ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 

Ȩͻĸԭ򼰽**

һʵ֤ķ

˽*

ҪȨͻձǵķ˾ʵ֮УȨͻȴһδ⣬Ŀǰڷѧмƪ¶Դ̽֡мڴˣľͼͨȨͻĸԭ򼰽ȼǵʶԴﵽŪ֮Ŀġ

ؼʣʵڷ Ȩͻ Ȩ Ȩ Ȩ Ȩ Ȩ Ȩ Ȩ߽ģ

Abstract: There are always the conflicts of rights in our life of law and judicial actins, but the conflict of rights itself has not been deeply discussed. Nowadays, there are only several articles which have discussed this problem. In view of this, this article intends to firstly discuss several reluctant problems about the conflict of rights, namely, the conceptcause and resolution of the conflict of rights, so that we can reach the aim of making the problem understood.

Key words: positive law, conflict of rights ,the Self-causing Attribute of the RightThe Other-involving Attribute of the RightThe Other-excluding Attribute of the RightThe Boundary-vague Attribute of the Right

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ȻͼͨȨͻзоʹǶȨͻһȽʶȻѧĸԾ˶κоԴӶǶȡУҴӲͬ桢ͬǶȵóĽDzһģشIJµƪͱߵĽӷʵ֤ɿһյǡ߼ϵͳȨͻȻʹһɱΣգַֻܹ˼һ棬óĽҲǶԴȫʶֻܹпֻһߡ

õġȨȨȨȨָƽ֮ȨӹϵȨ

Ϊ˷ۣе£һδڵķϵڴ˷ϵȨı߽δȫر綨Ȩָʼ綨Ȩ

һ Ȩͻĸ

һȨͻĶ

κһĽ綨ʼԶж壬ȻöķԸʶֵûɣ岻ܺǸݣֻܴһǶȡһ˵һ⡣ʣһаգֶʽķDZزٵġˣڷȨͻ֮ǰȷȨͻĶ壬ɴȨͻĸ

ôȨͻжأ¶֮ǰȿ

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˫кķϵȷɣȨ֧ԼԶԿԷȨҪ˫ԵķϵɣȨʹһֶԿ״̬ͻ״̬

21991ҵѩΣ޹˾ڱע1994̨꣬ѩ޹˾ڱԡѩΪ̱עᡣ1998̨꣬ѩҵѩΣ޹˾Ϊ򱱾мԺϡмԺΪȻеġѩԭ̱ꡰѩͬεһϵûȷ涨ҶҵƵǼǵҲڷԺϽǷԺͬʱΪҵѩΣ޹˾ӦΪҵƵġѩΪͼͱƵͻʹãù˾ĴʹΪ˶̨ѩ޹˾IJҵѩΣ޹˾һоΪ˾ȨڲƷװԼӪʹøù˾ơΪˣù˾߼ԺҪԺԭо ڴ˰У˾зϵĺɣȨԿԷȨȻ̱Ȩ̺ȨȨ֮ijͻ⡣

ϰгͻŵȨ¼ͬ㣺һȨͬ塣ȨָijֹͬĶ󡣣ȨΪзϵĸݣǺϷģӦõõϵ֧֡ģȨΪһʹǶʵֳΪܵġ

ǾͿԵóȨͻĶ壺

ȨͻָϾ֮ͬݵȨ֮䣬δ֮Ĺϵȷؽ綨µȨ߽IJȷԡģԣ֮IJг״̬ì״̬

еļȨͻĶ弰

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ֽȨͻΪȨ໥ԡȨ໥ģȨʵֵĹбȻָᷢijͻȨ˽Ȩ֮ijͻ5˹۵һ̶ϣʶȨͻһЩķ档ȻȨͻΪȨ໥ԣ߼ϵ⣬ʺͱ֮ۺԵģǷԵġˣ˵һֶȨͻĶ壬˵ȨͻԭȨͻ綨ΪȨ໥ԣһ߼ϵìܡȻȨͻָһϵȨ֮ijͻ⣬ƶʵڷ⣬ƶУȨȷĽ޵ģȻȫֻһ룩Խ֮⣬ȨΥ˷ϵȨ໥ԡУʹȨϲõǷϵȨ༴ʵڷĽǶʹȨͬʱ˵Ȩ໥Ҫڿ˹ġɱ⡷˹ҪΪ׳ɱĴڣ˫֮Ȩ⣬˹ʹȨһʵʱϸȨʵڷϵʹõģûᵽνȨ໥⣬ֻǽ໥ԣνȨˡˣҲġ

ֽȨͻΪȨڷϵijͻʵϵijͻ6Ȩڷϵijͻָͬķضķɹϵķɵλ߼ϵìܹϵȨ壩ɡ롰Ȩ⡱ìܹϵȨͻıʽȨʵϵijͻΪͬȨʵϵIJͬʱʹܳزͬȨķɹ淶߼ϲìܣõľ龰УijһȨܹõʵ֣ôһͬȨ޷ʵ֡˹۵סȨͻıԵĹ涨ϷȨ֮ijͻȴûʶȨʹı߽磬˽ȨͻΪϵĺʵϵûбҪʵϵȨͻǷϵȨͻıȻ֣ϵȨͻȻʵΪʵϵȨͻӦýͳһ ͨϷԿĿǰȨͻʶдʮģĽ׶ΣбҪȨͻϸزԳʶϵĴʹǶȨͻİոн

ȨͻĻ

ΪܸضȨͻʶбҪһȨͻʹǸ̺ȫͰʲôȨͻ

ȨͻĶУǿԿȨͻ¼

һȨͻеȨϣDzȨͻһʽϵǰᡣȨڳͻ⣬ֻϵȨſܲͻ

ȨͻеȨָǷϵȨ˫ӦȻȨϰȨʵȨҲһǷϵȨһӦȻȨϰȨʵȨֻзѧϵ壬ڷѧ۵ķΧ֮ڣзϵ塣ΪӦȻȨϰȨû뵽ϵ֮ڣһȨҪ󣬶ǷϵȨʵȨǷȨʵеʵ֣һ״̬ȨҲзϵ塣

ȨͻȨԼϵĸݣġȻɶ涨ǵĴڣĴӷɵ߼イǾӦõ֧֣Ӧ֧κһӷϽǶǺϷġ

ģȨͻУ໥ͻŵȨֻʵеһʵָԵһ֣ȫʵ֡ڳͻУʵҲνȨͻˡڽȨͻʱֱܻˣ֧еһ߸Եһ֡˫ĹϵУһȨɥʧ߸ɥʧһ֡ 壩Ȩͻ֮ԿΪɶԳͻŵȨ߽綨IJȷģԡΪ編ѾȷؽͻŵȨı߽˽綨ȨijͻͲܲҳͻŵȨijͻҲؽŷɶԳͻŵȨı߽½綨ʧ

