ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 






ˡͼʩ룺ĥܷ
ĥܷ

The New Constitutional Order and the Chastening of Constitutional Aspiration

ժҪ
ߣˡͼʩΣMark TushnetγǴѧGeorgetown Universityܷѧڡ
һ еء
һ ƶȡ
1 ͳȨķΧơ
2 ȨеɶĹᡡ
Ӱ졡
1 ҾߵķΧ
2 ˾
3
4 Ȩ
һЩ޶
е߷Ժ
һ administrative downsizing
ܷ
1 ߷Ժоխ͡
2 һֽ
͵˾ɫA Chastened Judicial Role
1 ˾١
2 ܷԳȣconstitutional seriousnessá
3 ܷС壨constitutional minimalismķ
ģ ƱǨ˾صá
1 Ϊͳһ¡
2 ˹ܷԵִ¡
ۣܷԴ
ؼʡܷ ܷ


ͷѾûӰ˭ֻһDz

ŵJay Leno1

ʮ;ʮȫ緶ΧƱ˳2 ϷԵĵȨĿ̨ͬҪǣ˥䣬ִҵѴӡ͡г͡תơأ𽥽Ȩ·ŵǹС3

ʷϣܷǨȫ˳Ҳٽı磬17871789ܷƶҲ緶Χڱʷѧ޲ءĬRobert Palmer֮Ϊʱһ֡4 ƣսؽʱԼƶŷޡ1848һһ֡͵ʱŷŬһ5 ؽʱҲԶڵʧܸա󣬶ʮͶʮʮ緶ΧľΣٳ¹κ깲͹սתͣҲ˰Ĵǡô67ƶȴ£ĿڷչԾΣĹӦ8

һβ뵽緶ΧܷǨ˶֮С9 ʮرΰѲʱˣ10 ҡ֪ףWarrenԺѾˡ11ȻвȷǣȡƵdzκܷƣȱͳһƶȺ;ϡΪһµܷѾγɡҵķƲԵģĿһ˼ܷչķһַֻеǷܷȷѾ仯˵ʱ򣬸÷Żгɹġ12

˵ƣregimeconstitutional orderȰҽڹ̶ʱشߵƶȣinstitutionsְָЩߵԭprinciples13 ʷҲתͣ־һЩؼѡУɵĴϵ˹㷺ұõת䣬Ӷ˵ɵϡ14 Ȼ˴IJͬ15 ʮͰʮڣܶι۲Ϊ1980ѡٽڸ֣´ͳ͵ת䡣16 ʵϲˡ17 ෴ʵ֤1980ѡһʱڵɽ飨dealignment̵һ֣ڸùѡ˶κ18

׼ȷܷ򣬿ڼǶƷչʶȣʹע⵽ƵĹУܷԻ֮Ļ൱Ҫ磬ͳ͹֮߷Ժ󷨹ϵ໥ãǾͲܴ߷ԺĹڶ׼ȷԤƵķչδ߷ԺоΰԴڵܷǰᣬô߷ԺַһµоʱǾͲе档ͬ׼ȷʶЩֵԴ1939ܷѧ˵ʱȥо֮ǰʮͶʮʵsubstantive due processҵCommerce ClauseоDzǵģͬǻʱ̽׷ԺЩΰܷ֮еоǽҲDzǵġ19

ĵһͨǰΰȽϣܷŶ֮Уͼֱͨʵֹıĥˡͨ綨ͼٽĹʵ֣ڸκгòֽ̽ƶԹҷɵķΧ߷Ժ󷨹ٵѡΡԼȨӰ죬óۡ

ڶ̽߷ԺܷݵĽɫΪ׷Ժȣǰ߷ԺֱͨʵֹѾˡЩ˹֧߷ԺƵһЩΪЩˣ߷Ժ󷨹ǣDzҪġȻΪЩ۵Ƕȴڴܷ򡣸òַܰ߷ԺܷǰЭԼ߷Ժܹ˽һ֤ԵĹͳһ£narrative

ĵĽ۽꣬ƿܷӳ˺ִйصĸ㷺ıǨЩǨӢѧR. A. W RhodesƵġҿĻthe hollowing out of the state20 Ʋ⣬һЩأʱԼһЩأһϵʹturn inwardḶ́ٳܷĵˡ

ҪƪڶܷȻұӿʼָǼĹ淶ţлɡ21

һ еء

ܷı޸ģһܹ£ƣconstitutional regimeȴһϵб仯22 Щܷ֮Եģ֯еĸλ˴߷Ժ󷨹ٵѡԱʿǡǡΪ䷶Χ㷺һƲͨһϷԵѡٽһʱڹģڼ侭ͳѡ١߷Ժ󷨹ٵԼɵת

ע23 ΰԼǰƣǰʼڶʮʮĩڣʮڣʼ1980ͳѡ̨1994ѡڹ͵Ժϯλõ̡24 ΰصڣԪ漯ּ֮ۻۣкܶڹл㡣25 Ƶָԭƽ壨egalitarian liberalismβõر֤ȫʵƽһϣƵ֧֮ȴʵԵķ硣Ƚ϶ԣԴһЩġºͱԭаḣɢᱣ𲽷-ģʽľùƣһЩְܣȷгûΪϰƽСĽƵƶص㣬ΰƣȻӰߵƶı¼о26

һ ƶȡ

ưƶȺΪڵǰУĵɽ飨dealignmentѾӰ˺ͳǽķʽɽ龡ܿܲûвµܷ򣬵ȴٵ

һֽܷƶȽܸ̽֡ƶ֮䲢ڷϵԣҪijƶȿʼ˵ȣ̽ͳζƹףرǿһƵĿͳɵļͳ֮ĹϵĽתᣬйᵳɶԨԴǰѡѡȨdivided governmentָɲͬƹͳߣеͳ͹֮໥ϵܷıĥһ۷ȨһЩӰ죬ԹߵķΧ˾͸Ȩȡ

1 ͳȨķΧơ1944ĹУ˹ͳΰƵָԭIJġڶȨȨ㹻ʳź֡Ȩ㹻ҽչˡʵסõĽԼڶϡ¹ʺʧҵľÿֻš27 ֶͳ1996Ĺָܷԭ򣺡ʱˡ28 ֶǿⲢζŹ¿˵ܷ᰸ֻǽСͻ29 仰˵˹ģҹᴩΰƵIJģѾˡ

Ҫһת䣬뿼ͨαģر𿼲ΰġĶγɹ̵漰⣺οʼԼδǰһƵIJ࣬رδ漯ŵij

˹ġ˹ͿˣStephen SkowronekΪһͳתҪ30 Ϊÿƶͳͳϸԭֿ˻ĸḶ́յƵĵ31 磬˹ͳ𽥷չִɵۣʼһЩͨЩ漯ſǶڲ32 ̨Ժ󣬶۷սѰΰµ漯ŵĻЧޡ

ûɶתͣڼŬµõ˹̡رǣԼthe Contract with AmericaһϵȫĸĸԼṵ̂䲼1999֮ǰڿֶͳձ֧£ܶؼѾijʽͨˡ33 ͳԽƣͳȴ޷ֹʵϣʱ֧֡Ƶ᰸ʱӦ˵ܷѾ˸

ƵļͳݵĽɫͬԺͿͳͬɵļѰ󹮹̿ߵŲҲͼγԼķ֤ԼҲֵ𾴵䡣ҲȤЩԺͿͳͬͳǵ˹Ϳ˳Ϊռԣpolitics of preemption34 ĬƵĻԭ򣬵ھϸϽеʱŬͱΪƵĹͷ֮35 ͳͨº͵ʹǰƵ֧߿˸ĸǰƵϣӶӮǵ֧֡ȻIJԺͳԼȷ綨Ϊġ36

ӷԵнƵͳһѡ񣺼ͨƶƵijЩ飬øƵIJͬӪռԣͳһЩͨǷԵֵ֧Ŀֶͳı־ȡ˸òԡ37 Ϊһνˣļƻ͹͵ĴͬС졣38 һλֶָٵIJ֣гƻȷΣƲòΪԼǿСͶʡij棬ʹdzΪͶߺ͹񡣡39 ڿֶͷҪֱ֣֧óЭԼҽƱոĸǰȫ͹͵һ¡40

