ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 


ͯԼ޶˹ġ򡱸뵱йᄈ


[ժҪ] ޶˹ѧӵǡ, ͬѹȥжġ, ŰǶijʵʽὨƵĶ塣޶˹ѧҪоΪһϵὨƣһоṹĹԹһоԱЩὨƵ̬ȡ޶˹ƪĵ"", ǿԶ޶˹չ˼Ľֽ޶˹۳ɷ빦۳ɷ֮ϵ, ޶˹ѧ뵱йᄈ--йźͺij""й, ͺͽйٵһЩ""йء ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
Լ޶˹(John Rawls)ڡۡ˵"ὨƵҪ",1 Ὠ"һĹϵ, 涨ְ͵λ, ͬǵȨȨͻȡ"2 ѿ, ޶˹֮ϵ޶˹Ĺۼʹ֮Ҫ, Ҳ˵֮õһǶȡ޶˹ѧе"", ĿIJΪ˸õ޶˹Ĺ˼뱾, Ϊ˴Ӵ˳һõ޶˹۵һЩҪص, һõйǰеһЩҪ--, ""һҹֳϳƵ֮, ˵Ѿ˵йĹؼ֮һˡ ( , http://www.yannan.cn )

һ"ʵʽĹ"vs."Ĺ"

""޶˹IJʿоѾᵽ, ӸòʿĵĹDz֣?quot;һѧҪ"[1951], ޶˹ûжϸ, ֻ˵"ǿ԰ѹ--ԭ෴--ΪһЩ׼maxims, DZǰԭһЩϵĺ;ֵijϡءճжԹ, Щб绤, Ҫһ׼"3 ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
޶˹ѧӵһƪΪ(1955) ¡ƪ, ޶˹ֹ, Ҳν""һƺҲԼĹ۵--ԭҪǹԭ򣩶֮õĽ ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
·ʽǼٶÿ˶ͨùԭض½ôǻٶͬǽͬʽͬ, ЩǰƵλظ֡, ͻͬ, ͬľͬһڲͬʱ, ɲͬͬʱġһγֵƵ㹻, ǾƶһΡ4 ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
޶˹ֹ۳Ϊ"Ĺ"the summary view of rules, Ϊ۵ѹֱùԭﵽĹȥ־ĸ޶˹Ϊ, Թ, "ڹΪһЩ׼maxims, ڹΪһЩƾķrules of thumb5 ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
, ޶˹ƪµǡǡǶֹ۵С޶˹Ҫ
һ, ֹ޷ǶԱ˴жȷԤںڴ˻֮ϵ໥οܵġѹΪڹȥʵ׼, ζÿԭʼʸһȷԽ¿, һضиùǷǡʡıҪƺڣҪȻĻ, ԹԭÿЧʲߣһߵ, DzҪ, Ϊ, ÿ˶㹻ֱӰѹԭھС, ÿԭ϶ԾµȷڹԭҪô, ᵼ», 跨ͨԤ˻ôжЭΪŬ, ͺܿ˶ʧܡ ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