Ȩͻ˵˼άӷɳ߼ϵļٶ˼άеĴڣ˼άдڵȨͻȻתΪʵȨͻΪȨͻ˼άУֻ߼ϵļ裬ܲʵȨͻôȨͻҲͲᷢ˼άּʵĻ ġȨͻԿܷ

Ȩͻ˵˼ά߼裬ʵشڷ֮СȻʵطڷʵУʹԼϵȨ֮ʱôʲô£仰˵߱ЩȨͻпܷأ˴ָ֮߼ϷڷУҲָ߼ʵʵеķ ˵Ȩͻ֮Կܷĸ

һ壨󣩵ͬһԣϵȨָͬһ壨󣩡˴Ŀ岻dzϵĿ壬ȨʵԼĹָĶָͬ岻ͬȨᷢͻΪЩȨָһôЩȨʵԼĹоͲᷢײһ谭˳ʵԼ

ԣָͬһĸȨڲͬ塣ĸȨͬһ壬ôʹԼȨʱҲ谭˳ʵ֣ҲûȨͻ ȨĺϷԣָͬһĹڲͬĸȨӦķϵĸݣ˴˵ĹϵͲȨͻȨΥԼ

ģϵȨ໥ִһȨʹȨȻɶȨȨƻ谭ЩȨ໥谭֮Ͳᷢͻ

һ¡7׹˾ӵһע̱ꡰTitanicʹϴ»ϡʱҹ˾TitanicΪ̱ע룬׼עʹˮϣô£ҹ˾Ը̱Ȩ׹˾ԡTitanic̱ȨͷͻУ̱Ȩָͬһ塰Titanic̱Ȩڼ׹˾ҹ˾ҴӷϿҸԵȨзϵݻɣǵȨ໥ִģΪ̱һ˾֪ȣһ˾̱ͬҵ̱Ȩָͬһ塰Titanicô֮Ͳ̱ᷢȨijͻԡTitanicȨһ˾ףҲͻһûзϵĸݣݣôһȨΪһȨڣߵȨ໥ִҲᷢȨͻӵеȨָijֲԵ棬ȨĵDzȱٵģȱκһ涼ṹȨͻ

塢Ȩͻ̬չ׶

Ȩͻָ̬Ȩͻʲôֳ̬ӶܹΪպʶȨͻ̬ȨͻһҪɲ֡

ȨͻҪ̬һǷɵ߼ϵȨͻָɶȨ綨߼ìܣһִڷϵеδֳ̬ʵ˵˼ά߼Ͻ߼ݶóģһ߼ļ衣

һʵȨͻָǷɵ߼ϵȨͻʵرֳ̬Ȩͻ˼άۺͼΪʵķ̬Ϊʶɵ߼ϵȨͻδֳ֮ǰͨDzᱻʶġ

Ȩͻ̬ศɣϵһģһ棬ǴӲͬĽǶȽʶóġɵ߼ϵȨͻܻΪʵȨͻɵ߼ϵȨͻҲֻͨʵȨͻܱʶеذաʵȨͻǷɵ߼ϵȨͻʵûзɵ߼ϵȨͻͲʵȨͻҲ˵Ȩͻ̬Ȩͻչ׶Ρɵ߼ϵȨͻȨͻDZڽ׶ΣʵȨͻȨͻʵ׶Ρ

ȨͻȨΥԼĹϵ

һȨͻȨĹϵ

ȨͻȨĹϵΪ㣬ȶеȨҪ˵

ϵоȨָһڹֺ˵IJƲӦеΣԼر涨ӦеεȨΪһȨȨһȨָһʵʩùԭȨһ㹹ҪȨȨһȨԵģָǷȱȨһ㹹Ҫùƶκ͹ƽԭȨ8 ʵϣȨֻмΪԶӴΪһȨֻҪΪûдﵽɹ涨ij̶ȾΪȨⲻڱĵ۷Χ֮ڣԲϸ˵

Ȩ¼

һȨУϵķɹϵ壬һ岻ṹȨ

ȨУһֺһȨЩȨDzƲȨҲȨЩȨܷɱģзϵݡ ȨУҪȨΪйΪûйʹһ𺦣ҲȨΪ˵ΪΥԣΥ˷ɹ涨

ģȨУһҪеȨΡȨУһԼĹ˵棬ҪеӦΣƽ⵱˵

ͨϷǿԿȨϵУ˫ʵһȨϵȨһûԼӦеһ𺦡ڴ˹ϵУһзϷĸݵȨȨˣȨз֮ȨҪһзϵ񣬼ʹֻ񣬼Ϊһзϵģз֮ݵȨӶԶԿǰһȨֻܰշϵĹ涨񣬷͹ȨҪеӦȨΡͿɰȨȨͻ׵ˣ һȨдڵȨϵһΪȨˣһΪˡȨ˿ԼзϵȨҪзϵ񣬶ȴûзϵĺɣȨԿȨˡȨͻУڵȨȨϵ˫ΪȨ壬зϵҪԷԼҪ󣬲ԿԷҪʵһ˫ȨȨϵ˳˫Լз֮ȨԿԷȨĶԿ״̬ ȨУȨҪΪԼȨΪۣеȨΡȨУеķɷΧڽʱì״̬޷״̬ȨͻУΪ˫֧ԼķϵɣȨеķɷΧ޷εĹ⣬ͳֳһַϵ״̬ ͬʱҪעһһʹԼȨԼȨķΧȨȨϿҲһȨȨϵƺȨԼϵ֧ԼΪĺɣȨϵȨԽԼȨĺĽޣʵΥ˷ӦʵһȨϵ˵ȨͻȨϵзɵķΧھͿؽȷεĹ˽ȨȨͻľǴȨ ȨͻΥԼĹϵ

ȨͻΥԼĹϵ֮ȣҲȷһʲôΥԼΥԼЩ

ҹͬУΥԼָһкͬкͬ񲻷Ϲ涨ڡţɴʵ䡷УΥԼΪһ˲ܾ߲кϷǿԵĺͬ񣬼ȫСݺͬӦͨΪܾУУӳл򲻵еʽʵΥԼĸӦ㷺ԸַġԼԼʵòΥ֮κΥͬΪԳΪΥԼ9

ΥԼ

һΥԼУΥԼϵϵĺͬϵĵˡһˣһ˹ΥԼ

ΥԼУһΥ˺ͬϵ񣬾ЩԵص㡣

ΥԼУΥԼΪںֺ˺ͬծȨҪеΥԼΡȻΥԼο˫ԼڷϣκΥԼΪҪеΥԼΡ

ΥԼУ˫˵ĹϵʵҲһȨϵһΪȨ壬ȨߣȻȨֻɺͬ裬ͬЧĺϷģһˣɺͬ衣Ȩ˿ԼijַɳϵɺͬȨΪҪкͬԼһˣˣûзϿɵɣȨԿҪ󡣶ȨͻУ˫һȨȨϵ˫зϵɣȨҪԷijȻڣӶһֶԿ״̬

ͬʱΥԼУΥԼεĹڷɺͺͬķΧȷΥԼεĹȷģѣȨͻУΪ˫ŶЧ֮ݣιѵģ˵û⡣

ߡȨͻȨ

˵ȨͻȨ״̬ĻôȨϾȨĻ״̬ȨָһһȨͬһͬʱӵжָͬһ壨ģȨԷšȨϣһ߹һƷƷ˺ʱȨһΥԼȨһȨȨѡеһԷҪԷ⳥

Ȩ¼ص㣺һȨһ壬ȨǵһģǶȨԵͬһָ̬ͬһ壬Ƕ塣һȨõ㣬Ȩ𡣣ģ֮ǰȨ˴˶ʱЧֱУһȨʱЧȨӰ졣

ȨϵΣţȨ˿ԴȨѡȡκһԷ󣬵ԷŶȨһȨѡеһŵȨʧţ˿Ժϲѡһʹͬʱ߻ѡһߣǰһоԺһϲӰ죻ΪȨͬһΪݣ˲˫ظһȨ㣬Ȩ֮

ɴǿԿȨͻȨµ𣺣һȨͻеȨϵģȨеȨֻһȨͻϵӵȨһȨԶԿԷȨȨȨֻһԷ壬Ȩ塣ȨͻһȨȨϵȨȨϵֻܵȨǶģܵҲǶġģȨͻεĹѣȨ״̬ȨвεĹѣһȨѡеһȨԷţԷҲȷεȷҲûκѡ

