ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 



˲һ޶ȵķθй˼ִ


һ

ִйܷҪǻѧԷθĽ·Ҫ֣һģһʵ֤ģǷֱֲͬķιۡһֽѭĹŵ䴫ͳͨչʾijЩļֵ׼Լԡ ijЩҪ֤һԵķǺҲǿܵġ(ע ֪ٹҮ˺ͰʹõķࡣμFriedrich A.Von Hayek.The Constitution of Liberty[M].Chicago:The University of Chicago Press,1960. 뱾.ԭ[M].Ϻ꣬1997.ִ ķ[M].£ܺ룬йѧ磬1994.)ڶֽ ͼƿЩֵ͵Ҫ󣬵͡ΧѰԷε֪ ʵһԤ󣺲ͬĻøԵĹ۵ȥ֤ΣϣӸԵ ʵ໥ԻдﵽԷι淶ĹʶҰѵһֳΪԭּ塱(fundamentalist)ڶֽ塱(ecumenical)ķθ ɲһضȻĹһ֯úõķһ õķɹĿ֮ûбȻϵģǻڷ ĶijضƶȰš֮һַȨ Ƿεģһ׷ҺĿķҲǷεģؼ ڷɷĿʲôǷɱ֯úûڷѧϣβһļֵϵΪijһֵּϵƳһϵм͹ܺ͡ڷθɵķɸҪ[1]Ȼ˼뾭ܵ ԭּ塱ۺЩȨɵȼֵװθйѧ ļ˷кǿҷԣǶԷοΪΪʵijƶȱ绤߼ǡ( עдԵĹ۵µġʲôĵIJ֡Ϊ ķθĸȱȨɺЩΪļֵ ʹγΪȨ塢˹εıӹߡμ.ʲô[J]. ѧ1999(4)134-141.)巽ϵŵǣԽ ĻĸаһԸĻΪλĻϣʹԭȱ ĻҲ뷨ͨڡйҵġιۡһ̶ ·ͨģijԽűȽϷҵķ˼ʵ֤ķ˼ֵ й巨ι۵Ŀԡ
йʷһֱŻΪȨŪթı ߵķ֮ˡԽйһЩѧȻڹҡĹԿǣ Ϸҡǿ˼Ҫԣ䷨˼಻ǡĽͺ ۡ(ע̫ⷽ.̫ѡ[M].л֣1977 .˼ʷ[M].ϺϺ꣬1986ƽ.ط˼[M].ӡ ݣ1931.й˼ʷ[M].ӡݣ1937׾.й ˼ʷ[M].ӡݣ1937.)ҵķѧͳڵйѣȻ δо˼Ƭɢй˵ķʶΪ֮Сġз𷨡 񰵺˵йзεijιڵйĹٷıͷƴѧ Ľ̿洦ɼһǵѧɷѿĵȥι ŵġԷι(עӡġƪ˵š Էιٴѡ)кβͬ͹Է()ڹеҪǷ (עʱڡι롰ԷιֵĻϣˡѭ ι롰ιIJͬΪѭһˣһ˶ڷ ֮£ƽȵΪɹĶ󡣡ȴƺױΪ뷨ƽе վţ࿿ֻµáμ.ʲô[J].йѧ 1999(4)124֮ӡġƪ˵šԷι ٴѡʵϣڷѧϣԷѭ˼࣬ǿ ĶǷɵҪԡʵһ˶ڷ֮¡ǾͲǷϵ ⣬ϵ⣬ƶȺƶȵˡ)ѵйй ι淶͸֪ġ֪ʶ롰ȨıյĻô ͻ֣ᷢйġͼġԭֵּƤ࣬ɫ Ǵͳķ˼롣(עһ˵֪ʶߵķλıһַ ۵ɫʣעйӦһθѣǸáԡר ڷֲ壬ṩǡӦʲô˼ ǡйʵܹӦʲôΡ⡣ⷽϿɲ.ʲ ô[J].йѧ1999(4).ι巨ι[C]. йƳ磬1996.ι[C].人人ѧ磬1997 ־.͵Ŀ꣺ι巨ι[J].йѧ1997(1) ԭ.[A].׿Ԩ.ѧ[M].ɳ磬1998.෴ڹٷıУ εĸ롰˥ϵǰȨ( )ΪȵĿǣⲻ˵йӦõҪ塱ķθ ΪǿǷͷɹʹ÷ҵҪԣ ʹáιıһ˵ι ͳķӹɵġ)йط⹹˵й ġŴҵ(עҵɽڱй˼ ĿʱʹõģʱµġԴһʸ׼ȷرȥ롰ڡ ϵμ.˼ʷ[M].ϺϺ꣬1986.)ȻܰѡԷ ΪִθʹãǷθҪݡҵ ˼巨ι۵ijЩ۵֮ͬҪ¼棺