ڶ, "Ĺ"Ҳͨ"ͷ""ŵ"ʵʽ⡣ְѹȥ֮Ĺ۵, һضҪҪŵ, ȡѹԭóĽ, Ҳ˵ǷΪŵԽʵϵơ, ޶˹Ϊ, ֹ۵ȻǶŵԵìܵġΪ, һصŵ, Ͳһŵ--"ŵ""ŵ"ʵʽģһŵζŲôҪص, ŵʱѾֱӻسһЩ ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
"Ĺ"෴, ޶˹ν"ʵʽĹ" the practice conception of rules޶˹д ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
ֹ۵, Ϊһʵʽa practiceĶ塣 һʵʽڣδʵʽζŽնЩ, Щ¸ʵʽǵΪһʵʽdzЩǶʵʽġЩܱ򵥵صԴ¸ʵʽʵΪܼ򵥵˵֮жķʽͺЩһ, ʵʽĸи, DZ֪Ǿжʵģͬи, һʵʽĹǿԱ̻, ǿΪжݶγһڹʵʽġֹ, 򲢲ǶԽԭֱӵءظľεĵ֮ѡĸ෴, һʵʽ, ǹԭ⡣6 ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
޶˹"ʵʽĹ", ѧdz̸۵ļֹ,ֻν"Թ"constitutive rulesϵĹ, ν"Թ"regulative rules,7 Լ""technical rules"ʵ׼"pragmatic maxims"ԭ"moral principles8 ϸϵĹ ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
"Ĺ"м𡣵һ, ĹΪ෴, ʵʽĹ߼ġҲ˵, ûӦʵʽĹĻ, һضжͲᱻΪж԰ΪڰеĶڱĵط, ֻڰЩжűΪ ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
ڶ, ÿôȨضжعǡ, "ʵʽĹ"ṩһµĿijijһʵʽ涨Ļ, ҪֻʵʽĹ, ʵʽĹǷֻܶʵʽ, ܶʵʽ֮µضжʡ԰Ϊлʣ"ҿԻ"ǻΪʹôǸô, ˵ܵ˵ǻǻǺܿΪڿЦҲ˵, Ļ, ˶һЩ㲻ܰѹǹȥôõ, ǶΪ⡣ ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
, µĹ, ʵʽĹǰǰijõԭΪȷķʽж򵼡׼ͳԵһԸ, һضĸ, ʵʽĹһһʵʽĹһ⡣෴, Ƕڹ޶һ˵ ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
޶˹, ǿ֮, Ϊ˱ѧжжı绤ֻʽʽԿǶֲͬĻش𡣱ȷ˵, һʸΪôҪijij˹ؽ, ׵ĻشΪij ӽһʸΪôҪЩ˹ؽȥ, ׵ĻشΪҪˣû۸Dzһģǰһʹרʡᵽ˾, һ򲻰רʡἰ, 漰һʵͻʽ, ˵漰һֽơǰһһжı绤, ͨжʵʽĹشġһһʵʽı绤, شⲻʵʽĹ, ijԭ--""Уԭǹԭ򡣻仰˵, ԭֱԸжб绤, ֻܶԸжʵʵʽб绤 ( , http://www.yannan.cn )