ɴ˿ԿȨȨͻкܴģֱָͬȨ̬ܽ߻

ˡȨͻ

ijͷоһʽ·Ȼѧ·ͷʵʧΪоһַˣ಻ףȨͻͽбҪطۡ

з࣬ǶȲͬҲ죬ĽǶǷdz㷺ģҲ쳣ع㷺ȨͻˡмڴˣȨͻ⣬Ľ¼ǶȽзͼȫò

һݷͻȨǷͬһȨԷΪͬȨijͻͿȨijͻ˴ȨָȨȨȨָضĶֻһѧϵķ࣬Ȩͻ⡣ǰߣһƵķϵûжԵѺȨı߽ȷĽ綨һϿԳѺȨȨ˳λ⡣ѺȨʵֵĹУָͬһ󣬾ͻᷢͻѺδѺȨ˵ծѺȨ˾;ȨѺԻõļ۽峥ծʵծȨѺļֵͬʱѺȨˣծȨˣծȨʱѺȨʵ֣ѺļֵͬʱծȨʱѺȨͻᷢͻȻֳͻڵķѾˣѺȨ˳λƶȡע̱Ȩ̺Ȩ˫ͬʱͬһ̱̺ŷֱעʱһӵжƵ̱ȨһӵжƵ̺Ȩʹһעȣҹ̱̺Ųȡֱ𱣻˫ͬһƵ̱Ȩ̺Ȩͻᷢͻ

ݷͻȨǹȨ˽ȨɷΪȨ֮ijͻ˽Ȩ֮ijͻȨ˽Ȩ֮ijͻȨ֮ijͻָɹȨ֮ijͻ˽Ȩ֮ijͻָ˽Ȩ֮ijͻȨ˽Ȩ֮ijͻָɹȨ˽Ȩ֮ijͻ˽Ȩ֮ijͻ磨һٵӡ˽Ȩ͹ȨijͻȨ˽Ȩ֮ijͻһ˵Ȩһ˵˽Ȩָͬһʱ˶ҪʵԼȨͲܣΪȨ֮ʹͻַ˵˽Ȩ˽Ȩ֮ʹֻ˵ȨڹȨ֮ijͻͬһƵķϵͨȨÿһоʮ·ڵȨȴĻͨȨͻᷢͻÿһʹһʵ֡ȨͺȨijͻʱԶԾмڲߵУ֮Ϊ˾Ȩʱ빫ȨͻΪɲļ顣

ݷͻȨǻڷɵĹ涨ǵԼԼԷΪȨijͻⶨȨijͻȨֱָɷɸȨ˴ķȨ⣩ⶨȨָ˫˾ЭһںͬлļȨȨijͻȽ⣬棨һͣеӡⶨȨͻбҪ˵һ¡ͨЭ˫Ȩлֺͽ綨ʱ򣬲δԸԵȨ綨ͻᷢⶨȨͻ

šȨͻʵ

ȨͻĶ塢Ҫ̬ԼȨΥԼȨϵԶԶġ˵˼άһȻ򣬾Ҫ͸ıȥͼʶĶƶ䶯ǸߡǶȨͻķֲ̽ܽͣı棬Ӧ͸ıȥĸĶĶȥ̽ѰıƶȨͻ˶仯ǸĴߣʹǵʶڸ̵ĻϣеؾذȨͻԡʡ

ȻһȨͻԼƶȨͻIJߣôʲôأ仰˵ȨͻʵʲôأʲôʹȨͻԷ̸ԴأҪش⣬ҪڶȨ⡣

ĿǰȨʶ۴¿ɷΪ¼10

1һְȨΪʸ񣬼ȥжʸռеʸܵʸȨҪּʸ˵ijӵȨ˵㱻ijʸ񡣰⣬Ȩζſԡ

2ڶְȨΪԣϷԣǿִеţijġϷҪ߶ijռУ󷵻ijҪijʵΪķЧ˵ijӵһȨָѾʵЧijһţЧijһš

3ְȨΪɣɣƵܷɱɡÿһȨһɣȨ־ɺжɣʹȨʱܷϵĸ棬ʲôʲô˵ǿơ

4ְȨΪϺͱϵ棬ȨľʲôȨ˵һij档

5ְȨΪɸȨһлάض 6ְȨΪɹ涨ȨһΪĿԣҪһΪĿԼǿЭĿԣֿܵɷɹ淶ɵ˵Ӧıϡ

7ְȨΪϻܹһΪij߶ȣȨܹһΪԼҪӦ߲һΪ뱣ϡ

8ڰְȨΪض˼ʹϵУɹһˣȨ壩ѡ־ˣ壩ѡ־

9ھְȨΪɣɣӦΪ桢źڴڷϾͻᱻΪIJõ֧֡ȨԣȨζڷһȥij»ij£ûбƷȡ֮ǰijȨijɣȨ˿һķΧڰԼ־£Խڷֹų˵ĸ11

ϾֶȨ⣬վڸԲͬĽǶȣӲͬIJ棬ȨʲôԼĽ͡ŹֶȨĽͣ˵ԶԣijһȨıԡ˲˵κһ⣬ֻнۺȫؽʾȨʲôҲֻǵŸȫ棬DzܸнذȨһ һʾȨǸĴߣҲһн˼άͼ͸ıȥĶȻأһֲһֱ׷أĴ𰸣ͲܽȨõҪ͸ȨһҪͼѰҡ

ôȨʲôͼأҪ׷Ȩ֮ԿܵĸôΪأˡȨ˵ȨȨԴ֮ҪľˡȨʵҪ˵֮Ĺϵ̽ȨʵʡȨͻʵʾҪȥѰ˼еɵᡣ һԶʿ˵Ȼһֳǰ˵Ĺϵ֮У뿪˶ڡο˵ĹϵдأȻ˵Ĺϵ֮УȻԼĶԣֻŲʹԼŸԵʧʧ˼ȻжԣôֶԵĸʲôأβڴڡ˵Ĺϵ֮أĴ𰸾ԼԵ棬Ҫõ㡣ֻܶڵûиԵάԴ棬Ҳʧ˵Ĺϵ֮У˵ĹϵҲʧҲڡҲΪԼ棬ֻҪǺľʱõ㣬˲ŻԴ˵ϵ֮УŻڡ˺ΨһŦȻȻԣҪ˽档12 ǷܶȡһУͬǵйء13˿˵Ȩ̵ݾǶ˵Ͽɺͱɾͨȷϡ綨棬ϿɵȨʽȷԱӶķʹᴦһ״̬ҪͨƵķȨŸЩõϲ޵ģġ14˵Ȩһ̶DZķ룬ȨıƶȨķ˶ͱ仯

ȨͻʵʾԳȨͻʵϾһͻȨͻʽֳͻͻǸȨͻĶȨͻʵǷȨʽн綨ͷʱ綨ͷģԶµġͻ֮Բ˵ԱʾġԵ˴˵Ĺϵ֮У˵ĸԣԣԵìʹͻIJ߼ϵĿԡһҪάԣԣһֲò˵Ĺϵ֮УΪ˱ԣԣȥ׷Լ棬ֿҪ׷ģԴϾ޵ģijͻͲɱIJɵij־Ϊ˼ٺ;ܵijͻÿ˵綨һķΧ֮ڣȨʽ̶ͨȨʽĽ綨вȷġģĵطȨʽȥ׷Լʱܵ˵ͬȨʽֵָͬĶ׷谭ȨijͻͲɱˡ