һԷɹĿϣ巽ھܾЩе ǿʵ֤ķͷɹҪԣΪҵġԷι뷨θ ͨء
йƵĿһԵĹΪ˾Ŀ ָֻͨԲ˹ÿ˷á۹ҵʱ ĺûΪһֿƹļϵֻЧ֯ ĹĿ֮佨лϵṩҪֵǰȫһ ȫĹĴʵֹĿǰᡣӷ֮Ϊʵ õȨǸԴڹ()ΪΪṩϷԡ йңʹÿһ˹趨ĹͬΪ߶ȸ˾ ְÿһ˱㶼档һ֡ûлҡ(ע ӡ˵÷Σ()¹Դӷ ֮ΪΡ(η)ӡԣԵҲֹѧ֮ʦ Ҳɡ͹ȰҲޣ֮Ҳ衱(˵)ʥ֮ι ֮ΪҲ䲻ΪҲ֮ΪҲڲʲ˲Ϊǣ һʹ롣Ϊڶѣʲ¶񷨡(ѧ))
ڶӷ()Դķʵ֤ģ˼ʵʱΪ ʽ巨Ρ򡰹巨Ρ[2]ʽ巨ڷһַʵ֤ еϵκηɻ˵νϸķɶ [3]ɵĴһ£Ĺһ£Ƿһ£Ƿ һٶı׼һ⡣һʵϴڵķһɣ ΪͬԱʾ޳񡢽̿Ķ[4]˹ ЩǷʵ֤ľһ֡ɵĴۡ(creating law)ɴ۹ʽ巨θǰ෴ԭּ Դһֹɵķֹۡ(finding law)[5]ɵķֹۡ ƾõĴͳ˼룺ÿһַɶһַ֣ ߵĽ档[6]Dzƶɣַֻɶѡ һзַɵѻƣҾ˲ˡ[7] бһ˼룺
ǺҳһۣŶеԼ ĺƽҸе߸ԡΪκȺȨƶϲķ ɣ˵ɲݵĺûԿԽӷƶһȨԡǡ ˵е˷ԵġǿԸıԭʽӦ÷ʽ ûиԭݵȨ[8]
ֹһζѧѧٶijЩȨضԭƾ ڵԽԣʵǵ̬ΣձػСЩԭ ƶģǴ־֮⣬Աȴ͸ͨ 㲻ġЩԭԣ˷ijЩصʸܵձʱ ֻЩԭļ¼ġƶЩ˷־ȨΪ ǷֺЩԭΪ[6](1932)ϸ˵ֹ۲ɡ ĸΪЩԭڵĻôҲֻƶģ Ϊܶôǿô͵µľΨһҪľ ЩζѧѧȥֲЩԭ򡪡߼˵ ķɱ֮ĶȡúϷԡĴۡȻҲַ֮ ϺijЩԭ򣬵ЩԭǾԵĶġңرǿ ҪԡҪ񡱵IJ룬˵һ ˵ǻ۵ãû˵û˵νΣǷεʼ㡣
йҲ֮ƵĿӡ˵طߣ ҲطߣҲڷߣҲ(η)ӡҲ˵֮ ǷҲ()һЩˣǾĴߣDz ҪͳεľһʥˣֻƣԱΪ Ȩǡͣ˭ɾжȡȨȨģ ˭Ȩƣ˭ߣǹغεϰôӦ ʵԺδӦԺδȨƵľǷ ĴߣҲΪȨṩɿϵԴȪ
ɵĴ۶ʽ巨θŷdzҪ塣ζŷǸ Ĵ֮ϵġ֮ǹҵȨ е׼Ľ롣ӡֹۡۡѧϵġ תΪһѧϵġҲζţȨϵ۵תƵ УѾʥϵ۱ΪȨķˡ仰˵Ȩ߶ ׻ˡɴˣڡĺϷԴԣDzȥϵ۵ĸ ֻ赽֧ԿȥѰݡǾ ޵ԡǷʥͣܳΪߣ֮ԾϵȨ Ϊּijֵּ׼򣬶ֻΪߵĴ졣 ɣҲ˷ɵĺϷԴ֮£й߼ ʽ巨ιྺϵġķθdzעʵ֤ԣ ŷԴڹͳߡбҪٽһһ⣺ִδ󶼰ѷ Դڡ־ΪεǰҪأôҵķɷܷ߼ ɡ񡱵ĸ?