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ͯ

ʱ1--ն͹˹ĺԹ۱Ƚ

˼һʱ\"Σ\"֮СΪһ󣬻Ϊһʶ̬ӳ\"Σ\"Ҫ̵ѧһʷѧСⲻDZĵ񡣱ĵĿǴѧĽǶȿһѧһЩŬ峱࿹⡢ŬµʽġЩ˵Уʮ\"ѧʵ֤֮\"нйսӢѧҲն͵¹ѧҹ˹ֵӡնһٷһʵ֤ߣǿԼȷ߼ʵ֤\"֤ʵԭ\"Ҳζѧʵۡdzʵ֤Ӫ\"ʵ֤֮\"е\"ʵ֤\"һ˧˸ѧɵ䰢ŵ\"ѧʵ֤֮\"Ϊⳡ۵ļֱԲذѲնΪⳡ\"ʵ֤\"һ˧ʵǿ԰Ѱŵ˵ۺͲնԼķʽͳһѲնΪʵ֤Ӫڲķɣʵ֤Ϊʵ֤һҷ˼СӱԿնⷽȡ˺ܴijɾͣϾûճԽʵ֤塣֮£˹Ϊ˸ѧɵڶҪ׷氢ŵʵ֤еУǴʵ֤֮ѧͳ֮еСָն͹˹ʵ֤е岻ġҪָǣնδʵ֤ڲӽڵóһЩ˹ʵ֤֮óĽ۵ģ˹ʵ֤֮ڷ˸ѧɺͱʵ֤ѧѧɶʵ֤Уڶ̶һЩʵ֤ѧѧоɹ˳ֵպáѲն͹˹ںϵĿбȽϣǶλѧҵ˼صİգʶͰҶѧһЩҪ

1նĺԹ

նĺԹֱ֣ۡ漰оߺͱоߵΪĺԡ

նڴо߼йڿѧо֮ԵĹ۵ԸΪµ㣺1ѧĺ۵Ŀ֤αԣɲĿ֤ʵԣ2֤αǾԵģҲ˵ͬͬ¼һ۵ijǿظġ3ڼ֤αвɻȱĻͨ˵ľĽտ\"\"ѡ񣩣ɻ֤

Ӧ㣬նкз¹۵㣺

һնڰ\"\"\"۱\"\"\"ǿѧ֮۵Ҫʽ\"֤α\"\"\"ֻνܿѧе\"\"\"֤α\"ȣ䷶ΧҪɣһ棬һۼʹ޷֤αġɾܾҲǾпԵģѧڣһ棬һ۾ȻǼٵģѾ֤αҲȻͨжԸĽ羭ѧijЩܹ̾ڼ򻯣ԿУȻ

ڶѧԵҪֲһЩѧĿظԣۡ˫֮ĹϵҪIJɲͬ帴ͬһ-ϵDzͬҪ--ǹڶ\"\"ǹ۳֮𰸵\"ν\"-- ֵĹ۵Ļཻкͻ⡣

նڻľ壨\"\"屾Ļ⡣ֻ֮ͨԽܣΪĻǾͻһˣʵԶпñ\"Ϊ\"ij֤ijƣ֮Աһ\"\"ķʽɣΪĻǾͻ᷸\"δ֤ļٶ\"߼\"̬ȵ֤;顣߼֤;鶼̬ȣΪֻЩ׼֤飬Ѿȡ̬ȵˣŻ֤뾭鵱һ¡˵κ֤ҪõĻȲȡ̬ȣ֤ܽ;֮ϡ\"2

ѧоĶ˵ΪĺԣղõģʽӽΤν\"-Ŀĺ\"˵\"ţֻͬijЩĿĻĿϵжһжĺԣһ൱ȷġ\"3ն۵Ϊ\"ԭ\"; ԭѧӦ˫ϽкоӦرУӦĿ-ֶκԻ򹤾ߺԶж˵߾Dzν\"߼ؽؽķ\"ν\"龳߼\"ڲտ龳߼龳һж龳һʵǵǸ龳ʷѧǿ¶ж˵һ£ж龳ǣڹߣΪʵǵǸ龳һ£ж龳Ϊʵǵ龳ָʹڿѧʷϣҲһѧʵϽ⣬ʶ⡣