ͨȨͻʵʵķóȨͻʵϾͻһۣǶȨͻʶͽһˣٽͣȨͻı棬뵽Ȩͻı󣬰յȨͻиͻ

ʮȨͻ뷨ɵ

۴֮ǰǿһ˵ķɵʲôֻؽзȨͻͷɵĹϵ⡣ôɵʲôأ

ִձԷΪʽξָձձǷɡ棬Ԥһ߼ǰᣬһձԵ߼ϺгһµķɣǿԴиԤ֪ԼΪĺΪΪĺ֮佨һֱȻϵɴDzŻһԡȶԡԤ֪ԵĸоֻDzܶԷɲԼΪֻҪǸݷɶΪľͿԻúԤڵĽͿʵԼĿġȻܷеΪ߼ϵļǰصأһdzҪ⣬ɱֻںٵ߼ϵļԵǰᣬôǵķεĸͲˣǵķμҲͲˣؽ뵽֮СʹᣬǵΪΪĽ֮ĺԤҲҪģֻһֻ״̬ص㲻ڴˣԲط跨ɱڴҪ߼ϵļԵǰᣬôַձ״̬εĸͲᱻȫشݻ١ҲֻDzһԱȽϺг״̬֮£һУеа֮ܽѧϰиύַε߼ϵļԵǰǷɵ롣ͼʹɴﵽ߼ϵ״̬ʹɾȷԣʹܸݷǵΪΪĽ֮佨ԤڣDzܶǵΪκεԤڣʹᴦһּ˵״̬ƻǵİ֮ ȻǷɵʲôȨͻ˵ַɵʲôϵأȨͻһϵеĴ״Ӱŷɵڶ̶ϵʵ֣Ҳ˵ϵŷε߼ϵļܷõڶ̶ϵõ⡣ȨͻĴʹͬϵĺݵȨ޷õȨԤڵʵ֡ʵߴݻˣȨͻһϵڲһֳ̬Ļεʵֵ߼ǰᣬʹΪ޷ΪΪĽ֮佨ԤڣҲ˵ΪΪĽ֮ķϵϵ˼һķϵУȨͻһֳ̬ĻDzؽΪΪ֮ĺԤڣôؽһֻ״̬ǶϵҲͻᵴȻ޴棬Ӷյ·εıʹһϵȨͻΪ̬ڣȨͻҲǺԵģ̵ġDzϲDzܺǵΪΪĽ֮佨ԤҪһг״̬ Ȩͻַϵе״̬ǶԷɵɵìܵġԣһϵ֮вȨͻĴڣȻҪ󲻿ȫʵ֣ٲȨͻΪһֳ̬ڡDZȨijͻ״̬㷨ε߼ϵǰᡢɵ롪һձԵ߼ϺгһµķɣʹΪΪĽ֮佨Ԥڡɱձġ߼ϺгһµġǾҪ۵һ⣬νȨͻ⡣

ڶ Ȩͻԭ

Ҫ̽ȨͻԭֻŪȨͻԭDzпԵȥȨ֮ijͻ ожӽǣÿһӽǶڵĶؼֵͬʱӸǶȶһо֣̽ȻԽÿһӽǵĶ֮չֳڸӽܴ֮ڽ棬ʹоһ߼ϵĻ״̬һӽǶijһطоȴӶӽǶάȶз߼ϵĻҵĿҪСĶࡣмڴˣĶȨͻԭҲһӽǽз֣̽Ա߼ϵĻҡ

ȻһӽǶȨͻԭзôǴһӽأӴӽǵĺںδأΪȻȨͻԭôȨԽǶ̽ȨͻԭҲһеĽǶȡ15˱ľͼȨһǶȶȨͻԭз֣̽ȨЩʹȨͻΪܡʹȨԡȨԡȨԺȨ߽ģĸǶȽз

֮ǰȶʹõĸҪ˵ҵ⣬ȨԷΪһ̬Ȩ֮䱾Ϊ˵˼άĶδ˵˼ά֮еΪ˼ά֮еȨıԭȨ˼άеȨΪ˼ά֮ΪȨ֮䱾ʶIJȨҲǷϵȨıеȨ˵˼άȨ֮䱾ʶԵʽ̶ڷıеȨȻ˼άеȨͷıеȨδµг֣˼άԶȨӰǺҪġ һ Ȩ

Ȩ֮ǰȶԡԡһ±Ҫ˵ԱһѧϵĸָʵһʣʵΪԭ򣬶ûڵԭҲָҾͨԼʶ˵Լ˵ԼԼԼԼʶԼʵǶڵģģκĸӰ죬ߵԣǡһﶼDzģڣǡࡱƣҪ˵ǵĴڶΪԭ16

ѧϵΪʵԵֲѧУõȨϣȻӸϽΪȨӸԴϽڵԭģһѾֻܶ࣬ΪһԵһ潲ȨģʵڷڣӷɵúõĽǶȿڵĺԵġ

ȨԴ߼ϽָȨΪԭΪڵԭûڵԭԼʵԼ廯ָ֮ȨԼΪijΪ߲ΪijΪҪΪΪijΪʱԼзϵȨ㣬ѰĸݡȨָȨʵֵĸݵԣdzɾȨԡ

ȨǷϵĹ衣ν輴Ԥȼٶġġ֤ļ衣Ȩ̸ԴڷɵĵСȨٶΪġġ֤ģǿԻɵģ֤Ļϵ޷ת޷ʵַɵĿġΪʱȨҪ֤ġģûзɵߡûķߣɾֻ˿ܷãڴŵޣDzġʵϣɾͨϿɵǵΪ涨ΪΪʱȥ֤ȨãǵġͱеЧʣΪҪʱ֤ԼΪĺԶʹɥʧЧʡ

ִᣬ˵ĸԡɣǴӸ˵ӽ˼ģǸģģͬʱҲƽȵģڷоȨλȨλָȨȨĹϵУȨںĵλǵһԵģȨʵȨֶΣȨǷϵҪļֵĿꡣɽϿɵĸ桢Ȩʽ̶Աַ˵ȨľҪܵɵķۡƲãеϵΡȨһַϵɣݴɣȨ˿ԼΪΪijΪҪΪΪijΪ֣ġִѧһȨȨǷϵɣɣӦΪ桢źڴڷϾͻᱻΪIJõ֧֡Ȩ˶ԣȨζڷһȥij»ȥij£ûбƷȡ֮ǰijȨijɣȨ˿һΧڰԼ־£Խڷɵֹų˵ĸ档17ǡֵذȨԹճڴڵֶȨҲЧ֤ȨԵıԡ18

1ȨΪʸ񣬼ȥжʸռеʸܵʸ񡣰⣬ȨζšԡζšԡһֻҪijʸ񣬾ȨݣܹΪΪţзȨ˸شijֻһҲֻбijʸ񣬾ȨݣΪ벻ΪţзȨ˸ش»ںĺ壬ȨȨΪķϵĸݣȨΪʱԼijȨɣȥ֤ԼȨĺԡ˵Ȩ⡣ 2ȨΪԣϷԣǿִеţijģҪ߶ijռУҪ󷵻ijҪʵΪķЧֻҪһȨͿҪijռУҪ󷵻ijҪʵΪķЧֶȨҲʵϰѷϵȨģȨijȨΪʱ֤Ȩԡ