ʵϣִιҵķĺϷԺԹ Ϊһʵƶġζţضһ һϵ־ķ⣬һ˵ԴȪ ǡ񡱣Ϊ־񷨼Ϊ ־һȻ۶ķθǾйķҶԣ һĴڣǹʵҪ塣˭ӦóΪ ϣ巨ѡˡ񡱣ѡˡ 뷨ҵǹ۵ϵģǷϵġ˵͡񡱶Ǿ ʵ֤Եĸͬһ߼ϡڷѧϣΪƷɵ壬 ͡߼ϵתDZȽ׵ģҲԶΪʲôй ϵľתΪĸûз߼ϵṩ˵ ѧĹ淶ѧעѧʶ; ѧĺķ룬ǰ߱ƵΪƵĺԪءڷ ѧϣǡ񡱸ǡΪʵ֤ķ룬߼ (ƶ)ͬҪ塣ɴˣǰѷйطеġ ɡ񡱣ǶṹDz̫Ӱġһ˵ ҵʵ֤ΪԺй۽ɡṩ߼ϵı (עҲ˻ΪΪϴڳԵĵ¹䣬ҵķ Ҳнɡ񡱸Ŀԡʵϣ˼Ȼijʵ֤ ʼռη롰ʡıȻϵעͳߵƷ(ʥ )ƷΪηɵȾηɡ ת߼ԡѵųη֮⣬עͳ ڡ(ơ)ͷǿԡڷҵۿǿۡ ⡣֮Ȩְƻɾռ ں߸ƷʵжϣԴ˭Ƶʵ ˵ǡ׷󡱵һжϡ)˼ һܹΪ־ṩ߼ϵĿԵĻôҲΪе Ȩṩ˵ִεķȨΪġȨΪʲô 뻮Ϊ˾Ȩŵѧ⡣ȨΪ ʲôܳΪһΡȨߵȨԭֱֻܴ־ ϵۺ־õ͡εķԲԷɵǷһ ʵԵġ壬Ȩ(Ȩ)ԣ־IJ ΥԴƩ磬һЩ֮ȡ˹ȨҲ ѼٶˡǵȨһЩ֮ȨаΪ( )Ѿ涨ֻϿɺƶ(ܷ)ɡ²ͷ˼Ϊ ڼȴĿ޶ȵؽ׼
ҪǣйΪṩһ˼ ЩͬĻѧͳĹңǷ񶼱ڷй᳹Ļѧ չֵ֡ʵԵġ塱Ȩʵʩ˷? ǷȷĻѧΪһι?ʵϣ Ϊһ淽ʽѧΪһֶԴ̬ȡķ ȻġҴӷ˵˷ʵʩεĿԡֿ Ծڣһҵ(ǵԱԱ)ԼĻѧ ͳȨԹԼķɣЩһЩ͹۵Ժȷʵ ձִкءһ޶ȡķθΪɡչ ĹܡҲ˵һҶԴԼķ˼봫ͳҪdzԽЩ˼ еʷȥ̽Ѱִķź壬ʹϵ˼봫ͳִ תĻᡣ



Էθ͵ģ
֮Σôʾһѧ ĻһҲʧȥκ;ΪȥŷξӦ ʤDzڷεġһ룬һƶȻȱ ٵӵһ롣һֹʶͬʱΪֻһƶȿ ӵԼиƶȵŵ֮һӦ塢ƽȡȨ߶ ˻˸һڷȨձƶ롢ԱӺڽ ķķƶȣڴҪκһҵķƶȸ ϷεҪⲢζǰ߻ںߡһаķƶȣ ڴ˷dzɫģԷεѭ[3](221)
һּԵıΪһƶȿӵеŵ֮һ ͬĹһڲͬʱвֵͬĿĴڣоٵ ЩֵȻҲζ׷ֵĿͱ볹Щ ׼ֻ˵θ뷨ĵϵġơޱȻϵ޳ ڷθ֮ص㡣ȵĻ˵ǣεȻ һʽ뷨αƶDZĶʽ ޹ϵҲ漰ȨƽȺ塣[3](214)Ҳ˵ Ĺؼ֮ڶԷɸĽַͣһƶ޹صԸ ĽҲйķҡ
Ϊɼɾһı׼ԭ⣬ձ ͹ԣΪų۵⣬ɫԡӡ ԣ֮߱ͼ֮ڹٸ֮ڰҲ()ӡƣ ߣߴҲīҲҲʯҲҲҲν֮(߷) ߣԲ֮ҲĿ֣׾֮ԲҲأ ܷϹضԲʥܷϷι()˵ֻҪ ʽϳͿɷԵЧԣӡ˵䲻ƣ޷ һҲͶԷֲƣͶԷǹΪҲ(¡)ǡʱ ƶ񡱵ѧܹ֤ɵһһԵ(ע Իʯʹ֮ʶҲȨӡʥηǣι ˽δСȻΡ(ƪ))
ųˡ巨θҪ˼һӦɷ ͳβӷɡܷڵΪƻΪӦָܹǵ ΪϵķһһԵġġձȶĹҲ ġϸԵرӦһԵġġձȶĹָ [3](211-213)ɴҲһϵзԭ(1)ɱǹġһԵ ģ(2)Ӧȶģ(3)ر(ָ) һԵġġձȶĹƶ(4)˾Ա֤(5) Ȼԭ(6)ԺӦȨжǷϺɣ(7)Ժ ˾Ӧ׵ģ(8)ִɲȨɡ[3](214-218)ڷ ԭУһԭҪӦʹܹ֮ЧָΪı׼ ڰ˸ԭִ֤ͨɵIJʵʩ˷ɵָ ȷܹԷεѭԼαΥʱṩЧľȼð취(ע ӷɵġ֮¡ҲƵĿΪͷɵġ֮ ¡ԣξ°ԭҪһԡԡȷԡԤԡì ԡѭԡȶԺͬһԡμLon L.Fuller.The Morality of Law[M].Yale :Yale University Press.1969.94.˹ΪҪķɱѭ¼ (1)ǿԤڵġݼģ(2)ɱ뱻ѭ(3)Ӧ (4)Ӧģ(5)֮Ӧ໥Эìܵģ(6)ɾһ ȶָǵΪ(7)ر𷨵ƶʹӦһԷɵָ(8)Ȩ ƶִзɵԱ뷨ɵҪּǸġμJohn Finnis.Natural Law and Natural Rights[M].Oxford:Clarendon Press,1980.270.)Ϊʲ ôȷЩԭû漰ڱ˿ҪһЩԭΪЩԭ ֱ漰йطƺͷ[3](218)͸Щԭ֤ й˼ܷӦ巨θ⡣