Ȼղû˵һָʺʷѧ⡣ķ壬Ҫƺؽһڹ߿\"ʵ\"龳Ȼ˵Ϊһж\"\"\"ɺ\"ָ\"ʺ龳\"4

2˹ĺԹ۵ĺģԽĺṹ

۹˹ڲպԹҪĹ۵㡣ǣۣڹ뱻ڹߵĹϵջ

˹ͬնԵΪԹ漰ҪݣΪն۱̫խǡذѧĻ򣬲ܰоߵΪĺ뱻оΪĺͳһҲܶ屾֤ΪԿΪĵĺԵķΧ˹ȡҪ裬ǰѳĻν\"\"speech act)Ȿݣ۵Ҫ\"ܺ\"һ⣬ĻһΪеݣҪȷ仰٣˹ȴΪе˵仰ĻҪȷ˵ߺ\"\"\"ʵ\"\"\"\"\"Щ϶--ν\"Ч϶\"validity claims)--ܷ˵\"ܺ\"ʱʵϺ϶ģ˵仰Ƿ淶ģ仰ϵģΪģ仰֮ͬ˵ΪǰЧ϶ֱӦڿ͹磨̬ܺͣ磨ֹܺͣ磨Ψ˵ԼֱӸܵܺͣ˹жΪֻһԻΪȡжжУжĸȶõ˿ǡá

һĿжжȡͨѡض龳ǡüܴɹĹ߻ֶΣԴﵽһĿĻһ׷״̬ij֡

ڶжһἯ֮ԱԹֵͬΪȡж

жһжڹͨʶ¶Զһֹ˵ӡж

󣬽жж\"Ϊȡڴɡάֺ͸¹ʶ--ʵǻڶԿеЧ϶ϵĹʶ\"5

ĿжУжߵһ߻ֶμãùƷڹжУȷijһ˼ʹϵϼ¼¼ϼʾӡڱжУ˵ߵ磬¬д¼дĻȵȡڽжУʵΪ֮ýıܣ˵ߴʱͬʱ˵Ϊ˵ĻЩЧ϶һֻɵĹʶĻЭԵж

жҪɵĹʶΪ\"Ч϶\"ıġ˵\"ڿɽٶʹĬƣοɽٶʹ죬IJɽٶʹ⣬֮ܣ֮ǡ\"6Ч϶Ȩ϶֮ڶ;ܾһɩͲЧ϶ˣ˹Ϊڽж̺ν\"\"ĻṹҪء˹Ḷ́жڽṹ

\"aжߵ-ϵworld-re1ationsӦĿ͹硢ĸbʵ淶Ի׼ȷЩЧ϶cԺʽٳ֮һµĸ༴ڿеЧ϶ϵһµĸԼdѴ⵱Թͬ龳Э̵ĸ\"7

ֽṹĽҲԸΪ\"ֻ\"\"˼\"\"\"໥ϵص㡣\"ֻ\"ָж߶磨͹硢磩֡\"˼\"ָж߰ԺָֿЧ϶\"\"ָжԵЧ϶ıԾӦ绤ģǿɼ䵱ͽ--ṹΪͳ٤ĬĽѧΪֵ֧ģζһ棺ϵЧ϶ǿԸɼСпԵġ

ؽжɷΪʽάֺ͸ƹʶΪҪݵճʽԴɺ͸¹ʶΪҪݵרʽ˵ճУжĽṹDZԤĻôһֽ\"۱\"argumentation\"̸\"discourseĽУֺԽṹǶٱȷԤġ

۱вһжЧ϶ͬʱ⣬ԸͻЧ϶ͬ۱ʽҪ̸theoreticaldiscourseʵ̸practicaldiscourse̸ʵ϶١۱ʽĴڣǴɲࡣûһԹ淶֮϶Ϊ۱ʽʵ̸ѧ˵̳ѧҴ󶼳ַ˹ǿҷַϵ-ʵеĺԵĹ۵㣬Ϊʵ򣬾һҲԭϴиݵĹʶΪͬ淶Ч϶бȻϵ\"ж淶ЧǴ϶ֵģijҪ浼棬һֶӰ˶ͬ棬ֵձϡɣЧĹ淶ܹԭܵÿһӰڶԺѰĶ֮ж֮µĺشٳɵͬ\"8

˹۵㣬Ŭߺģʽʵʺģʽı֡ij˵Ҳͼֺģʽ˹ȣնŬû᳹ס

ݹߺģʽһΪűʽֻиΪ߶ijĿIJȷǷΤִ̻̿Ϊߺ̣˸ѧɵĵһԹߺУҪܾ\"ﻯõģִѧ͹ߺԷʽ˹ں̶ܴͬΤͷ˸ѧɻڶԹߺģʽжеĶִԵУǿ湤ߺģʽIJͷ壬һȫĺԹۣԹۣУߺԻĿĺֻһȡնĺԹǴӿѧѧĽǶȡе۵ĽǶȣģûȷذѹߺԵһ塣ǣհѿԡԵԵҪ˹һԽ˹ߺִŵϵͻܱ˴˽Խ֮Ĺϵ˹ȣյصǰѿѧ֮Խص㡣ɴ֮𡣵һҪѿѧҹͬĺΪʽƹ㵽ǵճ֮У˹򷴹ѿѧҹͬĺΪʽԴǵճ֮СûкϵҪӰ죬Դ˱ĵIJּۣڶհ۵ۻʵԣ˹۵չʵЧ϶Ӷ۵չѧĻǵѵ⣨\"\"⣩⣨ʲô\"õ\"żʹڲͬĻͳͼֵϵ֮䣬ҲԾ͵кۡ෴ն\"\"ƹ㵽ȷʾеľĹ۵㡣