3ȨΪɣɡƣܵɱɣÿһȨɣȨ־ɺΪɣʹȨʱܷϵĸ棬һΪ˵ǿơҲܺõ˵ʵڷΧȨԵص㣬ȻȨҵɣôʹȨʱ֪ʹȨɣҵȨĸݣʹȨǷֺ˵ĺ档 ԣֶȨȻǶȲͬʵ϶˵Ȩ⣬ΪǰȨΪʸ񣬻ţֻɣôһ˼ƶΧڣȨһΪЧɺԭ򣬶ȥѰԭ֤ԼΪԣֻҪ֤Ϊ˾ijַϵȨɣȨȨΪߺϿɵĸݡ ӴԴϽȨrightӢУ¼ֽͣʽֺ壬һָ塢塢һָǵȨijȨ֮״̬ȨҪĶȥеĶݴʽֺ壬һģϷģӦãһȷģԵģģһʺϵģõġϷġȨrightļֺԿȨrightоȷġġ˼ˣڷϷȨΪģȷġϷġ19

ôǾͿԺƳڷȨģ֮ΪΪijΪʱΪ֤֤ԡЧԡȨڵԭͿ԰䱾ԼʵԼʵϣƶķΧڣȨԡЧԡһļٶ

Ȩ

ȨȻģԼΪݣԭԼʵԼʵԼĸϽģǷһ裬ɾͲȨʵԼĹУֲģԼ޷ʵԼߵЭҲ˵ȨԵġҲȨһҪԡ ˵ȨģôʲôأһҪ˵⡣ΪڽͨеĿΪȨǶͳһģȨ໥Ӧ໥棬໥תġÿһȨȻһ򼸸֤ʵֵ񣬶ȨĻ˵ġȨĴΪȨĴΪȱκһ㲻ڡڶ˼ľûȨҲûȨ񡪡ֹ۵ƿȥȨǹ浽ģȨʵҪӦЭȨ޷ʵԼȻѰҵĸݡ˼侭ˣӦ˵ֹ۵㻹Ƿdzеġ

ô˵ȨһԲ͵ȨĶͳһϵ𣿴ӶᷨҲʧȥΪǰȨԾֻǻһʶѣʵϲԼµݣȨı֤ͳһϵȡ֮

Ⲣô򵥣ȻȨȨͳһϵij֮ǵĹ۲Ƕȡ͸ָݲȫһشġȨһᷨҲԼ̺ģǿվסŵġôȻˣȨԼʲô֮֮ʹԼܹأ

ӦýȨԺȨĶͳһֵᷨ۲ĽǶDzͬġȨȡڲӽǣǴȨ۲ȨģȨʵԼĹУģܹԼʵԼԼҪҪ漰һȨĶͳһᷨȡⲿӽǣΪһ۲Ȩ񣬴ӶȨĹϵпģӽdzȨΪһǵֵ߳ģõdzԽԵӽǡȻȨĶͳһҲóȨʵҪĴڣƺȨԵóĽһģDzһģӹ۲ĽǶȿشġ

ȨȨĶͳһУȨġָDzһġǰָȨʵԼĹв㣬ҪһЭǰģ˵Ȩָһ棬˭ͬʱָ񻹰ݣȨȨʵԼĹУߵ񣬶ҹߵȨΪȨԵʵԼĹУҪܵʵԼԽԼĺ޵ʱ򣬾˵ȨˣͳȨһ棬ȨڷϵĽ綨ʱͲȨͻ⡣ɴ˿ԿȨУ񻹰ȨȨԱȨһָԣָߵġȨᷨĺԺǢԡ

ȨʵԼĹвĶģôԵ̸ԴʲôأҪȨԽнһ̽֡Ȩһ֮Ĺϵķ룬ΪȨ˵ȨȨʹ˺˵ĹϵУ˵Ĺϵ֮вܻԼڵļֵ壬ǵĹϵʱȨҲûԼڵĸ˶Ȩ˵״˵ǶȳӶذȨԡȨҲˡô˵״˵ԣȨΪξأ

˵ĸȻھҵĸݣþķʽ֤˵Dz㹻ģΪھõIJһȻԵĽۣDZ˵ЩԼٶΪǰԭ һϵУ˵ıԡ֮ԳΪ˾Ϊ˾ԣ֮໥ġú¸Ļ˵Ǵ˹ͬڴˣڡ״£˵ϵ˵໥ȨϾͱΪȨIJԣԡ

Ȩ

ҲȨһҪԣҲΪȨͻԭȨԵҪһּڷȨͻԾȨԵķҲڴǶ֣ȨԽϵͳ

ȻȨһԣôȾҪȷһȨָʲôҲȨʲôݣĺʲô

ȨָȨʵԼĹУΪʵԼҪųڵ谭һʡȨ԰棬һҪųԼָͬһ϶Ȩʵ֣ȨԵҪ塣ȨҪųԼĴͬһ壨ϵȨʵ֡ôԼͲʵԼͻȨijͻȨ˽Ȩָͬһ󣨿壩ʱǾͲܺܺõȥʵԼ⣬ȨͬһϣȨ֮໥ųģǾͲʵԼ

һ棬ȨָųΥԼ񣨻ʹȨԽΧΥԼ񣩶ַȨȨųȨԵһΥ񣨻ʹԼȨԽΧΥʱȨƾȨҪԷ񣬻ڶԷʱ˾豣ȨԵһȨ˵ҲʮֱҪģȨԵӦк塣ΪȨ޴ԣַԼȨʱͲЧάԼȨӶҲ޷ʹԼȨЧȫʵ֡

Ϊ˽һȷȨԵĺ壬бҪԵȨеġȨеġһҪ˵ԵȨָͬʱͬһϵȨڴУȨͬʱһϣͲܳΪȨȨʾġȨ䱾һֻܴһȨͬʱһ֮ϣȨҲͲܳΪȨȨҲˣȨҪתռУͬһϾͲȨתȨһҶĿǰѧҲۡעԵȨǾȨijģָȨܶһϡȨָȨʵԼĹУʡһָڳʱһָʵʱġ

ôȨΪʲôأҪش⻹ҪȨʲô⣬һҪ̽˵Լ˵״⡣

˵԰˼Ĺ۵һȻԣһԡڴ˽˵ȻԿ˵ԱʵԼΪһҪұʵֵģͬʱǾԵģڴҽ֮˴˵ĹϵС˾״̬֮£һҪұʵ֣һִ˵ĹϵУͬʱԴ޵ģǾͲ⡣˼ҪıԼ棨ʹұʵ֣ͬʱҪų˶ԼֺĻʹս״̬˾Ҫijֹн綨䲢Ͽɵ棬ֹǷɡȨ˵˼άڶ˵״˼Ļϣ˵״һƶɣϿɵȨʽڷȷԱɴǿԵóһۣȨ˵˼ά˼˵״ڷȷȨһʱȻؼȨ֮ϵģҲȨȨеԡˣȨ˵˼άһ֤Ե⣬ڷ֮УһɵȨԡǼٶȨԣôؽȨȨ֮ԶڣΪ˵˼άٶΪַģԵġ

ġȨ߽ģ

˼ά߼ǢԵĿǣȨ߽ģҲ˵Ȩͻԭġ

һȨб߽

Ȩ߽ģԣҪȨб߽⣬Ȩûб߽磬Ȩ߽ģԣôȥ֤Ȩı߽ĴأȻѾĴڣ漰Ȩ⡣

ڴˣҰȨΪ˼άȨ֮䱾İգǹϵġȨΪһ˼άеġԵĸ˼άдڶļֵأʣ˼ĽǶȣΪһĴڲʹȨ˼άеĴڳΪܣ˴ҵּ֤ȨڣҪ˵ȨȨ˼άڵĿԣһʿܸе漰Ҫ۵⡣ĴҲȨԼı߽硣ȨԼı߽ӶʹһȨһȨ˼ά֮ڳΪܡ20ˣȨб߽ǵ˼άڰȨʱΪȨ趨ġȻ˴ı߽粻ɼ򵥵ΪռԵı߽磬Ȩı߽˵߼ϵı߽硣 һȨΪһȨ˼άжڵĽǶȷȨı߽⣬һǶȣ˵״˵ԵĽǶΪʲô˼άȨ趨߽磬Ҳָ˼άȨ趨߽Ŀ͹ۻںδ21