ҵ˼ɷΪ巨θϺ֡ͨϵIJֶԣ ҶԡӦɷͳβӷɡķ˼룬Ӧdz޳ɵ̬ȡ ˵ǹ֪֮ΪҲ÷ΣҲϲ ӡ񲻷ƣӡе֮зƣҲ()
̾顷ʷľ֮ΡҪԣ֮Ϊ߶ͷ ˽飬˹֮ҲȨ⣬ߴ磬֮ҲȨ أϳߴⳤ̣죬ֲ̼ΪãΪ䲻Ҳ򱶷ȶ˽飬Բ Ҳǹ֪˽֮Ҳ֣г֮ٹ֮ ֮ʧ飬(Ȩ)
ӡƣ֮Ҳ޶󣬷ʡж ڷ߱ؽ޷ԽթӦ䣬ߣϱزԶʵ ηԣϡ(ʱ硷)Ҳ۲쵽һĹӦ ɷͳΡҲע⵽ͳڡӷɡеļҪԡԣ ġηƪԻ¹Դӷ֮ΪΡҪָǣǿ ԴӷġӷɡDzͬġڷҵ˼߼ һŷھһֶԱ֤ӷɽijЩԵļ ơʵϣҶԡԴӷʵ֤Ե˼ʱǶ ھĿ͵ΪԾȨķκһּϵĿ ܶԷľвҾӢĪڴȥ󷨹ٺҸ ʱ˵Ӧǧ˵ܹô Ϊһͷʨ֪Լ˭Ҳ޷סˡ[9]Ҳ ˼룺˲ӦκˣȴӦϵۺͷΪ ˹ˣùĶͳκȨٹ黹Ϊ ־ɷʹͳεĵطûй[10]ǿԴӷǴ 򡱵ľеʾЧӦģȻԼ ķɣܾһõͳ仵ĿʼΪһͷ(ע ӡȰ뷨ʧˣΣڲIJȡɡ֮ Ҳ(ص))ɸڹķʽйķҡ۳ں ɣͳطΪθҪءǷҵһҪ˼롣
ԡӦָܹǵΪĹ۵㷨ҲṩҪ֧֡Ҫ ָΪһЩڷҿǷdzҪģ
һȫҵġǵҺϵĵԵϸ µԸǷصȻķ򡣡ӡѭڡ ڡԭΪѰҡԡĸԴӡġ߷ƪǣ ֮֮ͣˮ֮ԣ޲ľ֮䲻࣬ԾɣδҲ ν֮򡣡Ϧ˾֮ϣܸͶĩ
֮˼֮еĺöǷɱصģ򣬷ɾͻʧȥָ ΪԴˣƽ⡷˽һĽ֮ͣУ ֹҲ֮ö֮Ҳ֮ĪĪ񺦡 Уɱֹ̾顷ΪΪʥͨȻ ֮䷨ԱȻ֮ΪݣķǺϺʱƵġضġҪģ ʵȻкܺõЧ(עʥ֪Ȼ֮Ϊ֮ʱƣΪ֮ ս֮б֮Ա޵Уж·ӡ(̾顤 ))ӡѡӡġз˼뷢ӵ²ѧˡ ȫ⣺֮ߣʹʯ԰̫ɽ֮壬ʹڡ ֮ԣȫֶֹȻоִ󱾣ʹ뷨֮ ʧˮ֮ˣٲɡ(塷)(עӡ˵ ֮⣬֮ڣ֮⣬֮ڣسȻ ֮ںںˡ(塷))
ҵġȫ˼ӣʵϣһ˼뼯˵ˡ еıԭԺձԡһΪձԹԴڶȻԺ ģ£ͨΪձ黯־жȻɽļֵЧá ͳȻѧΪձõйķҽȻԷ гͨ˵Ŭȫ˺ȻԴﵽһ£ӶḻȻ ңڷҿȻеĺгԶijЩġȻȶ ģǹɴڹ̵ЩڵҪصۺϵġԵijɹ
ڶǿܡ˵Ҫ˵Ϊã뿼ǵ ˵޶ȣܹ涨˵ﲻ顣ӡġƽ⡱͵ ֮Ϊʹɡ֮ΪУʹ֮Ϊ ɡ֮Ϊϣʹ֮Ϊ°ܡ Իǿܡ
ӡ˵ùѣֹѣй ()ƪһ֮˲ͣĪڵ롣ȣ ʧᡣݣ˽˽빫빫á(ע ӡ˵Ϊʹɶ˵Ϊã߻Ҫע⵽ͬˮ ֮Ӱ죺֮ˮֶ̰¡֮壬 Խ֮ˮǶ䩣޼֮ˮͶӣ̰ ¡ֻˮݺˣͶӣթ֮ ˮ¶Ͷӣ޺꣬ἲ֮ˮᾢ壬 ׶ʥ֮Ҳ˸Ҳ˵Ҳˮ() )
ϸϽǶǰߡȫĽһ͡ ķҿ˵鶼ȻijϵˣΪഴ ķɱʱע⵽ϵﵽȻĺгһ²Ż˵Ϊձ Եָ塣ΥҲͲܡȫΥķɾ֮ ˵Ϊ޷ṩТʾһôйҶʽ巨θİ ԭֳк̬?