ڿֶٵռ£ĥˡ1999Ϊֹƺں̶ܴ˵СԱŽͬͳζֶֿ֧ٵߣͳѡ˸ľѡҲͿֶٵļƻ¡41

ռԵͳԱͷԵսȣ̷ڹ滻ľƣЩͳòij̶ֳϽǿӸԱΣԵܿܶԼθ챻ͳΪиеŭЩͳŬԡ42

ƱǨķͳǵļ֮Ĺϵһ֮зġ˹ͿΪ¾ƽӵijɹתӰ޴ÿƶһЩIJ࣬߱ҪԽΰƵҪŲ漯ڹе43

ᡤ˹Sidney Milkis˹ͳν漯Шΰ֮еġ44 ˹̨֮ʱȫǸݺ͵طˣҪְ֮һǷݻкܶ谭ƻʵʩ45 ˹ͼֱսЧޡijɾ棬ǾǼӵذpatronage-orientedһӵжص̵ȫ֯46

˹ĶعڴһڲͬȫͳݵѡԱҪáʵһķʽմҺ֯˲Ų뵽ĸЩ˳ΪҪ֧ߣרҵʿɵĹǸɣṤߣӵ˹Ƶԭ47 ˹Щרʵµأַʵơȡ֮ضڹҵɣӶܹѡֱͬϵطĽ롣48 ˹ʹԼͳѡӶԼȫĿǰѺձˡ49

ȻתƣЩݱ˹ƵġѡΡ50 ΰ˥֮ʣ漯ŶԱѡŬҲʧˡУ漯ŽӰأΪһж̺ѡһ¡ˡԱְԼλԾӵˡ51 ҹҾ߱һڹ淶ι֮ijַչκ硱IJƷ52 νṹҵѶ͡Ժڻʱ˵ǹᣬ53 54ͨѡȷͳԱѡ˵ʹѡԱں̶ܴ϶֯ ΰƵżȻӰ漯ȻǿرӰɹִе߷ˡ֧ġͣinstitutional thickeningⱻ˹Ϳ˳ΪҹŻ𣩼ǿͳʽȨʱǿʵȨЩҲͬᱻʿ谭ͳʵ֣иǿĵơ55 ңȻεĽ㡣⣬ΰƺһͳѡȻǡԺѡΪġ56 ѡҲ𽥱ˡѡԱһЩص㡣磬һҪƺͳ͹Žᡣ57 Լ˹͵58 ԿֶͳĵԼֶټعʶ̬ĵŬҲʹŽͳһĸٴƿ˾߹̡ܷУЩپʱеĺѡĹϵ

2 ȨеɶĹᡣܷĸɲ֣Ϊĵͳã߽̽֡ȣһҪǣڶʧȥȤڶʮͣμӹѡٵͶƱѡ½25%59 ܹ۲һ½ѡĮdzѡϴڷ磬60 ½һʵȴ޿飺ĿǰŹεģСѡţ֯ͶƱʵ½˹˥΢ԱΪʿμӾѡġᵳɿۻһɢΪ޷Ժѡ˾ѡЧƣʶ̬ͳһġҲǸ߶ԵģΪ˻ѡ˱ʶ̬ͬʵѡУڵԾҲԣӡ󣬷ȨܷгΪ̬һѡͳһƹһԺ

ĺѡɳѡġѡͱԼֱڣûоκ֯ɸѡѡٱñǰСˣұԵơЩСġԵijѡ61 ʹúѡ˸ʶ̬ɴԱҲʶ̬һѡЩԱȻȡѡԵˣԱʹԼڳѡָܵΪѡҪвܿԱӲӡ62 ǣϵƲ͵ԱͨڸأԱɡ63

Գѡʽƾٺѡˣʹúѡ൱ֱӵѡ;ߣڵ쵼ˣ⽵˵ط֯ҪԣͬʱҲڵ֮ʶ̬죬Ϊѡѡȴѡѡиǿʶ̬򡱣Ҹӭϸ߶ʶ̬ȫ漯š64

ΰеĹɵǶģصϷ˺ɵıһ£͵Ȱйʶġ˷չ͵ˡҲıطӡΰʱڹʽṹԭǣȷѡɵطٰ֯ģѡԼ65

УѡڵѾ𽥱ͬʵġ磬1998꣬ 94ְԱûжֵ»Σ114ֻ΢սҪΪѡι̵һС66 һߵѡں̶ܴ߷Ժػѡо67 ЩоЩڴͳ˾ϲɽܵĶеѡЧμ޷ѡΪijЩͶƱǷԼûѡΪֵƣpartisan advantageĹߣ68 ķչҲǿЧЩܹͬѡֶӰ졣69

ͬѡУְսҪڱڲģҲʶ̬ˡ70 ļʮеĵͬѾߡ71 һԱ˵һп׷ݵ1962건߿Baker v. CarrԭδעӦΪ369 U.S. 186עоΪѡԽԽһƣøӼˡѡػʮ󣬹ὫԽԽɶ72

ͨѡЩɲ֮󣬿ѾõѡǽȨͨʹƲͬIJţƽ˫߻ʶ̬73 Ī˹ɣMorris Fiorina͵ǡҪоchoiceͣechoǵĺѡ˵ԽԽѡԸҲԸǰѡƱͶͬĵɡԾͼǿнԭĿѡĻӦʹ74

ΪγɷȨѡѾΪҪԡܶѡٰԼΪ˻߹͵ˣ޷ȨҲľ-choice-echo metaphor˵⡣ȥѡʱѸʶ̬IJ𡣾ͳѡеĸָͨѡ˽⾿ӦͶƱ˭ڹѡȴģɡ75 ǰʶ̬ʵģѡӹ͵ѡ۳ʶ̬;ȻѡɽͰͶƱ½ʱξӢѾŬھӢˮƽعһعĹ̳໥ʶ̬磬ͳڼ䣬ѡڱݲѡһʵʹһЩȷϢƣԼͬṲ͵ṩ˷Ը죬־ǽȡ76 ѡԿͳһܹǴʲô׼ṩѡѡ1994ͨù͵ƹȨͨ1996ÿֶάַ77

ΰʱ漯ШҲijЩʽӰ쵽ȣʹִ漯ŵùԴȫλѡٶԱ78 漯ſƹֱӺش򽻵漯ŵĹҲʹƸĸѣڸĸṹ˵һ㡣ҲҪģͳõԴáȱٿƹԴ׷Աѡ֯תΪָԼѡĺѡ˵ķ֯79

һתͶԹ֯ѡӰǸӵġһЩóʡ˵ƾѡսԵľӢרҿ˹֯Ҳʹøǿ80 ѡٶԵҳϡϣ֯ǿ󡱣ṩȥǿѡ֧ṩԴ81 ӦģǿҲʹǶͨڵ٣82 ˼ӾͶƱ½ơԷΪ֧ÿһԱѡĺѡˣҲӴٽ˵ɶΪԱᶨѡ㷺º͵ѡҪ׵Ķࡣ񻯵ǿ˹֯ڹᵳɳԱ֮ǿ˵ɼɣȴѡҳ϶½ˡ83

еı仯Ҳǿֵɶ󡣸ѡٱøԺѡΪġܹѡеĺѡ˿ѡԼĹҸ죬ͬҲܶٶЩߡ84 Ȼìܵǣѡٵĺѡĵһ̶ϴٽ˹ڲ쵼ļǿ85 һѡ˴˶ԱDZһж⣬ãͻӰƶЧķɡңԱҪչʾԼȡõǾͱijЩ顣һЩڲı仯ԱԼְҪίԱԼίԱϯڣɢԱ֮Ȩ86 ҲʹáΨһĻ쵼㡪˵ƶڶĿøҪ87 ͨȨԺʹʵȨ˼ж⣬88 ԼṩĹͬжҲˡ

ŵһԵļǿߵĴ۽ˣˡ89 иȨѡίԱϯĸίԱԿͨȷɹǵӰȫԺ顣90 ϰͳ͹С߷顱ʱ쵼Ҳѡμߡѽ쵼жίԱᣨPACpolitical action committeesͨЩ֯Oʽ𣬲䵽ѡУ91 жίԱЧþֶʹõԱӵ䰲š92 ȨҲǿ˵ɼĶ93