ǰҶᵽģһԵĴǴ˵ĹϵС˵еơĻ֮ԲԵĸԴΨ۵ĽǶȥ⣬ܻɿ˷ѣѧĴʦͼҳȥѧϵȴһ֪һһ˵Ĵڵ⣬Ե⣬ʹԸ˴ҵĽǶ޷ս͵ĽͷáӴ˿Կ˵ֹԡڷʱDzɻرܶעġȨ֮б߽Ҳ͸Դ˵ֹԡԡΪ˶ƽȵģз涨ȨһΪʵԼʹȨʱַ˵ȨʵϷ˵ȨĴڣȨҪһķΧԼı߽硣 ϵпԿȨȷʵб߽粢۵ĺͿ͹۵ĻȻ˵Ȩб߽粢˵Ȩı߽ģں̶ܴȨı߽ģģ˺ܶ⣬磬Ȩ֮ijͻȻȨı߽粻ģģȨһķΧģڴ²ȨijͻȨ֮ల¡һǶȽɲƵḶ́DzϵʹȨı߽Ĺ̡

Ȩ߽ģ

Ȩ߽ģ֮ȣȾ۴һЩ˼άĻǰ˵һ¡ȼٶһĴڣ类ʶգΪڶķ󣬷Ϊֵķ֮ǸߡڴУȨ֮䱾Ȩʽ֣Ȩ֮䱾ȨʽıĴߡڴۼٶĻϣȨ߽ģ⡣

ȣȨ֮䱾ΪʽȨıĴߣǵֲȫ֣Ҳ˵ԲԵķʽֵ֡IJȫԸԴǣڣչʽɣʷԵôߴҲô߲ΪǺǵĴڡ߱㱻ڸǺαװˡ22 ӵ¿ɳĴִȻеĴ߻ʷеĴߡǰ׽ġ23 ôڸΪôߴڣԴ֮ŴߣΪôڲڱŴ塣24

ʶ۵ĽǶȽǵ˼άİͨǵľеġ־飬ҲΪԹߵĹ۲졣ͨӶöʶõ֪ʶġ߾Ϊǵ֪ʶԴھ飬ͨԾĹɶġ˼ҲͬôΪڶʷϵľۺΨ۽֮ܽҲΪǵ֪ʶԴھ飬ֻΪ˸ѧһӵIJ֪ۣΪ֪ʽʽķ룩ʽİķʽǵ˼ά֪ʶΨһʽȻͨǵľ磬ͨǵľ֣ôͲһ⣬ͨ磬ͨǵľְ֣պһʲôİգʲô֡ΪǶѾ߲о飬ǵʵȫ磬Ӷǵ֣Ƕİվ޵ġ ͬʱǹǵ֪ʶǾǶʵȡõĹľ顢ǵֽйɶȡõġʽ֪ʶ߼ʽǰҪǷdzϸģֻе֮õĽۣ֪ʶǿɿģЧԾҪۿۣɴ˵óĹǵ֪ʶԾֵûɡǰǵĹǵľ޵ģǵǷDZġȫģ˵ǶǹǵľйʱDzȫɣóĹǵ֪ʶԾǷdz޵ģDzеɴǿԷdz׵ؿȨ֮䱾Ϊһ֣ͨǵʵ֣ΪǰΪʱDzȫġ޵ģǶǹڷȨ֮䱾ľйʱóĹǵ֪ʶDzȫġȱݵġ˵߶ǹȨ֮䱾ľйܽᲢ涨ΪϵȨʱȨİDzȫģҲͲܾȷȷȨķΧȨı߽磬Ȩı߽ģġ ң硢Ȩ֮䱾ΪDZ䶯ӵģڱ仯֮УΪΡáĻķչرǾõķչ˵޵ʵȥʱǵʵԼʱ͸Dzȫġ޵ġ׿ǵ˼ά˵ΪһԵĴڣʱԵĴڣȥȫذDZ䶯ӵԶڱ仯չĶ˵޵硢硢Ȩ֮䱾˵ǵһڷչ仯Ȩ֮䱾ȴȶIJĹȨʱܸеΪֶԱ䶯ӵȨ֮䱾Եʶ͵ڶȨһȶķϵĹ涨ʱij̶ֳȵͺԣͺĶȨķϵĹ涨͸޷Ȩı߽ȷһɲĹ涨ˣȨ߽ģԾͲɱˡ Ȩı߽֮ģģһҪأǷɱǸġģҪԵȶԣݼΪ編ɲǸġģҲԵȶԣݼɶȨĹ涨ͿԸķʽУʱ޸ƣÿȨı߽Ҫһ綨ʱ綨ҪݾͲȨ߽ģ⣬ɲܲǸġģҲܲԵȶԣݼΪĻҲͲ֮ܳΪɣֻһʱĴʩɱǸġġȶģ˿ͬһసãͬʱҲDzݼģǾݼķɵıȻҪġǰ潲ģᣨʵǷᣩɹܹʹԼΪԤںΪ֮佨ϵɹܹԼΪΪĽ֮佨ԤڣķĴҲͲڡ Ȩ߽ģԣ漰ͨʲôеġͨеģʹеΪģΪܶ˹ͬͰյģʹ˵ԳΪܣɴǵҲųΪһ໥磬˶ʹǶҲǺΪʲôڴΨתԡԭѧʦ¸˵˼γԣǴڵļҡܾļС25ĵӣѧѧĴ٤Ĭǽһ˵Ȿʵֵý顣26 Բʺе˵һãӵһҲǽ֮ϣ֮еġ˵Ϊڴˣ˵һ򲢲ĴڡִԵķʽյġ27]ǶԷ硢Ȩ֮䱾İҲͨеģǵʹ硢Ȩ֮䱾չ֡Ȩ߽ģԣͲܲǽ԰ķʽԣʵʹȨ߽ģԳΪܲչָǡ ôʹȨı߽ģԳΪأǾģģģԡģԳɾȨ߽ģԡǽģأ

Եģ⣬ȻҪĽṹ̸֮ģģԵġָָ͡Ƿġ28ڸںӵķ룬ѧ˵ǹ⡣ָںڹ࣬Ҫ塣ָָָ࣬ںָľ̬󣩡ҲԳΪԵĸԺ;⡣ڶԵϣȻѧڷĹȡ˾޴ijɾͣΪѧȫܳ˱Ϊζѧѧĵ·ԲܰԵܡǴӸ̬ȡ乲ͬĶںָ࣬dzġΪǵֳȡһֹɣDzȫɣںָ಻ȫָӡ࣬Dz֮ķ⡣IJϱ仯ӾַijͻԵģԾ͹ֳʵģģȻ˽˵ԣ˵ľ鷶ΧͬͬһʡвģͲĶ⡣ԵģԴӸԴϽڸ˾֮IJ;飨磩IJϱ仯һʵ岻ǾȷģһֻС̶ȵģԡǿ򣬾һһģĵΧȻٵشķΧ֮ڣǴӰƶʱľһ㣬һģǶôС29