պ͹˹ĺԹֶһ\"Ե\"Թۣڴͳν\"ʵԵ\"ԹۡҲԽѧϵ\"Ψ׼\"ĺԹۣijЩȶı׼淶9ֹ۵ڵܵѧѧʵ֤Ŀѧѧͷṹѧȵȶ෽Ͼսսֻзչܺ塣ǿԲٱΪֻͨ¶ҷ˼ҵ׼֮СĽۺ֮СԵĽ۹ٶɣɾʲôǾԵģģ䱾Ҳۺеġⷽ棬տ˵ǰ;˵ġһ棬Ϊʵ棬Ҷڱ׼淶ɱҲͨжѧϰ10ңԼսУҲüȷ߼ġַǾ۾11һ棬ȷʾν\"еؿ\"Уָ\"ָ֮ڲìܣһЩʵìܡ\"12Ѿ߼׼Իˡ벨ȣ˹ԽʵԵĺԹԵĺԹ۶ȷԾһʵԵIJϽӽ龳Ĺ۵㣬\"κһɵģȻʷѧʷз仯ı׼\"13һ۱硢óIJϼֳ龳壺\"ͬĻijԱڲͬʱԶԷűЧжϵı׼龳ģѡ׼ʱΪģȻDzԾģʵĹ淶ĹԵĹ׼ȷԵĹҲ̶ͬ龳ġ\"14

3˹Թ۵ķۺ壺ڹߺͱڹߵĽϵ

˹ĽԸҪķ壺ڿѧҹͬеĽֻճжһϵͳרŻճжжͣԽԲһڿѧҹͬĺԸҲѧо˵һжĺԸ

ݽжģʽжеڹ͵صڣ\"жڹ\"\"ڹж\"֮ķ۲Լ\"ڹ\"\"ڹ\"֮ķ۲ڸĿԡ淶Ժͱжڹ͵ʱڹж֮һֲԳƣֻڹߣDZڹߣЧ϶༴ݽжģʽ\"ж߱Ѱʶʵ϶֮Ժ༴ͬжԱͬ佨ϵ֮\'\'\'\'Ժ\"15ΪѧоҲΪкҲͱΪܹͬڹ߽໥кۡζDzܽԹ۲ߵ̬ȡҲԲߵ̬ȶԴж߶Լжڹ͡һжDzһڹͣһڹ̶ͣǰ߼ԱȽϣΪ뽻жΨһ;ΪһҪ跨ڹжжһĹ̵ˣڹһж

˹˵˷˲յѧʷѧеһìڹ͵Ŀ굽\"ж龳\"\"ʵǵ龳\"ںߣֳշ۵ʵ֤塢͹ɷݣǰߣֳշе龳塢ѧijɷݡ˹-Ŀѧ۵صۺַ۵ŵ㣬˷Եƫ򡣶˵ҪļȲж龳Ҳʵǵ龳ڹΪж֮Ի龳--ڹ߱ӦͬжߴͬУж߽ԵĽۡһ棬ͬжԼڹ޹صĿ͹۵ж龳Ϊڹ龳Ĵⳬ龳ɣһ棬Ҳеؽж߶龳ڹͣΪж߼ȻΪһĽߣڹͱҲǿС۵ġѧȷؿǰһ㣬Թ˹ӭʮνѧе\"ѧת\"16Ȼ˹ԽѧڹȫͬжߵţҪڹԺߵݣж϶ĺԼԵĿ졣ʹжԼڣжڹҲδȫϺо˵ɵġΪ֮ߵѧָܹһ㡣ڱ⽫ѧƬ滯˻˵иҪǹ˹¹۵㣺˵жѧյһĽжṹǾз˼Ե--\"ͨ龳ͨDzʹпӺͷչΪĶȶμߵЩ龳֮ƺˣͬһЩṹͬʱṩԵֶ̽һض龳ڲͻ龳ԳԽṩڱҪʱƲһȶʶ󣬸ȵȵֶΡʹпܴһͬһṹҲṩ˶Դ˹̼Է˼ԿƵĿԡ\"17˹д\"ڽжDZѧͨΪһ߶ճж龳ԼϵͳĿʹ֮Щ龳֮⣬ǵ෴á\"18