ܷ֮ڲΣȨȴ߶ԡ94 һܷھӢˮƽ95 ЩչۺϽܹΪСˣҲƺ޹ؽҪƼĥ˹ҵܷģڹƺڻʢٵľӢݿǷ磬һDzֵճûʲô̫Ӱ졣

Ӱ졡

ͬɵĽҲܷͬлŵһЩӰ죬棬˾ͳȻܵ㷺ע˰Щ¼͸ƶȱǨϵ󣬻Ҫܷ̽ζԴȨ⡣־ܷܲӰһȫ͵飬ȴչʾת͵˼ʶͽϵеĺܶҪ⡣

1 ҾߵķΧ˵ɶԼȨҪӰ죺һֻЩõֵ֧᰸ڻͨڶɶʹڴ߶鶼ѻ֧֡ʹڷȨУʵҲԻ֧֣ȨҪô¡֣stalemateҪô¡̧ۣbidding upľ桱ȡھ߶λߵĺ96 ʵϣά÷ȣDavid MayhewĶԷȨоڷͳһڼ䣬Ҫõıʶͬ97 Ȼĵ÷ȵ޶һЩȨмʽ÷оķȨʱڣصžڽп絳ɵĹ㷺98 Ľᵼµɶأ˿絳ɺԽԽѡ99 ָҲѡѡĿȨֱ𽻸Уʹܵơ100

⣬ı仯ҲʹԵĹԱ谭ˡ谭ӵIJڲԺֵԣ߳ۺԶڶγúܴ󣬶ǰõú١101 ŰBarbara Sinclair1989۵߳۱ǰõøƵƸ١ʮʮ⻹ȽټʮȴѾձ󡱣102 ҡв߳ۡҪǰƵöࡣ103 һ۲쵽ڵһУ͵߳Ϊɹߴﵽ˱Ϳǰij̶ȡڵһĽĵһֵΪƫһˡ1995꣬44%Ҫйӳ۵⡭104 ߳ʹƵʵԴһϵأڲԺɶӾͬʱԺҲˣ߳谭ԵƻԣЩԵЧԡ105 ԱҲʼиıսۣ߳һֲԺӳ۵ʽܲԺָʽڽӽβʱѹ£ӲԱյܴЧ106

Ļ˵߳ۺӲԵʹ谭Ϊˡ׼򡱡107 ѧǰ߳۵ΪΪһIJԲֹôǾͻᡪԭӵȻ108 ճ߳۴ӶƵɫԺDZ𽥡вIJԱǵƳ鷨òԱȡǵ֧֡109

ÿ᰸ͼݳŬԵܹøԴԱʩԽͣԴصͣҸ˵Աԡ谭ԡݻ١Ҫ顣 110 ֹͳϣʵԤͣbudget reconciliation bills֮⣩ҪòԺʮλԱֲ֧ſɻͨ111ӳ۵ĹԤͣԺƶһЩҪijЩҪԤȡر112κܹʮƱķܻܿøƱһԽżĴϿɡ113 ƺڿԤڵδͨĶЩǿֵ֧ķ

رҪӰǸӵġ114 ΪЩӳۻͶƱԱرҪ˸ίԱ̵رҪ߸ԱԴӰ죬˿͹Ҫǿ쵼ӦģҪǿ쵼Ҳǿ˷Ҷʵºɵ115 ȻͬԵʹºߵ٣쵼Ȩõձǿºܵʶ̬쵼ϸĿƣЩ쵼ɸԶѡġرܵ¸ͨȫԤ㰸ɡ116

ָʽƺڷȨҲ˱仯ΰȨΪʵָƵĿĿĹؼȴԸһ쵳ѳֵ㷺Ȩ117 һĵԴʱȨ桰½ơ߷һƵԭ򲿷ڣȨȨǿġ118 ǣؽȨֱʮѣɹ涨޾ϸżɲأķɸԻͨΪĹ޴󣬹ʶѣʱѾϾʱѹĹ˵һĴۡԸ쵳ƵȨԼ߶ȵɶĹϸϴһ£Ӱÿһ¼ƻķΧ

ɶ谭岢ζŹµΪϾԱѡ֮кܶģͨµĶ飬߷ϳɵġͺ漯ŵIJȨʹʵĿʮѡ119 ָΪܶʹпĻЭҲͬпĽ֡120 ˣճ̨ܾܿʱʵã121 ΧС122

ˣЭȻԴɣֻͨijܴᄈ¡ЭڽСĿʵ֣ ǰϹְơʱЭЩкܴĿϴɡ123 ʱЭһЩIJĿϴɣ1996긣ĸԤߣھôʱЩͨ֧ʵԤӯࡣȻעĿǣЩҪ߷ɵһ£ʽķΧ

ˣܷͨУǿԿǵܷˡ

2 ˾λͷԺϵͳֱ֮ӵϵ׼124 ΪƵһ֣׼ͨѴ߳з漯ּۻǸ־ߵձͬҲ׼125

׷Ժʱʹ˾γΪεҪ֣ΪǸʱ˷Ժϵͳӳ͹ǵμƻкôΰ˽壬˳Ա̨ȡóɹʱеһЩ˿ʼѰֹԺʤɹԱǵ档˵ЩŬ͵˵ĻӦǣ˾սΰƵһֲֶΡ

ڷȨ͹߶Ժͷֻܷ£ʲôķٲſܱԺأ޲ءˣRobert Bork˹ġStephen Breyer߷ԺУǿؿ𰸡ķٿδ۸߰ٵƲԺͳʱˡȨȫһƣͳͲԺԺҲܽתΪͳ⣻Ժֿ֧ܲʹͳܵ׼ع⡣ֿܺķηաˡ˹˹̹Mark Silverstein˵ǰʵǣ׼Ҫα˸ӣоǵIJԱҲ޷ԤһжĹ̺ͽ126 κԵĽͳԱ˸ºߣԱDZڵ鷳ڹתκͷɻĸ֣ʵϱ֤˶κܳǿķ˵ͳٵԭȫžٷ127 Ϊͻ·ĶԱ128 ܷжɫ߽νز¶ˣ129 Щȱ߿Թʵʼ¼130 ˹˹̹ܵĽһپḻǿ飬޳ɶ˾ְܽƣôѡ131 ܽ߷ԺķܷIJǿҲеܷġ132

¼Ժ˵ҲˡԱǾáãholdвۣ߳ԷЩΪνߡ133 ݱ˾ΪֶͳĹԱŵѷEleanor Acheson˵ֽܲԸЩ޷ʮλԱֵ֧Ϊ٣ʮƱֹ߳۵ıƱϽ߳ʷϺܺ134

ĽǣҪȶ̶̵ĶʮǰӱأʱķǿŷԺɷٶǿ̶ֳ֧ȣȲһıɷٶǿұ̶ֳ֧ȡ˵˿ֶͳij߷Ժٶ˾͹õʾֶ߾ܣҲ֮УͲʲͳķٸɣȿͳ߸ء135 Щ֤ʵ˿ֶͳԼѷͳļ̳ߣͳļ̳ߡڽϣͳʹоʵܷԭģʽƶȻˣ⹹ɫ

ܷʹͳԸ٣ͳʱԺ棨磬һҪѡȺ壩136 Ƿ񳬹Ĵۡʵʱܵ͵Ժֵ֧Ĺ͵ͳܹһЩܼ˵ıطٵԺ߷ԺȻδۿܸܺߣʱֵõġ137 ȻƵĽṹζͳЩ˹˹̹Ļ˵˾Ӷܿǣ ḻǿġ138 ͳܡϣWilliam J. Brennanķ٣ϾͳҲ139

3 ܷƶȣȨԼɶĹᣩ˶Կֶͳĵѡٽƺʾ˲޳֮󣬸߶ԵԺȻͶƱͨҪͳ140 ͬܶ۲һ˹ɣ˹̹Cass SunsteinΪ¼ܷԶΪֻ˵²ãͻشΣա141 һǣѾȷԭ򣬼ȷӦڼ²á142