ɱǹġһԵĺġԡָɱ빫Ա ӹ֪ʲôһԡҪ˼һ˵ɹ淶 ҪһԣһijԱܹڡͬస顱ָɹ һԣͬõͬĶԴԡ˵ ƶķģɣɹܹ֪Դˣй ҲƵĿͷɵĹԡҵ֮޶¡ ӡƪΪףδΪ֮ʹ֮Ҳ δ֮ҲѲͲӣʹȰ㡢 ơڡѲǽ̾顷ӽһȶͳ ŷɹԱеĹڶȷ֪ʷ֪ ֪֮ΪʥΪʹ֪֮(֡)һ ԷǷ񲻸ҷԸɷ١֪֪ ܾܻͣ͸Ρԣţ֮Ǩʣʹѧ νδ֮ʽʹ֪֪νгʽΪ֮ijʽ ǹijķڹʱ׶ǣ ֪֮ھ֪ʲôʲô(ע̾顷֡ Ҳȣǿɹ淶ȷ׶ҪԣԼӱ磬ʡϼ ʥۣ֮֮꾡¡(˵))ڷҶԷɹ淶һ ԭĿԺۣ׸
Ӧȶġ˵ɹһƶӦ൱ʱڼ ãɱ䶯ƵǶԷɵ˽ͱѣҲڷɵָ ԶĴ㡣Ȼ±ҲǷȶԵӦ֮⡣ڡ롰 䡱ϣڷڸʶµʷʱּ֮ҵġ񡱵ս(ע ҵġ񡱣Ҷƫ֮ۡ硶ӡ˵ӣҢ˴֮ǧ ֮ǰܡ(ѧ)ʵϣνּ֮֮( ӹ)ǿδزͬʱ֮šν֮ ֪(Ϊ)ǿӷDz֪ƶ֮䡣)䡱ʤ ˣҶԷȶԻǸ൱ӡӡġƪ˵ ѳֹ֮֮Ǩ̷֮Ѵ֮ ȰҲɱ¾䷱ηҲԻ޹ֲģ޳ؽߣ ҲǴӷ˵ɳϦĵΣԡӡ˱ַ ȶҪԣ򷨲Ǩƽ޼顣Ѷӣ۷( )ӦǣɹġʱԡǷҵһҪڷ ˼ӦҪģͲһɲ䣬ϵ ̶ܹһҪ󣬷ɳά⣬Ҫʵֻ ĽܡڡʱԡĸɵĿ͹ԼֵʷľʵΪ һΪ׼Ҳԡʱ䡱Ϊ飬ûвɱķɹ򡣹Ŀ͹ ԲʾԽʱ䡢ռֵչֵĽDzҶѡ( ע̾顷ƪ˵ʥ˲ţ޽񡣷ʱ޽ ӡʷΪݣǿʱ˵ҪԣϷũ̶ ƵۡҢ˴ŭʱƷá(ġ)ӡ 򽫡ʱ䡱ֲΪʷΣΪϹžڵ£ı (󼡷)ÿһʱԭԭ)Ƿʽ巨 ĵط
ر𷨱һԵġձȶĹƶ˵һ 趨һܹӦر𷨿ܵµIJԤԸơܹ ͨһһҪȨضһ ȨʹȨ涨[3](215-216)ϸ˵Ȼһ ձġһԹ򡱵ķɸ˳ֵע⣬δԡһԵķ ر𷨡֮֡ͨڵǡɡ̡ȸӡ ˵ԶֹҲ֪Ҳ(߳)ƶ̸ ˲Թ˲Ի̡(ڡ)ڡӡⲿУҲѾ һԺձԵķ롰ɡ̡(ƪ) ۼģڷҡзȫۼܹֲȻ֮У ĹֱԴȻǶȻģ£īߴ硢صȻ ȻȻԣȻһ㡢ձܣʹڲͬȺͲͬ ΪﶼóߴһԡȻԣȻ ܶȻijã˶ԣһ׳Ĺϵһ Ϊģ͡ȨΪڡӡУΪһһԵĸָ һƶȵܳơɡ̡͡ȸ԰ڷĸڡ[11] ˵ȻйķҶһԵķرķಢȤС Ρ˼롣ӡġƪ˵˾£ ˳϶סöΪڹ֮Ϊӡӡġ Ʒ֡ƪ˵øιĪзȻдߣͲҲ ιߣĪз֡гΪ֣ν֡ڲ֣֮Ҳ طηԸ͡ԻͶӡ˵Ϊ ̡͡ġر𷨡Է()Ϊ׼ָһͳ µھͻطȶҴҲలˡҵġ ƶܳơĻôΪɡ̡ڡر ƶṩָҲӦ֮⡣Ȼںܶ£ҵķɡ ̵ĸԼ֮໥ϵǻҲģذЩر𷨵ĸ ʹáңھĿĴڣҲܶԴһԷɺ ر𷨵ϸ֣Ӧϣ˾⣬ κδƷɡΪڷҿԽȨ
ʽ巨θԭǹڷܷЧָΪı׼⡣ͨ йҵIJͣ˵ҶԷֵʵ֤̬ʽ巨θ ʵ֤ԭϣܹԷθṩ޶ȡ֧֡ٿ һйطεƺͷԭйܹṩʲô˼롣
