a) (d)ǿӵѡ񣬴˳˺δɵĺġ

ҲĹ۵㡣ֹ۵ΪԭԡͨׯطʾĹעͷԺ⣬ӳøϵһֿŵܶϡʵϣӦ˾ijֺķʽơͨׯطãӶϾѧֵƷܵߡ˾ȷʵҪһķù㷺Ρһٶղķ˹˹James Joyceġ˹ָȻ£μUnited States v. One Book Entitled Ulysses, 72 F.2d 705 (2d Cir.1934)ҲμBook Named Jonh Clelands Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasurev. Attorney General of Mass., 383 U.S.413 (1966)Ƕǰȥ˾Ĵĺжģ˾һͳһ壬𰸼У˾˫ս̣ӳ˸ͬطļپле

󣬿ЧԴ۸ӵڡͨׯط÷ΧȷԡΪͿֶطٺš͡ڱģģǿǵжIJϵı׼û϶ʵʱ͸ˡĹ۵㣬223eķΪ÷ΥֺܵĶṩЧĿ磬˵ҡ

硶ͨׯطܵɵȽֹãҲʹδ䵽ޱؽӴԲݵĵزͶͯɫƷзӦԽڷͥĺ͹עЩ⡣ͨׯطڹʱ˾Լ˵ҪɣΪʱ˾зࡢͯɫƷͶͯԽ׷ߣҽͨׯطûǾĵ÷ԣҲעɹ ǣܷһܽΪҪṩıҪٵжϡٴڲϸ״̬ҲְֻѡܷһһظǵĺṩˣһԥصóԭŸ˵Ľۣܷһ͵ܵߵġͨׯطģӱΥܵġ