Ȼһַӵƽ֮ʱֶַͳDz˸Ƶšڿֶ1992굱ѡͳ֮󲻾ã˹ġ˹ͿоԤ⵽ƵĽṹпܷ˹ͿΪֶٲȡġռԡġص㡱ǡͬչرˣԼðڵĸ߶ȷա143 ֶͳʹñΪѣΪѷԵ߾ΪУҳԶ׼ԭŭ˷ԵЩ£пһʧͻᵼµرǵΪͳԵڵ֧Ѿռʱ򣬸ˡ

ȻõʾҪκشɡԿֶٵĵûΪʲôӰ졣144 ڿֶٱ󲻵£һҪĹ͵˵ͳ˹ᣬõҪһС145 DzѵܷΣǿһ޺ް¼һ߶ҶԺԤʧܸգΪĵ棬Ȼ򣬵߽146 ƣδͳǽռԲûʲô˵ķգܷʲôغ

һ1998ԶŵȨСһͳͲԺ֮һϯһԺܾ߶ԵԺѵͳҳ㷹Ժȴܰͳ̨ôͲʲô̫Ļҡ147

4 ȨΰƵܷ۵㣬ƲȨһЩһȨؽʱڸϣ޷ֵشٽ˵ķչ˹ҪƶڶȨ148 벻òͨĹ߼ȡޣַ֧˵ϵIJƽȲòͨƶսWar on Poverty⣻˵ļòͨṩҽƱյȽչ˼Լᡣ

ĥȴԶʵ뷱ٵIJͬij̶ֳϣÿҪΰĸעȨmore libertarian149 Ϊ֤ɺ෱٣ֻԲƲȨıˣɫڣĿģСĿºͣκҽƱջϱеȱݺͲ㣬ͨгΪĵԽͨIJٷ䷽150 ֮ƣƶֶDZ֤˻ýѵʹǿԻμͶгṩĹȼáȻΪܽƲı򣬵вķʽıˡȻܷǰƵĸĿ˽ʽƺδͼϳЩĿ

ۺϿЩʾº͵Ȩ壨libertarianism壨liberalism𣬲μע149עʽ飬ûнȨΪƵһ֯ԭºȨʤˣΪеȫ޷̫࣬˱˺ܶԭƵIJࡣ151

һЩ޶

ϷҪһЩձṹϡЩλṩͻᣬƫá߼ֵΡνԴڸѡ񣬵ΪһƺǣԽĸѡ񣬶ѷ޶ڽṹ֮УЩṹ棬˵Ի152 ֱƫá߼ֵۿһĽݾȻĹԴԱǵıƫúͿֶͳٵıƫ֮ijͻⲢܲ׽ŵΪЩ

ȻһϣұҵĹ۵һЩ޶ķһֲɱ漰ƫãڶԷȨƫáһܵȷģڶˡڡżȻ£ѳһͳһ1992ѡֵѡͳѡЭжʵȨΪȫѡѡԱʱ򲢲֪ѡѡ153 ֵܳͳһܱܿȵ͵ѡƫøԣΪǰͳͻѡṹʹõɼ˻ѡһѡаƱͶһҪĹ߾ڼѾѱƷ154

ĿҪ޶dzѾ˥ĸо155 ҵȥ֮˵ֻǻıĥˣδĥƽȻάΰᱣĿĵߣ绷ᰲȫһЩ棬ᱣĿԼǡĶԪݡƵָԭ򲢲˵ܽ⣬˵ܽ⡣156

е߷Ժ

ΪһԺϵͳƵһ֡157 ʱĹȥԺƵĸԭ磬׷Ժͨ͹ͳƶĿ壨programmatic liberalismҪݻĽɫͨĿʵֺƶɡעӶ뵽ΰȥ׷Ժ֮ԳΪܶ壨activistķԺΪĺ̨֧ȡһ̶ȵijɹ֮ҪԺİչɹǰԼ߷ԺĺѡҲ̨ȡ˳ɹǰ֧ȣDz̫Ҫ߷ԺðսҲͬʱζŴ߷Ժսᡣ

˵йҾ߱˺ܶͨķɣֻͨЩֵ֧ͬߣ߷ΧҲխڵ߷ԺмҵķϽ׷ԺͬΰһޣĵĥҲζŶԼȴ淽뼸дɾ158 ǿͨڵ߷Ժͬΰ߷ԺȽϣǰ߷Ժڶ̶Ϸ˵159

ѧǾ߷ԺΪӵѡconstituencyΪǰѷԺر߷Ժϵͳһ֡160 ۵㣬ѡҪģΪܹ߷Ժжṩֻ֧зԡ߷ԺȱִоκֱҪһЧͱλ֧߷ԺѡǰǵĹ۵㴫ﵽλʹϿ߷ԺоߵͶо磬ѧΪΰʱڵ߷ԺоΪƵѡȺṩô161 ЩȺᡢ162 ˡ163 Ů164 ׷ԺָʱЩѡ㷴Ϊα绤165

ΰ˥ʱ߷ԺѰµ֧ѡڶʮʮͰʮ߷ԺԱøӱأDzûȫȫϿĿ166 øַչ֧Լѡкܶ෽ܷ֮мõ᳹

ǰһᵽ۵ĻһЩضṹЩṹ˸ƫáֵۡڸᄈصĽṹϵͳ߷Ժʱ䲻Լڡʱ䲻´󷨹ٵƫáͼֵۿܴ£Ǵ£ͳԼ׼Ĺһ£ʹͳ̨֮л׷ԼƫáͼֵۣЩʱľۺϣᵼǰѰѡΪ167

ִ߷Ժжdzԣѡ168 ߷ԺһЩоʹôҵпܷ档磬ھ߷ԺʹTakings Clause169 ԵоһЩͷ⳥Υ170 ߷Ժչ˵һҵ۵ķΧڶҵ۵ĹƼͶ۵ĹһԱ֧֡171

ִ֮߷Ժķáֲ塱ǡ֣172 ҲǼȱԸԣײ棬ͬʱֶЩϵ𺦵ʩʶȵľʰnoblesse obligeùڶ̥˵߷ԺʹЩǮԼ̥Լܹǰ̥ĵطĸŮܹʮ׵ض̥ͬʱҲͨȵƶȱԵĸŮĸ߶̥Ѷȡ173 £߷Ժľ֮noblesse oblige磬߷ԺֹЩǨļͥĸӶЩ߽ܺһı174 գ߷Ժֵı׼Ǻͽײйصġ175

е߷Ժܼܿ·Χ漯ŵıɡûʧЩֺ֧ͷ߷ԺDZ߷ԺȻλͱЩӦηתʹʶȱΪԵ˾ֱܹһЩ߷Ժ֧֣ȴԻһضǿ֧֡ ߷ԺһӰ죬ܾ߷Ժڹе½ˣΪƵѡ̨ѻʵʤʹ߷ԺֻҪڹЩıԵȡһЩʶȵ˾ж磬ƺֵעǡֻһ176߷ԺԱӷĴ׶ͨͨɽ˾ģ177 ͨΥ顣߷ԺϸĶԳͷ⳥ƣͬºͣ178 رȨ޸ȣˡ179 Ŀǰ߷Ժѡ˵Ϊȡ棬ҲͨȷǴ߷Ժȡϲо

һ administrative downsizing

ǰ߷ԺһأôЩģˡ180 ۷ʱڣ߷ԺÿͥڴԼҪ170ÿı۶100181 ֽ͸Ϊηܷ

׷ԺͲBurgerԺоľֱ۵طӳ߷ԺΰܷеáǴƣ߷ԺҲսԼһߡ182 ܶ壨activistȨȻҪ߷ԺҲܶͬһִƵԭ183 ʱˣôԺʱҲսᡣ߷ԺֻǷӳģձСѡ184

ܷ

е߷Ժڴʱ¾߽Դ漰ǰͨʱ߷ԺִϻһЩϰͬʱЩϰDzԽߣ߷ԺѹͳƵķҪĹģҪΰĸС185 ߷ԺΪûƵԭ򣬱ʵʸԤЩԭ൱Ҫ˾ԤҲټ仰˵оʵԭϣҲģϡ186

1 ߷Ժоխ͡߷ԺƵоԵ֤ʵ˵о֪ģڹȰUnited States v. Lopez187 ¼Ȱ ðѧУǹGun-Free School Zones ActΪ䳬ԽܷҵȨ188 ִߺڹPrintz v. United States189¼ִİ ðоBradyǹƷBrady Handgun Control ActЧΪ÷ǿԱִĿ190 ߷޶˹City of Boerne v. Flores 191¼Ʋ ðڽɻָReligious Freedom Restoration ActΥܣΪ䳬Խ˷ԺȷĶΥܷŽFree Exercise ClauseоȼõĹȨޣ192 һϵо˹Ըǿ׷ĽǮ⳥εΪIJΥ˵ʮһ193 ȻǣЩоڶ̶ʵԵȨķΧ磬ЩΪִİǡؼԭչǡȨǿҿ϶ѧߣò˵İӡӰdzޡֻССġʱʵӰ족194 ˴ҶЩƶозdzԵĽͣĻһֿܣԵĽ͡195