˾Ա֤Ȼ塱Ժ˾Ӧ׵ ԺӦȨжǷϺɡִɲ ȨɡҪ˵ǣʽ巨θЩԭ򲢲ɷ֮ ֵɵġ˵Ƿļֵһֱ֤ɾָ ΪԼ֤ɷͳβӷɡֶκ͹ߡľ飬ֻ ˾ԤοƣַƶȲűжΪǽȫġʵϣ жϻȷ˾ȷԺ͹ڵģӶҲ޷ֹ ȨͳĿǸԤ˾£ٱΪ ҪͬʱҲɿıߡصԭʽ巨θ Ĵ塣ɴ˿ʽ巨θЩԭ򲢲ֻǷ⣬ ֱضءԴˣйҵ˼Ҳκ֧Щ ԭ֤ݡܼ򵥣ڷҵľμܹκ˾ ڡңйĴͳʵУڸ֯еķְΪ ְһ棬һ׶˾ƶʵҲδܳ֡Ⲣ˵ ˼ΪΡֶκ;ԭǾԲݵġϣ йְȨĻ˳ֵע⡣ְζŶԾ޶˵ظԤ˾ ijЩơӡ˵߾Ҳط߳Ҳ䡰¡ƪҲ˵۲ ı¶֮֮Ҳרһְ֮ͣҲ˾¼֮ ˾ΡΪ˳Ϲרʧְ֮֮ ֲ֮ͬζΪһ塣ддйν֮ ν֮ҡ
ȶԣӡйְȨֵ۸Ϊϸ£ԡְȨҪԸ ˸ǿʹˣԾҲʹԶҲʹȺ ڷ֮⣬Ϊڷ֮ڣ޷Ƿ(ӡжȡ)桱ƪ˵ ʹ˳ܲñרƣв⹦ͣŲ (עӡġˡƪ˵ι֮Чڹλ ڹְȨ¡ʹ²ɹĪϣʹʿٹʼ ʹ˲ͬĪ)
Ϊ˵ְҪԣӡһӣѺ˯ˣ ܾñӵ̴Ω־Ͱ·ϡѺѺܸˣߵ ̴˵˭Ҹǵ·?ߵ̴ӻش˵ƹñӵ̴ӡǣ Ѻͬʱͷƹ·̴Ӻƹñӵ̴ӡӡ˵ʹ ·̴ӣΪûоְ𣻾ʹƹñӵ̴ӣΪԽ ԼְΧѺDzΪְַȨΣԼ ء(עμӡġƪߺѺޣ߼֮ Ҳʼھ֮ϡ޶˵Ի˭?ҶԻڡ ڡ£ΪʧҲڣΪԽְҲDz ҲΪֹ֮ں)濴ҵķְΪ˾ĸȨ ʵϣһְȨȷԺζžȨܵijԼ һзɽԺζһһǿ ݷɣְڼҲ¡½ԴӷҪ󣬲䶯 ĿΣʵίظ׾ΪΪԾܷɵԼ 򣬾񡶺ӡιĪзȻдͿ ˡȷûвרҵԺҪ˼룬ҲûγܹͷǷ˾ 룬ҹ涨ľȨΧȷģ־Ṳͬͷ ˹ΤʽġǿơƺԿƾȨȷʵij
ϣDz˾پɲȨģɡ෴˾ ٱϸķΣһ汻ֹ취ɣһ棬ֱֹܾ÷ ɡ
̾顷˵ʷ֮νҲ֮Ը ֮֮Ϊ֮ꡢ¡աʱʷ֮Ը ֮漰֮֮νҲ֮ʷ֮֮ (֡)ǶԾܾ÷Ľֹ磬ӡƣ ߣУ޾Ҳ֮Ī𣬾 Ǵӷ˾ȨĽǶȣֹ˾нͷɡӡΪӰ ˾ϸִзɵϰǡ˽Ϊ׷Լɣ ɡ˾ܵҪԭһ˾׷˽˼ɵĸ ߵ˾ٰԼڹҵ֮ϣǾͻʹҵķƶ ڻҡ(עӡ˵֮Ī˽˽Ҳ(¡) Ϊͷ˽Ϊ˳Ԯ˽Ϊ(ϡ)뷨󳼣 ν֮Ҳýɣ뷨֮ν»֮Ҳ ԷԼɫ뷨֮ν֮ҲԱƽװ 뷨֮ν֮Ҳɫ뷨֮ ν֮Ҳ߲ȺЮ˽Ҷ ֣֮ҶԹղ(η))ԴˣȨ˵ ֵע⣬˽֮𣬱(ӡ߳߳ƪ)֮˽Գ ֮˽졣ʷ֮ؼھ֮ط֪ԡ [11](191)ΪˣԷҪ˾˾б˽ ˽ߡη˽η˵Ҫ Ȩ¡(ӡˡ)ٲΪ˽¸УǾ֮ ¾ʯҲ(˵)ʯ׼ҲDzƫ˽Ҳ ı֮¡Ȼˡһ㣬ġӡ Ľ֮ͣ˽أʿΪƽ֮˽ֱʿΪ ֮÷˽ʿΪزף㣬ʧ棬ֱʩа ˽գ鲻ңԹ(ѵ)˵˾ ʯֱ׼һΪ˽ôл׵Ϊɷ һ㶼ܰǶԴʯֱ׼һûҲ ء
ԣܾ۽ƣҪ󡪡ûȷһ С֤֤ݹڵĹ˾ƶȼܹ˵й ġȻ塱ҲʵȻҶӵзԴĹƽԸ ൱Ĺעӡ˵ң֮֮Ҳ Խı߲Խ飬ʿññй( ġ)̾顷ƣʥ֮ΪҲһ͡һ̡һ̣һ޵Уһ УһϡһйĻвֻһĸ ޵Ȳ˼һ̡ǡ޵ȼཫв ߣ⡱(͡)ӡһ˼˽һ ӣɹ֮ӣ߸ܴǣ߸̹ܴ󳼣 Ʋƥ(жȡ)̹롰ơΪֹ롰ԡķԴ ͬʱˡƽԡھνṹУ֮񷨼 ƽȵعӵзԴôԺ˾Ҳͱˡ