޶˹ĹDzһֹ壿

޶˹۵ѧΪеĹ塣, Ҫж޶˹ڡеĹ۵Dzǹ, ȡڶԹôġŵΪΪ, һضǷҪŵ, ȡŵĹǷҲŵĹֹ۵, ǿʹһض²ŵԻŵԴĸĹ, ҲӦŵ, Ϊ֪Ҷŵ, ŵὨƾͲ, ɴ˴ĹʧҪԶԶһβŵĹӡǰѺֹ۵Ļ, ô޶˹ڡеĹ۵Ͳǹġƪ, ޶˹˹W.D. RossĹ۵IJڹ¼۵, пԿĹ۵빦Ĺϵô ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
һ, ˹Ϊ, ŵʵʽļֵжô, ݹ, ضijֵǸ, ǿֵǿͨƻŵԶﵽġ޶˹Ϊ˹۵ļֵָ, DzͨһЧΪƻŵԽб绤ģ"Ϊŵ߲ӵһձĹı绤ɣŵʵʽֱ绤֮һ"9 ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
ڶ, ޶˹ͬ˹һ۵㣺ϵĹ۵ߵع˲ŵԶŵֽɵƻһ˲ŵԵȻԼ, һβŵԶŵʵʽɵǷ˵ŵϸ, һ㲢һĿȻġ ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
, ޶˹ΪҪǶһ˹Ƶӵķһĸ׵йŲŵ, ŵԻŵʵʽô, ӿDzҪԸµŵԲɵġ ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
⼸Կ, ޶˹ǵֱͬùԭΪ绤һж, Ҳͬӵһʵʽ֮άеĹֵΪʵʩʵʽ֮µһжб绤޶˹ȷʵǿҪùԭʵʽı绤ùԭԸжı绤Ҳȷʵ, ͷŵ, ֻǰһֱ绤Ǻġǣ˾ͼ򵥵˵޶˹Ĺ۵ǹĹ۵㡣˹۵ͬ, ޶˹ڡе˵ǽڹ֮ġ˵, ʱ--ںġۡ--跨ѹ۽ˡ ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
޶˹Ϊʵʽ͹ϵὨƵ, ѧоص˵жת䵽жὨơ޶˹˵ԭֻܱԹʵʽб绤Ϊʵʽ֮µľжṩ绤ʱ, Ȥڹ, Ϊŵ书ʵȤ--ʵʽὨƻϵ⡣ڸĵһע, ޶˹д ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
ҪDzҪ, Щҳ֮Ϊŵ书ߵǻ϶ὨƸȤλеʱҪľѧҺۼ֮, dzǶʵȤĸĸҡʷ˵, 峣һڹ, һѧ, һִִϵѧŬԭ൱ȻرΪһжὨƣʵʽı׼, ƽĸĻ10 ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
, ޶˹ͬʱǿ, һùһʵʽб绤֮, ı绤öʵʽ֮µľж˵, Ͳˡйѧҽ֤Чۻʵ֪ʶеʱ, ùƵ˼·Ч۵Ϊ֪ʶ"ʽ"֮ѡ, һЧѡ֪ʶ۵ijʽ--Ϊֳʽֻʵ۵--֮, ͱЧ, ʵЧõض֮ٵı׼ͬ, ޶˹˼·ǣһùԭijʵʽ˱绤֮, ʵʽ֮µľжı绤Ļش, ֻʵʽжĹ--Ҳʵʽ"Թ"constitutive rules--ˡ޶˹д ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
ʵϣʵʽҪʹǷݹ忼ǻǿǶжʸԱδ˩ԱЭøּƻһʵʽ--ʹŵ߲һԸʵʽб绤Ĺԭ--ǾԵĹϵĺôġ˵вûôìܵĻ˳Ծģ֤˶˶״ʱ򣬻֤־Ӧڸ޸ĵʱģѧģɿǡģǣһ˶ѡΪԼǸɵʱҲЩǣͲǡ?quot;11 ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
仰˵, һŵʵʽ˵, ֮бҪŵ, ΪŵԻκιЧ, ΪڴŵʵŵŵʵʽӦ֮塣ɫǺԵġ ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
ֹ۵Ȼػָ, ˵ζһֱĿÿ˵, ʵʽṩжΨһı绤׼ָ޶˹Ȼ, ˵۵㲢һֵ¹۵۵, һ߼۵㡣һжһʵʽṩ涨ʱ, ʵʽ֮, һض˵ضжDzбı绤ġв۳ӦûDzӦýЩʵʽ�"ǾԸزȡ, Щʵʽ涨жĵط, ǵļĶʵʽ, ԼǶЩʵʽĽܡ"12 ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
ڼԺ󷢱ġΪƽ塵һ13 ͽʮԺ󷢱ġۡһ, ޶˹˵ȷʵҪö, ൱ĶҲǡǡ?quot;ʵʽ"Լ"ǶЩʵʽĽ" ( , http://www.yannan.cn )

ӹ۵֮һ�"ԭ"