ЩԽ͡Ȱ196У߷Ժ¹۵㣬ΪֻҪijַҵΪĸֽϿԿҵʵӰ죬ôԸΪйƾܷҵġ197 ȻȰȷҵԭõİֻڹͼһ˭ҲΪҵĻ198 ҵԵʱȻЧķΪҵΰͨģȫʺҵ࣬199 ȰоҪģƵijɾ͡߷ԺȰп൱ơֻ˵ܷҵȨһЩơ200 ǣԺ߷Ժ跢չһǿԭϸƹȨΪУ᲻̫ʩѹơ201Ҳܹ͡ðڽɻָЧΪǶʷϱԺ綨ΪΥŽټĹȷӦ202 ȻΥܿɱ֤ڲи㷺߷ԺԼûȫȷʲôжΥܷôҲͨһЩԤͷЩDZΥܵΪ203

ڽ߷ԺоҲԿʵЩоʽƶΥɵľȼáʮһĸо204ʹ˽˵ԣDzܣЩΥݼĽǮ⳥磬ڰݰAlden v. Maine 205¼ưǰУݾԺΥƽ͹׼ۼݹԱʵİ߷Ժо᲻Ʒ206 Щ漰ȼõġ207 ûаִ;ִж208 ԼݹԱǩֹ˽ִϣϣEx parte YoungȷĹ򣩡209 ɣڱϣЩȼֶοܲݼĽǮ⳥Ч210 ˺гԵĹϵԱԤھȼúܿǺֵģַȨǰôЧԾͻήͣ漰һЩרͰȨʱͿܵȷˡ211 ܷ˵޷ʵЧȼҲǺ212 ܷ˵УҲӦʲôرġ

߷Ժ۲ڵʮһоУ߷ԺƵĶԹƷΧһޡܷϵSupremacy ClauseҪɣʹḶۣڶԷεأҲô213 طѹŷ߷ԺƵĵȨƹ۵㣬214 ʹҪôطȨ⣬ҪôضңҲطעϷȨ⡣215 磬żȻǣڰǰУͬ⽫عƽͶ׼Fair Labor Standards Actʹɸ÷Ƿڸݵнʵ216

ܷƶõЩѧ˵ۻЧ߷ԺоִйͨĹĿĴۣû˵Чܷԭ漯ź͹Ż֮ǧ˿ƵϵιӰͳ͹ᶼʵʩۺϵݻ٣Ȼؽΰͨļƻƻ漰ȺʱЩƻЭͬ߰δۡȨʹļXܣҼʹڶڳͳһŻغ漯ŵĵҲܿʹĸĸdzѡмƻӶܿܳȥֻǽһЩº͵ͽĸ

߷Ժйƶȵĸоһά˼еΰĸĿֻǶº޸ġ磬ʮһоʹִɸѣЩоҪԼִڼٸԤЩоԭʵжδȫųִɵĿԡ

ܷҵķΧ½綨͵ʮһоδΰʱĿ̫Ӱ죬217 ִİ218ķļԭanti-commandeering principleƺչ˶ִ߸ʵԵ谭ȻҲڴ˴߷ԺķӰܱէޡǣ߷Ժǰ֧ʹΪִƻĽ219 ⣬߷ԺΪȨֹݶijЩκιƣǸݷϹҪҲԸռᣨpreemptݷ220 ȷУܲԸ㷺ʹְȨ221 ߷Ժķȷ谭ִͨɡȻͬȷԭûȫųĿԡ222

ǣ߷Ժı仯µȷƶĿĴۡÿµ˾оеϲȷԣΪЩĿķ߿Կŵ˵᰸ܱΥܡ磬߿ƣйȨо᰸ΥܵȨޣ߷ԺйƶȵĸоеԽְȨΥܣ߷ԺйõоƣԼɹƣ᰸IJƲûṩܷҪIJ223 ⣬󷨹ٲBreyerѧԺаָ߷Ժƶȵ谭ƶҪִлƵ¹ƼƻԼЩļºͣռᣨpreemptionμע220ע-͹Ƹϵļƻ224

Ҳ˵¹᰸ĺܷջʤɵĿԾԴƶЩ᰸ͷΪ飬᰸֧߿ܾ޸᰸ӶִߵЧ磬ضƼƻ֧߿ʹԸݸȨʹҪ󣬶Ŭֱӹû⣬225 ּŬձҪ֧֤ЧΣһλѧԣĸڿʱͲʽˡ226

ֱ֮ӹƵɼϵIJȷԣͬʱЧҲ½ˡ˵ỹܶ߷ԺоӦʹЧִɣӦĹвܳ֡ʹ߷ԺܲδܶΥܣҲٽЧΪļ١

ô˵߷ԺΰŲûʹЧЩҲԭ߷ԺҪĸߡǵǰǰƵߡôִ߷ԺǰһƵIJ뵱ǰIJݡ227

2 һֽǰΪ߷ԺĽоһֹ۵㣬ǡְܱΰеҪСûа߷ԺĸܷƵĹߡ۵ȷdzؽЩоҳϸоʮȷ磬߷ԺƶоԵҪ£߰߷ԺĻ˵ھΰ֮ һԭ228Ҫ顣˲γ¹۵㣬߷Ժȷıܷ

߷ԺܿһƺͨijЩķɵĺ⡣229 м˷ADAЩݡĿж230 òܷݹȨִܷƽȱ֤أ231 Ҫݵʮƶķɣ涨ľȼӦ߷ԺΥΪʵ232 ڰ׼õԤ߽֧̿ίԱѧԺаFlorida Prepaid Postsecondary Educ. Expense Bd. v. College Sav. BankļƷԤʱ߷ԺΪַרȨļ¼вֹ֧ͨĹ㷺ȼáԺ⳥ϣ֤ضеľȼDzġ233

ݲоADAĿĺԽȡݺ͵طַмܷȨij̶ȡ߿İCity of Cleburne v. Cleburne Living Center 234¼ƿȷ˹һЩмܷԱ׼235 ü鷨ñΪеĺ飨rationality-with-biteԺƽȱΥʱ˲ͬ׼кԣrationalityᣬзڸбЧrationality-with-biteֱΪҧ˵ĺԡDZȺ΢һ׼۵նɱĽrationality-with-biteΪеĺ顪עԽ˿綨IJмĽޣȨԾȼáڹƶADAʱѼУݿı׼ǡĸȱȽǡ236 Ӷȷ˵ԭδֱ˵ȷADAΥܣ㹻ԺϿɵΥ֤ݵ²ȡԤжԤΣյġADAύ߷ԺܶԹ᲻磬߷Ժ˵õΪӲͬڱ綨Υӡ

ǰDz²Եģɱ߷Ժоĸķһķǣӱ仯Ĺֻδ仯һһĹע⵽ƱſʼģѾʼĻ߷Ժֻڲٹǰһܷͨķɽͺͺ⡣ƵĽǶȻЩɡЩͨķɡ޷лͨǶʱˡ237 ˣƵ߷Ժȥ̽θɴƷЩɣܹ򵥶͡238 Խ߷Ժһͥڶм˷ͣ239 ҲԽ߷ԺоΥɵԭʸ񣬴ӶֳĶԻɵļӵ⡣240

ڽЩɷĹУ߷ԺܰʾΥܵġ241 磬߷ԺйƶȵĸоԱ˶Ծɷձ242 ߷ԺѲⷨڷԤķʽͺܺõ֤һ㡣Ԥ͵Ҫ󣬶Щ߷Ժ϶ΥܵΪռʾԼȼö˵ʶȵģǰоֻʾȡľȼǶԱΪΥжķӦ243 ַʽͣ˶ļٶҴӶʾִֹܽоƵķ档еĹ޷ԤƲҪҲ޷ռ㹻ΥҪ244