϶Եģ˼Ҫ˵ʱҲ˻ʣԵģȨ߽ģʲôȻϵأԵģԶڷȨӰǷdz޴ģûԣɵĴҲͳΪܵġɰ䱾Ҫ߶ȵȷԣаģԣԵģȴʹǵȷԵŬ±룬ѰȷУȴԶ޷ﵽȷԡһ亣¸ĻͨɵȷԵ;С

Ȩ˵κȨͲָָںӡķìܡκһȨĺ塢ľ鷶ΧԶ޷Ȩ̬һµȨ̬ʱȨ̬ܷڴȨһȨͻᷢʣȨҲ;ģԵص㡣ԱķɣȨǴ֮СԲ˹ԣԣȷ˷ɲȻѧоȷԣԱķɣȨͲܸһȷΪ꣬ʹǿ֮ȥΪͲΪijΪ֮ҪΪͲΪijΪȨı߽ģģ˵ģԣģʹȨijͻΪܡ

Ȩͻ֮ԷԭȨ⼸ص㡢һл壬ǹͬ£Ȩ֮ŻᷢͻȱκһǵʶDzģҲͲܶȨͻԭһȷȫʶ

ȨͻĽ

ǰ˵ȨͻϾһȨ״̬ǵķɵdzͻģֳͻڣؽʹɴ̮ҲͳΪ֮£跨Ȩ״̬ôνȨͻأ ȨͻȨУԡԺԣȨĹϵDzɷģǸԵģȥȨҲͲܳΪȨڴϣDzκεΪȨ߽ģҲȨıԣǻྭԶģ಻ϵľȨͻ̬ģǿԾһ̶ϽġȨͻ֮ͳΪһοһķΧȨı߽磬½綨ͻŵȨķΧͱ߽⡣

һȨͻ֮

Ȩͻܷ⣬ԴǶȿǣһȨͻıȻԡ˵ľʽĺʽİķʽʹɲȫؽ綨Ȩ߽֮磬Ȩ߽ģԾͲȫر⣬DZȻģȨ֮ģشDzһݵؽȨͻ⡣һ棬Ȩͻܻ֣ӶܹΪǰաʵܹʵȨͻ֮ġڲͣĽŷʵڴʵУǹڷɵľڲϵɵķչ̾ǹڷɵľ鲻Ĺ̡Ĵ󷨹ٻķ˹˵ɵ߼Ǿ顱ǵķ֮ԷչڱȽƵij̶ȣʷϵľĻǷֲġȨͻΪij־ȨͻʱΪǽṩΪDzܽǵľ黹δյ飬ijȨͻһΪǵľգǾͿijַʽԤ¼̵һֲԣֲԲܱ֤һĺڣΪܲȡжеѷɲԵĺԻڣһḶ́ùȥľδԤ⣬µľٵʼһؼֹɲԣܻﵽʵĹɽۡ30

ȨͻDzɽģָDzһݵؽеȨͻΪȨͻΪԶȫذգͬʱȨͻǿԽģָǿԽʶյȨͻ

Ȩͻ;

Ȩͻ;һҪ⣬κһ;ڷ϶ǿеģһȨͻЧܵ⡣֮󣬱ΪͬãҲձԡͨ;֮󣬳ͻŵȨı߽类»ʹȨ֮ijͻʧȻ⡢ٲõȷʽԽʵȨͻ;Ľֻڴ˰ԺİãʵϲûнϵȨijͻܴӸϽȨͻ;ֻ˾ԷȨͻԵġⶨȨ֮ijͻֻиԣ˿Բ˫Э̽⡢ٲú˾;ȻԸģ˫˼εڣ˫Ϊйظ棬ڽⶨȨͻеûǷdz޴ģ涨˫ԼʱշеĹ涨ȷͬݡͨ˫˵Э̻ⶨȨͻͨ˫Эﵽģûдӷ۵ıҪͼֵٲû˾;ҪͨɽͣͬͣʵֵģصǺͬĽ͹ڴҲϸۡ˱ҪȨͻзϵĽ;˾; һ;

ͨ;Ȩͻָͨƶ޸ķȨı߽½綨Ȩ߽ģԣʵֽȨͻĿġͨ;ȨͻпԷΪ棬һоı⣬һͨ;ѾͻȨı߽½綨ԴȨ߽ģԣȨͻ ˵Ȼ޵ģܽеȨ̬state of affairs about rightsԵ˼ά֮У˲ʶеȨ̬˵Եʶ޶ڣȴԾȨͻʵϣһȨͻΪпDzܶɵġⲿȨͻ˼άеʶ޶ڣǿͨ˼ġͨ;ȨͻͰǰԤʵķʽܹʶǽȥܶȨͻߵˮƽߵ˼άȨ̬İܽij̶ȡڴ˷棬ֻܾѰ㹻кǿˮƽȻǻУͨ㷺ۡҵIJܶȨͻоǽеɹеɹ೤ڵʶĽᾧʷоֿ飬Ӧ˵ǶȨ̬İDZȽȫģӦøֵӣɵǵķ

˵˼άʶ޵ģʹڿܵʶΧҲȫû©ĹȨĹ涨ͬʱ˼άȫյԸΪֻеȨͻ֮Dzʶ˶ȨͻĽ;УõͨºԷɽ޸Ļƶ·ķʽȨı߽½綨Ȩ߽ģԣ»˵Ϊı߽硣º󲹾ȵķʽУҪǸݷɵԭ򣨹ƽ塢Чʡȫȣƽ⣬Դ½綨Ȩı߽硣Ȩ߽½綨ֽ綨ֻȨͻе½綨ǴӸ½綨ȨȻҪܵʷĻͳáεصԼ

;ǰԤķʽȻЧؽеȨͻΪЩȨͻڲ֮ǰǺѰյġºͨƶ޸ķɵķʽȨͻȱ㣬һִҪɾȶԣܾԵضԷɽ޸ģȨͻַʽȨͻDzʱģʵҪȨͻ֮ͼʱؽڷͽ֮һ൱ʱִҪɾвݼƷʣݼķɣ˶ѾȨͻֽʽһܽѾȨͻ⣬ѾȨͻΪġͬʱӢϵңĹܻǷdzģ˲ܾԵز;Ȩͻ

Ȼͨ;Ȩͻȱݺͱ׶ˣôǷĽʽأУǾ˾;

˾;

ͨ˾;Ȩͻָ˾УɷٶԷͻȨı߽»ԴȨ߽ģԣȨ֮ijͻ˾;;˵кܴŵ㣬ǿԽڷɾȶԺͷɲݼĶѾȨͻΪ⣬ͬʱԼȨͻ֮ļijɱΪ˾ͷʵϵԶܣ˿ԱȽϿĽѾȨͻ

ͨ˾;ȨͻһеķɷΧڿͨɽͶȨͻһDzܹеķɷΧͨɽͽͨٸݷ֮ƶµȨܽһЩ½ϵDzзɵλģЩͨ˾;Ȩͻþͷdzˡڵһ˾;ֻܽΪ𰸼ֵȨͻܹϽȨ֮ijͻܶԳͻŵȨı߽µؽ綨ڶЩ½ϵ˵͸ܣΪ½ϵһDzϷٿ취ġЩҷеϸȨԭؼְܣֻѾƶķɣٰݵһԶۻĽɫӢϵ˵Ϊͳͨ˾;ȨͻȻ飬ʵ϶Ȩ߽½綨ҲҪͨ˾;ʽеġ

½ϵϸ嵽ٵɲ

ڽϸĹԭ򣬲ٽɲ֮ԳһΪ˼ϸȨ֧䣬Ϊʹ˾ȨʹȨֻϸѾƶķ¡˷ֻϸѾƶķɽоܵƾԼĺԽɲʱٰݵֻԶۻĽɫһĴͳ˼ռͳελرŷ޴½Ϊ˿ԽƾԼԾͿƶһȫʵķɣ˷ٵְҲǴѾƶķɳ߼˼άʽھİ֮С