ԵĹжڹʵҪж߶ԼжĽͣڹͽԵۣ۱龳ҲԳԽ

4˹ĺԹ۵ұ绤Ļ

ǰѾᵽȻ˺ܴŬĵ̣屾ĺҪļϣȴͶ˷ӪǹҪdzڷԵľġ

˹ΪҪԼĻϽеͶɡһλ˸ѧҿСһ˹ָ岢ǿѡҲԲѡĶֻҪԸۡ磬Ǿͳ̺ۡĺĽṹһλߣд塢ʱҲԤԵ--Ȼ岻ǴͳϵģԽԸΪĵ塣ļڣҪͨĻͷһ\"ì\"performativecontradictionĶķٶĶ

\"ì\"һ˳ԽΪ۱򡢱ֳĬʱҲδܻرܵ۱ճԾġרŵ죻۱бȷԤͳϵĺṹѾǵճĬĬ̺ˡ߿ΪѧҶ˳۱򣬵Ϊ˶˳ճΪڹ˹붯칤ߣѾдϱԳѾﵽ˽̵һˣʹһйķϵͳͨ֮ǵж龳⡣ˣֻҪ߻Ϊ˶ţ岻ֻͨԵѡɵģϵķ壨ѡ壩վסŵġ˹д\"ֻҪ߱ϾŵĻĬĬءȻ˵֤Ѿӽгޱѷʽ棬Dz˼ģΪһ˼ʵ顣\"19

밢ͬǣ˹Ϊ\"ì\"һ۱DzģҪһԼֱ֮ϵͳķ˼ؽһþѧIJַ֤˼ؽΪһӢճѧҵĹɹԴ˲ͬ˸ѧɵĵһԱһַ̬ȣܳȫͬɣһϸչԴĿѧƤǽܴͳй֮һϵѧơµľѧоɹ˹෴ѸԼ˹Ϊ˼Դ˼ͺڸһαѧıߣߵ\"ĵ\"棬˹Ŷִ̺ѧִ۽лΪý˫ط˼Ϊַ˼ܹʾ\"ԽݽжĻĺ⡣\"20

˹˼ֳij̶ֳϵìܣһ棬ΪʵԡԺԵЧ϶뾭ϿɣͿѧ۶ԣ뿪ԵĿ͹ԡ˵\"ֻͨһͬ˵һ粢ͬ磬ŵõ͹ԡ\"21һ棬֤ν\"\"ѧʽľѧ, ȴԤǰĿ͹Ĵںͷ˼ǰʶĴڡڲϵԿ͹ĴΪ۱ģڹ˹͹ĴдϿɵġʹ˶ԣյʵ۹۵ֵÿ϶˹˼Ҳô⣺ѧۣѧ۵㣬辭Ͽɡʵȫȷģѧ֮Ŀ͹硢˼ǰʶĴڵԤҲȫЧġ˹ĺԹ۵صڣһϣҲֻ俪ŵġԵġǺĽߵ\"߷ͥ\"22

עͣ
1 ķڡʦѧѧ19932
2 Karl Popper: Open Society and Its Enemies, George Routledge & Sons. LTD., London, 1945, Vol. 2, p. 217-8.
3 Karl Popper: Conjecture and Refutation, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, 1972, p. 362.
4 Karl Popper: Objective Knowledge, George Routledge & Sons. LTD., London, p. 179.
5 Jurgen Habermas: The Theory of Communicative Action, Vol. 1, Boston, 1984, p. 17.
6 ӡΡ
7 Jurgen Habermas: The Theory of Communicative Action, Vol. 1, p. 137.
8 Ibid., p. 19.
9 ϣԡʷͯ룬Ϻij磬1997꣬119ҳ
10 Karl Popper: Open Society and Its Enemies, Vol. 2, p. 386.
11 Karl Popper: Objective Knowledge, p. 179.
12 Karl Popper: Open Society and Its Enemies, Vol. 2, p.203.
13 Jurgen Habermas: The Theory of Communicative Action, Vol. 1, p. 55.
14 Ibid.
15 Ibid., p. 99-100.
16 еѧߵĹ۵㣬˹˷1967ġѧ߼һһ̶ҲԤʾѧת
17 Jurgen Habermas: The Theory of Communicative Action, Vol. 1, p. 120-121.
18 Ibid., p. 121.
19 Jurgen Habermas: Moral Consciousness and Communicative Action, The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1990, p. 100.
20 Jurgen Habermas: The Theory of Communicative Action, Vol. 1, p. 139-140.
21 Ibid., p. 12-13.
22 Ibid., p. 17.


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