ֹ۵㣬ڻ㹻о֮߷ԺֱɾƵķɡ245 ڹڱݲƿܹǿƵĵʮһУ߷ԺĿؾɡ246 ڵʮһУЩǾͻǺ޵ģʮһΪݲƿṩһЩܽв˵ڰһͥڵĺܶʮһУݳֵġͨжܻȡIJƲ棬ٺܻͨõIJ¡磬ijţԽضĻ⣬-ģʽȾ˰Чijţƹȫѹ˾ûӶݵ˰ԴݵϺͲƿ⣬ܵó˵ݿԲռԵģpreemptiveƻһݵIJƿӰ죬ҵȻҲݵϣΪ޷ƶʹűȹ߸ЧʵԹߡ247

еܵǡǡһʵܵ߷Ժרϡ248 ƵĸҰIJôǿϵı249Ϳܴʹ߷Ժӹϵػ߷Ժɴ˸обҪȡdz㷺жʹЩڿ֮¡ȻһĥУҽijЩĥʱ߷Ժʺϵġǣ籾ĵһ֤вܳˣ߷ԺЧִоͨЩϵԭȱٳֵ֧ķʱý߷ԺĽоֻתڵ250

ǰ߷ԺоխͣǰЩоһ۱Ļ251 Σؼһ㶼ڣЩƺΰȷĸܷۣڶɡ ͵˾ɫA Chastened Judicial Role

ǰһ֤ܷԭֲ֧Թҽ֤߷ԺжԼ¶λֿо֤һ㡣Ϊ߷ԺĿǰеʹ˾ȨΪ󷨹ΪʵȵصƷ㹻ˡ˾ʧԼȵַѳΪ߷Ժһص㣬˹ɣ˹̹ڽܺõΪС壨minimalism252 Ȼ߷ԺڵԽһԳȺͼСҲԽ͡ɳȡܹ󷨹ǸƵϵʹų÷Ȩìܵذ߷ԺƵĽɫ

1 ˾١ܷƵijڣ߷Ժȷɫѡʱڵܷѧʶǰһվסŵķʽ壬֤ʹ˾Ȩԡ253 磬ʱڵѧdzЦ󷨹ŷġ޲ģOwen Robertsںڹ߰հUnited States v. Buttler254Ľʽ߷ԺġΨһ񡱾ǡԮܷͱɵķһ𣬲ȷǷʺǰߡ255 ƣʱڵѧҲԴ󷨹ΡɪGeorge Sutherlandԭּ壨originalismܷ֡ζijʱһһʱͳȫͬһ256

Ȼųʽԭּ壬ô֤˾ĺԾͻ⡣ƤޣMartin Shapiro˵Ĵ󷨹սʤǰһƣӹҪ257 Щ󷨹ѡ񣺻߻ٵ谭ǵıݣΪԼ񡣡

ݴ󷨹ٷ˹˸Felix Frankfurterܷۣ258 ŲõһַʽһձۣҪ˾ľ259 󷨹ٹ˹ˡ˹ͨHarlan Fiske Stoneġעģfootnote fourΪһṩۻ260 עġ߷Ժ״Ŭʹ˾Ӧ򡣸÷ѧۼ֤˾ĺԣֶơͬҪǣ۵ĺôڿʹ߷ԺܹȸҪѡ˾顣 Ȼֱ1962귨˸֮߷ԺܷеĽɫȫ͡261 ʮʮ֮ǰ׷ԺѹעġķѾ֤߷ԺĿ壨programmatic liberalismԣ߷ԺͼѸƵĿΪܷҪ262 ܷƽȱ˶ҪߡһЩܶĸݹ涨ƷͷΥܵġ263 Щһµܷԭ򣺶ЩܷϵҪƷг׼зܹΥܣкǿ֤Ǻġ264 ѧ˵ԭΪڶȨԼΰĿܷ265

Ȼ߷Ժδȫɸԭ266 1996긣ĸҲʾܾĿ塣267 ȻҲȤǣĴ󷨹ʵϲδƺ֤˾ȷΰܷ׷ԺʱѧĹע㡣󷨹ʹЧûᵽȡƶķɣ˵Դ˸еˡ磬һͥڵĵʮһоûᵽ񶨾ͨķɵغ268 ڲ269У߷Ժᵽ˹СȨܷ͡ԼжϣǡְȨΧжʱ򡱡270 ߷ԺδʵƺȷΪְȨΧж

Ϊ߷ԺλδڽϼҶԿ271 Դ󷨹ûбҪ¿ǻ߷ԺǡɫǿԼάԼǰһеְܣڸÿ½һЩ򵥵ǰ׷ԺƶƵԭͬĴ󷨹ǺǵġDzڶʹ˾ϸ֤ҲٰԼΪɵܷۼңȥȳصIJþߡ

2 ܷԳȣconstitutional seriousnessá߷ԺڵʵԼرɴ󷨹˹ǣScaliaƶ泱õչʾ߷Ժ˹Ǵ󷨹ע⣬ΰܷй߷ԺɫġʵͼṩһԼʱ߷Ժо˹Ǵ󷨹ִŬ˶H߽¡DMichael H. v. Gerald D 272¼˶H֤˵ʵо뽨жϻϣһɲĴͳôͳǡľˮƽϱձܡ273 һҪѻ˶֧֣Ϊϯ󷨹׿˹أRehnquist߷Ժڻʢ߸˹񰸣Washington v. Glucksberg 274¼Ƹ˹񰸣ƣʵȨͳ߷ԺʵоʱִܿĹ۵㡣275 ˹Ǵ󷨹ƣۿ֤ʵо˾ԣ߷Ժڽ۵㣬ΰܷе˾ǺģҪбҪơ

ʵ֤ǰ߷Ժû˹Ǵ󷨹ٵĵ·Ϊţ߷Ժûа֤λãǰһƵ˹Ǵ󷨹˶HнѴͳ綨ˮƽձϣֹ۵ֻһ󷨹ͬ276 ߷ԺƺʵڴͳϽһ֮󣬶󷨹תһĹ۵ʵ塣277

˹Ǵ󷨹ܵ˴˳֮Ϊĵˡ278 󷨹ٰ¿ɣOConnorϣKennedyأSouterڶϱݼƻ߿Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey 279¼ƿеԮ˴󷨹ٹHarlanڱ߶Poe v. Ullman 280е飬ðǸ˹ֶ߿ݰGriswold v. Connecticut 281¼Ƹ˹ֶ° ˹ֶ°׷ԺĿ֮һݿеʵҪоӦܹҪ߷ԺڽܷʱʹͳʹְͬȨжϣreasoned judgment282 ע⵽ܡжϵģ޲ȷ283 ֺԲʹ߷Ժ򷴶ѡƷƶ284 󷨹˵ڿУоЧǡģж֧ţֹܷ̥ͨĸŮӲʵ285

˹Ǵ󷨹ٵժ¼۵Ŀʼ֡286 жҪĿ֮һȫܽܵǣijЩΪжϡĶܵʵϵġֵжϡijЩһŮ̥ڸݱDZ档287 ˹Ǵ󷨹ٿġжϡܹʵֶ֧󷨹ٵóκνۣΪжϸϾǿնԿգ޴Ӱգ288 ȱҪƣΪ߷Ժ۸ݺַ淨ЧҪǶơ

˹Ǵ󷨹жΪܷ޴Ӱգʵǿһָ𣬼һطжϣطּܾĴ󷨹α˶Τ°Roe v. Wade 289¼ްȷԵĻɣܾƷ290 ԭ֮һǿǵ߷ԺĺϷԣҪо롰ԭ291 Ϊް⵽͹ڵƷΪǡѹЭЩѹӦӰ߷Ժԭѡ񡣡292 ƷΪѹ֮ģôƻ߷ԺĺϷԣκⶼҪ293 仰˵ܳĴ󷨹޷ûУԵ֤ްоȷģǼΪΪ ҷѶһֲܷĹͬҲͽްо294 ߼Щ󷨹жϣôҲ൱Ī⡣295