ţڴ˰˾ϡйʽıת롱Ϊֻ аʽġ˾Dz̫ġ˾ֵ ķθ׷˾Ŀ겢̫IJ𡣲֮ͬڣй ޷ṩﵽ˾ƶȼܹĿµġ˾ ͬҵġʥʾһ޷ʵƶеõֵ֧ġ ෴ġ˾ҪDZ֤˾ԵҪʯӹ ۵ġĽڣйҡ˾롢ְԼ ½Դӷ˾ܷ롰˾ķԭͨ?شӦǿ϶ġ ȣҲų˾ĹԡΣ׷ġ˾ ġι١ְۺ͡طԱ֤ģϵġ֤ ʩʵܷ𵽱֤¡ڷҵķְȷţר ְרΣټ£ʹ²ɹĪϣʹʿٹʼʹ˲ͬĪ (ӡˡ)ɷҡרְרΣټ¡ŵθ ġ˾ԭ߼Ӧǽεݽ⣬۷ʽϵ ˵ҵȻڱǷھĿģ²Ӧ Ϊִй˾ƶȵġ֧Ԯʶһִͳϵϰ
Ҫ˵ǣȻҪǴӷɹ򡪡ڲṹͷθΪθӡⲿṹбˡ ȡĵ׼ԣһѭεķƶȣڴ ϰ˵ԴͨӰжĻָǵΪʶԴΪǰ ԵζͨӰǵ뷨ǵΪϰߡҲ ˵˵ϣôطξDZҪġ[3](221-222)Ȼ ǰѡʵȨΪڱ׼Ӧ롰ʶȡȨϵ ʽ巨θġǣӦصġһֵйܹ ṩ֧?ϡӦܵءDZԤΪĻ ķԡֳԱ(qua members of a biological species)ǰ Ϊ(qua social beings)?ʵϣͬӦܵء ۵㣬ȻҪΪԶԤ衣ӦءȨ ȨĻܰݺͻΪһ̸һ߿ܻڡ Ŀġж϶ͬһ߿ܻڡûиͲ 桱ظˡԴΪݣǿԶԷҵ˼һ 򵥵ķҶ˱̸ú٣ȤǡԹۡ Թ򡱺͡桱(עӡġϡƪ˵ʵ򡣡 Ϊ֮ҲҲߣҲҲߣἺΪҲ) ǡ֮顱󣬻ϸҲߣ֮Ҳ(ӡѭ )Ϊԡ򡱣ԡ֮顱һзij㣺 £顣кö񣬹ͷãͷεӡ( ӡ˾)书Ϊ»Ȱ֮Խ飬Ϊ ̷֮(ӡһ)
ǿԿ˼ϵһҪԶΪ 㣬ƶȿնԵĶ˵µĿͬʵʩƶ ҪﵽĿ෴ƶȵʵʩζնԵĻնκ ϵ㶼ζŶƶȲ̶ͬȵˣӵԶ۷ӳ˷⽨ ƶ֮ͬìܡԺ񺦶޶Ϊ㣬Ϊ ƶͬһµġ˵ΪֺܺԴڣʹ ƶȵʵʩȳΪҪֳΪܡˣƶȶҪǡ򡱶 ǡ˳档[12]
ŷƶȶԵŷ𣬵еϵֻҪ ҳ˶к񺦵ȡôһ֮ǻԵķƶ ͱ˾Сһĺ桱ԱһϣҾͿ ͬ۵㣻Ҳڡۡļܹ¸֧֡(עӡ һϵһۣۡϹžڵ£ ıۣۡʹĪ֮Ҳ ()˳ˡ(ѧ) ֵۣۡΪ˴ﵽλ̡ǿĿԽڵ߸ ڵǿ󣻾(Ķȡ)) ȻڽĹУĽɫСͶ ҪеߣսСսԪءΪ׷󡰸ǿĿ꣬ ܰѡΪͶ͡սԴĮӡ񡱵 ҪȿʧһսҲҡ˵ӦܵءԻ ڲͬɣǷҪΪΨһı׼Դ۳ ͬš(עӡ˵֮ҲͣΪ֮ߣԻ ɵԸҲս֮ΪҲΣΪ֮ߣԻɵԹҲ(󼡷) ӡˡ˳֮˵֮˳ģ֮ġͣ ֮ƶҸ֮Σ׹Ұ֮֮( ))
ԣķθܹйҵ˼룬Ҳܹµ ˵ķθйƲɵġ˽򡱣ڡ չۣȴɵĵأעطɵĹԺʵЧԣϵ ǴӡȥַɵĺϷԣǸǷȨȨǷ ɺϷԵʵԴͳӦңĻ ·ͳΣɲҪʵʩͷҲҪȨȨӦ ĶģģǿԤڵģģͨͷĹָǵ ΪӶγӷɵ򣬶֡ӡСηʵҲ СʵָܹΪķɼҪѭһġȻ򡱣ҲҪһЩ ׼򣻷ԴӦһƽԣִзɵҪ˾ һԵķƶҲӦڲͬ϶˱أһεĹ ׷Ŀ겻Ϊƣǹǿ͸㡣
йܹΪṩһ޶ȡķθ



ԽйҵһЩ˼룬йҲܹΪԷṩһ֧֡ ֻһ棬ΪԤʽķθܹΪǰġ ǣҲԭͲͬһθһɡչС Ĺܹһʲôķһ£εʲôһ¡ִ ϵķθʵȻˣһ⣺ һַθᾭ?