ϸĹþʵķʵдڡΪֻһЩĹ򣬱иԵص㣬尸ǧģȻкܶ๲ԣҲԼĸԣ,ʹɱǴʵܽҲѸİȫһ£ܽǧ涨ڷ֮Сرʵڲϱ仯ģɱȴҪһȶԣ˵˱仯Ӧķȴû֮ıʱʵϵԡ

ǣǽطϸһɲȨٿԸݾԭĹijֱ仯ȻɲȨҲƵģ͸˷ʹȨĽڡִϸ嵽ɲı仯ҪڷеһЩԭԵĹ涨еȨԭͳʵԭ򡣷ٿڷûй涨涨ȷìܣϸ÷ʱᵼصķĽʱշɵԭԼĺЩɵԭһ˷ٽɲķݣһҲ˷ɲȨʹ ٳִϸ嵽ɲı仯ȨͻĴڣȨͻʹǴٳֱ仯ȫԭ򡣿˵ɲĿĻҪĿģ÷ٿ԰շɵԭھİнȨ֮ijͻԣڷй涨һЩɵĻԭ򣬸跨ɲȨھ˾ʵнȨͻķ֮һ ôͨ涨ɵһЩԭ跨ɲȨķԽȨͻǷܴӸϽȨ֮ijͻأⶨȨ֮ijͻַǿеģΪⶨȨͻֻиԣ˫Ȩʵ֣ͬУⶨȨҲɣˡڷȨ֮ijͻַܴӸϽ⣬ӢϵÿһоԷɵЧΪʱֻеȨ֮ijͻѣûнܷеȨ֮ijͻδȨ֮ı߽硣Դ½ϵӢƶʮֱҪġ ġȨͻĽֵѡ

ǰȨͻʵͻȨͻijͻҲΪͻĴڲʹȨͻԷˣȨͻȷȨ߽Ĺ̾һԳͻŵкȡḶ́ͬʱҲһֵѡĹ̡ѡ񱣻ͬо˲ͬļֵȡѡ߲ͬļֵԸijϻܾԼЩõϵĽޣնǰһȷļֵ߶еġ31

ôҲǻһʣȨͻҪͼֵѡ񲻿ûķԽȨͻ֮ڷɹ涨Ȩı߽ģԣʮֵľȷʵǷɵһ©֮©ָع涨Խʵз֮ʵȴûԹ涨ع涨ߡˣȻȨͻΪûȷԳͻȨı߽й涨ͨ÷ɹDzܹԽġֲܶȨͻַϵ©ȡĮӵ̬ȣΪ֮趨Ϊ˽ʵķɾף趨֮ĿıȻաȨͻʵĴںǵ趨ɵĿĶҪǸҪȨͻֻǽĺͼֵѡ״ġѧۡҲΪ˾ʹô˷ķעķΧôҪȨҪǷȱĽޣȨҲãԭҲգʹ޲һȷǿŵģԵģ˴˾ر׷ͻЧΧ޷ʼȷһͻΪؽɺƽ״̬һȨһȨйص棩òij̶ֳϱòڴˣ˾иھ¸÷ҪԣȨĺ32 ֮ǷһַڴһЩδ֮淶ͻ⣬÷ΧصĹ淶Եʹÿռ䣬ʹΧвȷȨһ˸ȨԾ廯33ǺĬġѧѧͷɷҲƵдδ涨дµĹ淶ʱĹԲijʱĹʱ򣬼ֵж˾лᷢ޶ȵá ڲѴڵĹ淶ԭָ໥ͻѡ񣬾Ҫмֵжϡ34Ȼǽָ˾̶Եģôͨ;ȨͻûͼֵѡأȻУҾһкн綨䲢ȨʽԱḶ́һڳͻŵֵĿжϵļֵѡĹ̡˵ͼֵѡ˼άҪʽͽһмǰᡣֻڽͼֵѡ֮ܽ߼ʽļԵIJһؽѡĽϸȷ ȻȨͻɱҪͼֵôǵĻҪʹֺѡ⻯Ӧʹ֮зϿ͹۵ʵƷ״IJǵ˵ȻҲãҲգЩ󻯺˵ڴ漰IJѧϿɲĴСΪĽ˵֮ڣ䲢ȡijһԵı׼ͬʱ¾֮Աȡڸ֮ķǰΪȱһз漰ֵɵȷĽײɴ˿ͼһýۡˣô㲻һַֻ԰׵ļƣڴˣٸûκηԭΪܣֻԶı׼ɲеģˣڸ֮IJм޴ӿƣҲö֮ԼۼС35ǺĬҲ˵ȽķƶƼֵ˾е÷ΧΪ۵˾ֵƫΪоͨҪʽʽ淶Ϊо̶ֳȵIJȷԺͲԤԡһԮ״ĵ˾뷨ȷһ治ϣͬӦƽȶԴҪΥ36ԣΪͼֵѡб⣬DZѰһĹ֮йơȻܷҵһ͹۵ĺѡı׼أ״ĶԴ˱ʾΪշ۵ʶ̶ȶԣǰվֵĴ𰸡37Ϊ߷ԺIJսۣȽϵĿߣожཫսСȻÿζDZ뿼ĸ£ûһһȫͬ˲ڴһֵƾ㼴ɽĹ¼ȽϿԴٳãҲԶ¼ij̶ֳȵͻʹЩϾȫȡߡ38

״Ȼ˵ҵһվֵĴ𰸣Ǹһ𰸡39 ڷǰйɳԭȡڡļֵ򡪡ڴ漰һַַǷԵļֵԽԡӦÿ˵棨DzƲ棩˵нϸߵλסΪȨѶȨнṹԵ塣ڴУ漰λͬȨijͻΪ漰Ȩ죬˸޴ıȽϣ磬Ȩᷨ棨񽡿ijͻ͹İȫijͻڴһȡӦܱ汻Ӱij̶ȣ磬֪ϤԼҶԴ̶ܵΣһȡڣʹijȨòʱ̶ܺΣñԭ΢˺ֶλ򾡿΢СƵԭ򡣸ݺߣΪijֽΪԽķֵּһַʱĿҪij̶ȡʹԭ򣬷ȻкܴΪأڸٶ÷˹С˵ȡIJͬб¶šͬʱָǵķУһ޷յḶ́ij̶ֳɿɾָƵԭڴ˳̶ϣҲǿġ⡣ЪҲָܷԺڻȨIJУԸֿ͹۷λص𽥼Ҫԣڴˣһķιԭԭ򡢵ƽԭ򣩡ڸ͹۵ĻȨֵĸֱ׼Ҫ40

ԴⲩǺĬҲΪʹڷɵĴ˾ɲȨҲҪܵƶһʵơһĻļֵģʽڹ谭˾ɵϰͬʱ˵ļֵжֻģνǴǶڵʱصϰסǰ˵ġ41

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˵ĽǴʽԵIJκص˼ά߼̺߼ԾͼֵѡԼʵϣΪڽȨͻʱеͼֵѡѰһͳһġ̶ġģʽԵĹϵͳʮѵģΪʷĻͳأ뷢Ȩͻľ龰йءֻȨͻ£Dzܾȷνͼֵѡ񣬲Ҳ˵ʱ͹۵Ҫȫͬȷȷ߽ȨȨ֮䱾ϡҲֻǵͼֵѡĽҪĻУDzҵһ͹۵ķȨĽ

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