ں漰Эɱĸ˹296У߷ԺжҲƵѣ˹Ǵ󷨹ٲμ˸ðð߷Ժ˵ͨܵвСϸcareful descriptionȷһǷΥʵ297 ˹Ǵ󷨹ٺһЩѧ߿šϸ͡խ綨narrow definitionǵȼ۵ĸ298 ӶΪ߷Ժ˹Ǵ󷨹ٵ˼·ȷʵˮƽձԣڸˮƽȷͻ档ȻԡϸĽͿԴˡӦáϸķ߷Ժ˶ԽֹɱķɵĹ㷺ɡ󷨹ƺͬijЩݽֹɱΥܵġ299 ԴΣյϸԵ¼˵ֹʺܣ˵ʱΥܣôϸԿں̶ܴҲ޴Ӱյģ˹Ǵ󷨹еġжϡһ Ҳעѧ˵޴Ӱղƽΰܷ漰ϸжϵĹʽԱһԭЭ̬ȣѧ˵ʽΡЩ޴жϺж֮䣬ϸʹ֮䣬˭ѡأЩѧ˵ʽȻ˵ԴҪһȽʹṩʽжϵʹȷ޶ԳĽ

ôҲǿԷdz󵨵˵ΰϿ˾ͬʱƣȡ֮˾Ӧһǡ̶ȵijʹ300 Уȳʹ˾ȨıҪҳƵķѰʾǾڼķʿС¡

ΪʲôȺҪأȿδ̵ʱ򣬷ڱ߷ԺλսĿꡣ301 dzȻá˹Ǵ󷨹Ϊй˾ƻĻôҲǶҪԵijСԿڲƣΪ߷Ժıá302 ֮һɫʵĴ󷨹٣ֵȷһģýչʾĹڵճѽڣʹù۲γΪһDz303 ߷ԺҲ𽥱еһֻ304 ˹Ǵ󷨹˾ϵͳĸ˹Fox NetworkĻô߷Ժ˿ܾ൱ȫ㲥National Public RadioȫضĽĿ౾仰˵Ҳֵһģʽ

󣬳ȵû֤˾Ǻġ磬աأPhilip BobbittָǵܷģʽУкܶѡ񷽰˾ǾԵѡʵ֤ǺģΪʹǵĹԱпʹѡ305 ȣʹõѡʱΪһ£ʹ˾ˡFrank MichelmanŷԺΪϴһ£ӦκʵԱ׼Ӧظ£Fried˵ġɵΪԣartificial reason of the law306 ˵ǿԽͨչʾΪ˵ijȷ֧֡ ɽ󡤱ŷAlexander Bickelض߷Ժоijʽ飬˵ǻȫͣڡϵĵ֧֡ϡ307 ΰDzֵġҲУѰǡ󷨹ٵĵ֧֡Ѱڵִ֧󷨹٣Ҳϣô󷨹ٵĵ֧֡

3 ܷС壨constitutional minimalismķ˹ɣ˹̹߷ԺܷоķõΪС塱308 СԱΪıʽԺġġС߷ԺСġСġ

ɣ˹̹ںȷ߷Ժڹĺص㡣ҵ˾߰շƶEastern Enterprises v. Apfel 309¼ƶҵǽСӣ󷨹ͬ¿ɴ󷨹ٵĹ۵㣬Ϊ1992ú̿Coal ActΥܵ˶ҵIJƲ310 һоݺѸǡǡǼСһ˼¿ɴ󷨹޾ϸú̿ıȻ˶ҵĹ˾ṹԼúҵĹϵݰ¿ɴ󷨹ٵĹ۵㣬 ޽ײĵǿ޷Ԥڵ׷ΣεķΧԵ˵Ϊ൱ȡ311 ˸÷˶ԶҵƲΥáԸоĶԣҲܷķΧʮխݼβǡģʲô̶Ȳ㹻أײijԱܹԤΣҪʲôIJҵʷ֤ҵԱӦԤأΣܹȣû൱ĹȲ൱أоܲͬܶ۵Թı׼ǶҵdzϷԵڹ˼С壬Ϊʹ֮ı׼ÿһԽۺҪ ҵδγɶܲϵǣδγɶİоǼСġ312 Эͬconcurring opinionҲ߷ԺһԸķΧ磬һ֥ͥӸĪ˹City of Chicago v. Morales 313¼Ī˹ĸûй񶨶ۣȴִС314 Ī˹ų֥ӸͨһdzзԽͷŻ˶һ֣315 ֹһΪɳԱĹ˾ĹУھ쾯֮ȻûĿġͣ316 ߷ԺĶΪģԹΥܡȻ¿ɴ󷨹ٵķṩһַдģԣͬʱеķͷɵ317 ¿ɴ󷨹ٴӶһܽϿĹúխҲС塣318

ЩӣٻعͷǼС֮ìܵĹϵǼСһܴܷ˼һ˼ҵСΥ˹Ȩ319

ȻͬʱС屾ǿ˾Ȩʮʮʮܷоȷʽıչʾʱ۵һ֧رȨ⣨ad hoc balancingΪԺӦǰÿһϸڣϸȷ໥ͻ棬ƽЩ档320 һԴ󷨹ٲˣBlack͵˹DouglasΪףΪرȨ⸳跨Ȩ󣬲ڡȨ⡱һڸܷоӦԿǵijɷ֣رȨоǰ࣬ʹʴӡ321

ɣ˹̹ԣСҲ⵽ͬ322 󷨹ɪŵ¡ЪThurgood MarshallһԼСҲΪһݱ¼УΪʲô˵¼ԺǷ׷߷Ժڻ߽ܿѷίԱ᰸Wygant v. Jackson Board of Education 323йڿ϶жaffirmative action*оû֪߷Ժʲô˼ΪPowell󷨹ˡ324 仰˵Ҫ֪С۵ζʲôͱ׷ԴڼСĹ۵Ϊձ£ֻߵ߷ԺȷһǷΥܡСӶʹ߷ԺΪÿɵĽ㣬һ͵߷ԺҪ׷325

ˣС岻ʶɫ޵߷ԺΨһ·Щʱ֤˵߷ԺԭҪôԤʾܷһ΢ҪôԤʾŽҵı仯СصƣìܣȷûرĽȴǿ߷ԺܷµáôڼСȤ飬ʱʹԭϷķʽǡǡʣ׼ȷĥܷ˾صʵ326

ģ ƱǨ˾صá

תһּҵķʽձ⡣ʱߵֽţʹ޷ΪѵߡƱǨΪ߿ͨһЩǰ·ҲͬʱһЩǰͨ·˺ǣΪʲôijΪǺʺܵģһЩȴΥ˲ûб仯ܷأ߷ԺҪıãԱ֤ܷǨʱܷԡ327

ȣҽΪʲôһ⣬ȻΪһЩŬ֤ЩŬʧ֮һݸ÷ܹ֤ԣŷ˵һҪֵΪԺϵͳĹڣԽһ£narrativeǾںϵһܷͳһС

1 Ϊͳһ¡߷Ժһͥ˹ްSaenz v. Roe 328¼˹о϶׷ԺڸȨһҪоؽʱȨPrivileges or Immunities Clause涨ܷʮעʾ߷ԺܻӦ⡣

ƱӾǵһձ󣬼ΪʲôǽҪһǰʮǰܷ329 ϾƱǨζǸı䡪ij̶ֳϾܳ⡪ǰһµƶȺԭԼΰ򣬶ֽ˸ԼΪʲôڻҪǰһijŵ

ձ⣬ǽΪʲôȱijŵ谭ƳʱǻӦijŵ330 Щ⵱Ȼܷ⣬Ҵ˴ֻȼҪһЩǡĴ𰸣331 Ȼҵ÷跨Ժһְܣ⣺ضʽǼŵԼ˼ŵʱΪʲôӦijŵ

һ׼绤ǣͨԼԼôضΪǿԱⷸ¿Ԥڵжϴ󣬲ÿɽܵĴ۽ѵ⣬Ӷƶǵijڷ١332 ˣʹʱΪЩŵѲʱˣҲӦԼijŵ333 β棬һ۵ֱ϶ͨΪһķʡԿԽϺõԤʲôʱǽжϣΪʹѵλ˿ڲ̫ش£ȷӦЩ⡣ֻҪһܷȻôµܷͿԣʱվԵĻ̶ġ334