ǸҸڴ˷dz壺֮Σôʾ һѧĻôһҲʧȥκ ;ΪȥŷξӦʤDzڷεġһ еҪֵԪصķθʵϲܽκ⡣θ ֮ӦһĽ
ᾭͻ֣ᷢڴķҪ ϡɵģԵڽ()()ѧгã( ־Ϊ)Σ(ܷΪ)ƣ(ҵ )Ρȴϸڣдڽṩһֳ֮ ɴ˱γˡȻ[13]ѧһ𹹳ɡȨۻ гó˶˱Ӱ֮⣬Ϊ͸˴˾޴ʲƸ α֤Ƶƶȣȷ˷Ȩƺ֯ṹȷܷ ɣһ֮ЧĹϵ걸˾Щͳ ұΪܡ
Щ໥ϵԪعһ͵ᡣղķ˹Wɪ(Jameas W.Ceaser)ڷ͵ȸʱΪѧռͳελ ʽʱһЩϴ ȡΪκһȥνṹDzȷеġ˵ νṹȲģҲ򹲺͵ģص ĸνṹ[14]ͬ˸ӵṹһԱ еòͬʱﲻͬ⡣Ʃ磬áʱ ȨơáָνɡơΣáΡָ һ׽ȫĹ淶ϵƵ˾򹹳ɵķƶȡͳ ڷθ֮£ǾͲʹоģͺ죬ЩҲʧȥ ܶú塣Ȼθ֮йϵ ໥ȡ
ڷϸϱΪڡһһƱԭϵļ򵥵Ķ (majorityrule)[15]ڲļֵƫõ£á ѡȨָʾѡȨܹӳ򲹳ʣôȷһ ɽܵ׼ҪǶѡЧĴǶ Чĸڿܵ¡IJijֱ׼[16]
ĺҪǡΡ͡롱ǰ˵ͨ ơΪʽΡǣѡҪĴ ȶҪӳҪעǵĹͬԸҪǵĸ Ҫǵθ𡣡롱ҪָеIJ룬ƶ ԭߣûвûں̶ܴϾǴ蹫ܹ һƶȡԴͣʶ̬ϣ񱻼ٶΪһȨ ԴܷͷɺϷԵĻƶȲϣָһ״ƶȣ ͶƱơƵȣڼֵϣΪ𡱣ֱΪ Ρ
ҪͨijЩƶȨʹݹŵߵĽͣ ¼˼һָѳҪܷԼֻ ܷͳβơܷ淶µڱʽ ҵСһйһּٶϵһģͬ ͳΣΪ˱ȨȨƲȨȨΪ˱Щ ȨԾݴ˶ԿеȨܷ ڵļֵԤ衣ĿΪ˱ԭκʽ֮ǰ еȨڴһͬʱͬijЩɺͲƲЩ ɺͲƲԱʵͳΡֱռȨʹܹ ԿȨģǽһƶơŵ ΪʹܵʵƵıҪǽɢȨĺṹȨ Ȩ˾Ȩʵƺ(check and balance)ζ һֻͬȨֻΪͬĿģζ ȨķԱȨּкרƵΣգָ㷺˽Ĵںÿ ȨıҲҪһ˾Ķʹ˾ȨԱ֤ ƫܷ涨DZ֤ȨἯԼȨַ[16]
ѧṩǷ֣ȷĽ еĹϵҲԵṩǵ񹹳ȨԴ ڷȨһЩֵǡͳαͳκáļ ֵԤ衣ɴ˿Խһ۳ɶͳΡļֵ ΪṩĿܲһ׹̶ijΪ֤ṩļֵҪǷ ԵģͨȨԱ֤ɵ˽˿ռ䡣Ŀͨ ƶʵָɡҪɹϵ˾ϵɵģṩ ǵҪǹԵļֵ֮θ͵ṹмã ϶֮䷢ϵһ棬еġҪΪ θеȨṩ˵һ棬θΪеġ롱 ṩȻⲢζŷθ񡱵ݡ ĹϵϣļֵָΪθ롰ɡ⽨ij ϵΣеġȨҪΪθṩ˲ֵ˾ݣٴΣ ҲܹȨṩȻҲ ˵ҪԪ뷨θ֮ڡѧУθ ֮ʼմģԣҲ˵֮IJѰϵˣ Ҳ໥ȡ֮֮θֻܽ͹ҵһ ⣬һ⡣֮ĽԺ ܶн͡Ͻͬʽķθ
ӹԿǣDzõйѧʹõķθηչ ٵȨɡȨѡټƶȵ⡣ȻⲢйѧ֪ķθܽģΪⲢܹڷθ֮¡ЩĿֵȨʵǡѧ⣬ʵҪ һ֡ѧΪӣʹܷͷȻ⣬ ƶȵĽͽȫѡٺͲ⣬ҪչƶȼԽ йԣٵǶ෽ģ⣬Ҳͷε ͬвͬĽ;áΡͳ֮ӷη潲ܹɷṩġ޶ȡķθҪģһ˲Ľ 硶ӡԣԷιٴѡΡҲǷˡ

ԭijѧ̳20031ڡ