Щ۲ڸõҲȷԺǡְܡĿڣҪҳһַǰһܷijŵҲǵijŵ335 ǿ¹۵ͻø˵ǿӸǵԼѡġ336

һֿǣǷ²͹ͳһ£ӶǺȱϵ337 ѡԼΪѡԼ̽µѡǰϼ򵥣ϸӡ򵥷ŵڸ⣬ȱ㣨ȷʵȱĻ޷ֽ֧ǿ˾飬صһȱǣ߷Ժʹ˾ȨõķʽϵܡӷŵڶԹͳһĽ͸΢Ҳ߷ԺʵʹйأȱڣҲ΢Щͷˣ޷ͨṩͳһ¡

ͳһĵһ¿ɱΪֿʽ°Ϊһʵ˶ƽȡĹҡ338 ڸУܷΪȷһƻʵһᣬڸУιϵڶԺܷԵĸԭĻϡҽΪϺԵձȨ339

ֿϼƻΪҪܷӦǺģüƻڹ淶ϾһֿϼƻԷ˳ԼʶԴʶҲ֧ܷεһ㷺ʵ֪ʵֺϺԵձȨ ȻֿϷ޷֧ǿ˾ΪֿʽҪʵʷʵձȨضĺԼûṩʲôָ340 ҪǣԺܷԵĸԭҪձΪߵĻôЩԭ뱻ڻʵڻ棬˾ΥЩԭķЧȵϽֱζԱԺЩԭЧ341

ԹͳһµĵڶѡԶ˾͡½˿Ҹµ塣342 ͬҲЩ淶Ҳʷ϶Լһʶ343 ǣҲ޷֤ǿ˾飬ΪҸǡǡζţܵɵķɺƵܷͳ֮䲻һʱӦȫѸ÷ɵʹҸµȨ344

粼³˹Bruce Ackermanԣһͳһ£ʹ֧֮ǿ˾飬ͬʱƽذƱǽȥһӦɷԺɵ񡣸ݰ˵ÿת֮󣬸Ժݼ²ǰһƣʹ¾ͳһ345 ֿºҸ´ȱݣΪûдƱʵ

£ܴܷԵרҵ346ѵصרҵӢ347 ܷΪͨĹڷչͳһ¡348չʽͳһ£ϵΰȥܺѣΪ򲿷ԾΰƵ֧ôΪ349 ˹350УҲԿµӰӡ

2 ˹ܷԵִ¡˹У߷ԺоһΥܣ÷ɹ涨ƶ¶ڶӵһڣõݲóǰܻõ351 ǿͨعܷƵʷչ˹ϵһܷԵͳһȥ352 һƣʼ1789꣬һֱսʼ㹻ȨΪٵҵ͹ȷ353 ڶƣʼսؽʱʱڣ㹻֤ʵʴﵽԺܷĿꡣΰܷƣֻ׷ԺʱȫȷʹʵЩĿΪ˹ܷ354 ܷƽźߡЩƶԺܷǰԸԭߡǺܵġ׷ԺԺǺܵŽ˲䣬һȻţߡЩ谭ʵЩԭߡΥܵġ355 ΰӶԵͬضĺõ򡣡

ôΰαϵܷأƺܷĥʱսˣôԺʱҲӦսˡøӾƲԡʮǰ񲩣TribeںΪִ߷Ժ״Σ֤زˣƶȶԹȨƵijԣʾݸܷṩС档356 ܷ¿ܲǿΣԼijЩϣα֤ԺܷǰԸԭʵ֡357

˹ԮάͳһĵʮȨƶȨѡΪסݡĹȻûκȨѡ乫񡣡358 ߷ԺԮ󷨹ٿCardozoĹ۵ܷ֮ϣڶԣٺȾϣǷѡ359

ΪԵǣһϿ˹оܷΪ䲼˹ͳһ¡ʵðԹͳһ¸Ӹӣð׷ԺƤɭShapiro v. Thompson 360¼ƤްľоͨչƤްʹôܷͳһ³Ϊܣܵǰܶ˿Ϊ׷Ժȫʷˡ

Ȼͬʱ߷ԺҲƤް˾롣ƤްоԹһסڵҪΥ˵ʮƽȱ361 ԭ˵Ƥް׷Ժƽȱһ֡׷ԺΪӰȨķֻǿ²ܹ֤Ǻġ׷ԺһԭҪڽСɵġʱҲṩǿɣԭδƤްֳ׷ԺδȫȷȨķΧȨǰܷܵʵȨǰܱûбܷʵ϶˵ҪȨƤްбΪǻȨвͬ⣺סƿ˵ӰܷȨҲ˵Ӱ˽ܹԮҪ棬ߣӱģӰܷƶ˿ڵ档 ߷Ժ͹ұøʱֿܱʥ¶ѧ޵˹San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez 362¼޵˹ųˣð߷ԺΪֻӰ ܷʾʾ ĻȨķ࣬ҪƤް363ǿ֤޵˹ķ⣬364 ϣܷƽȱԱйظȨɣðĹȴʹԸˡ˹߷ԺƤްԮܷƽȱǾͿؿһ׷Ժλյıۡ෴ԮȨȨ߷Ժʵ׷ԺƤްдﵽĽͬʱֺ׷Ժѧ˵־롣365

ԮȨȨŸԶӰ졣ϯ󷨹׿˹أRehnquist˵˹оµע뵽ǰߵġȨȥ366 ѱ߷Ժ׳о367еĽ͸һϢͨ˹иȨ߷Ժоͬսؽʱڴܷϵ߷Ժķͳһؽʱ͵ǰܷͬʱϣϿɣΰܷ˹ĸﲢȨԭһխ綨Ļײṩǿı368 Щײ㲻ܼٹȻͨѸչ ˹ﵽάΰԭЧθ˵ʸ369 ͨ˹߷ԺΰϵܷС

ۣܷԴ

֤γµǹάˣȨǿҷֻĵɡԼβļ٣ڽṹͶϵص㣬ӰǹƶIJ᰸˾ϵͳУؼСǷϿܳΪٵ˵ص㣬ҲĵձˡΪ۵ĿģܷǶԵģ370 ôҽͨһЩṹԴóĵƲԽۡ

¹ѧ˹¬Niklas LuhmannۺѧۣչһƵɣautopoiesisۡ371 ¬Ĺ۵㣬ִصǻձˣ⵼»Ļ𽥸ˡЩӦķʽturning inwardӶǻĸԣȫҽ綨ķΧڣֻͨڱ׼ķʽϵ372

һɣautopoiesisĻֻḶ́ҲٳܷĵĥܷҶˣƶȼûУҲֻģӰ졣373 ͬһܷҲɹ۲ֵĶΪƺԳΧĶӰ졣߷ԺоխʹЩΪܷƽṹǨȻἰشӰ˴۾򣬼ܷƵƶȣôܷǡðѹܷġ

ҰɣautopoiesisֻһΪζܷг֮ƶȣζܷƶȵڼ١374 Ϊд͵ĹƼƻҵ˸ĿԻĿռ䡣

һϣƺ԰Ҷܷܴ˵͸㷺ľϵѧǷȨƺߡһЩȨ˳УһЩǹС375 һЩξѧɺ˹棨Susan StrangeĻ˵ȫˣ˾һЩͳȨĹܡ376 һΣܷĵĥijһֹŵᷢԼְܽ赼ͨ377

Ȩҿ϶ҲĥܷģӦˡ378 ϾΣҽ޷Ϊڳͷ֯趨ĹָҶܷĥĸе졣ҲʵܷĵIJˣҪȨһЩǿ϶Ứ൱ʱ䣬ҵ˵淢ˣǾͽһơĿǰԣĥĵе򣬲һеġ ע͡
ҳƣעʡ

ķڡܷ빫񡷣˼ᡱļϺ20046¡ԡۡ1131ڣ199911£29-109ҳMark Tushnet, The Supreme Court 1998 Term-Foreword: The New Constitutional Order and the Chastening of Constitutional AspirationͼʩνڶԱĵĹ۵չϵͳΪһר򡷣Mark Tushnet, THE NEW CONSTITUTIONAL ORDER (Princeton University Press, 2003.


³й