޶˹ڡۡж"ʵʽ"˼
ۡԱ޶˹µϰۺЧ۽Ϊһ, עΪϵĽ, Ϊһ, עǸȨ⡣߶ڵ--ڵ֮֮һὨǸ, ڵ֮֮һӹǵԡ޶˹, ۱Ӹ˲, ʹһйظжĵ۳ΪһйὨƵۣۼԲ, ӶΪὨԼǶὨƵĽܵҪ绤ɵIJǹԭ, ǰѹԭΪڻڵĹƽԭ涼Կ޶˹Ĺڵ֮ϵ ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
ڡۡڶµһ, ޶˹Թ൱ϵͳIJĹ۵ԹΪ¼㡣
һ, Ὠһϵ, Щ"ȷְ͵λ, ͬǵȨΡȨͻȡЩ涨ijЩʽжǿ, ʽжDZֹģΥʱ, ǻ涨һЩͷͱ绤ȡΪ--һЩ˵, ʵʽ--, ǿ뵽ϷʽкᡢгͲƲƶȡ"14 ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
ڶ, ˵ijʱijشһ, ˵涨ЩжΪһִ, ִеͬʱ, ˶֪ýƵǸϵҪصġ ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
, ˵ϵǹ, ˵ֻҪЩǶЩ涨ĻIJ붼һͬĽ, ôÿе˶֪Ӧ֪Ķһ㹹˽к֮໥ڴȷԡ ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
, бҪһƵֹ, һν"Թ", ǶһֽƼԶ, ȷֽƵȨһDzԻ׼, 漰Ǹ˺桢йر˴жƻIJ²ѡôĿж ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
, ҪһһĹ򣨻һ򣩡һƣеһҪ֣ԼϵͳĻṹ, Ϊһɹ򹹳ɵĽơɽƹɵƶȣǵ廹Dz岢ǶӦġ ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
Թ˵, Ϊ˵ὨƵĸὨ, ޶˹ҪĵĻṹ, ҲҪΡúƶȡ˵ϵὨƵ"Թ"ʱ, ޶˹ʽг"һ"generality(⣺漰Ķһеȫ)"ձ"universality(Ҳ˵, 漰Ƕ⡢Ӧص)͹ԣӦ漰˹֮֮, ݷֹԹǶijԭ֮õĽЩ޶˹ڵĹ۵ûôͬ޶˹Ĺ۵ڵĹ۵ȫͬΪ֮IJǹԭ, dzƽԭ򣻳ƽԭòǽΪһΧձⱻַΧ֮еһ, ߽ΪһձԭΪضΧڵĹṩ绤, ΪṹĹԹ--ԭ--ѡʽ, ֳĹƽȷԭԡ ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
, ǿԿ޶˹˼й۳ɷֺ۳ɷϵĽϡ
һѡԭij޶˹, ѡԭԭ״̬֮Ϊƽ, ҪΪеĸڵƽȵġ15 ʹ˶, ޶˹ѵƽȵļֵһ˵, ޶˹Ĺ۵۵ķ롣, ޶˹Ϊ, ԭ״̬еĸͨѡĶǸٵĻ, ҪǵǽξĸǶġ16 ˵, ԭֿ˵ǰƽԭ֮ˡ ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
ڶѡԭԭ, һԭҪȷÿ˾ͬɼݵƽȵ, ڶԭҪᾭ÷IJƽԻƽȡ˵״һбѡΪΪǰᡣ޶˹ǿһԭڵڶԭ, ˼ǶԵһԭĻƽɵ, ޷ø;绤򲹳ġʹ˶, ޶˹Ĺ۵۵ķ롣޶˹Ͼûֻ, Чʣ1964귢һƪеĻ˵ձԭҪ"Чʵ彨"17 ޶˹ȷָ, ԭǰԭ֮еġ18 ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
޶˹ԭ, ΪὨƵĹԹ, Կ"Чʵ彨"ԭ֮õĽ19 ԭԭĹϵ, ͬΪԭ״̬֮ijƽԭƽԭԭĹϵǰߵĹϵ˵ϵ--ԭ˵ǹԤ̺ڹ֮еģߵĹϵ˵ϵ--Ҫԭ״̬еĸѡԭ, ҪԵĻȵٶ ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
ܺ޶˹Ϊ֮ԭĿڲͬһϣȴȻȫһµģʵʽὨƵı绤ʵʽὨ֮µľжı绤ͬ⡣ǰ˵"Чʵ彨"ԭ, Ҫ, ЧǴҪġֻǺ޶˹˼е۳ɷֵһ֡۳ɷֻһϣ˵, һԭԭ֮, ж߾Ͳܹԭ--ǰеĹԭ--ΪԼԭṹˡ֮, ЧʺȶЩֵѡṹĹж,20 һѡԭ֮, Ϊλ֮ݵľֻԭ, ƲԭֱЩֵ˹(Thomas Pogge)Ļ˵, "Ϊ޶˹׼֮Щֵ, Ѿ, Ѿ'', ߼ϣ޷ڸ̶ϵõ㣬˲ܹΪΥֽ--ҲЩֵ绤--κΪԱ绤"21 ( , http://www.yannan.cn )

ġӹ۵֮"ƽԭ"

˵ĽĻṹָṹ--Ҳܷ--֮ƶضķɡ޶˹УԭǾǵȻnatural dutyڸԭܷ֮ƶķɣзǵְobligation22 漰ģǰᵽ?quot;ǶЩʵʽĽ"⡣޶˹ĻشĹ۵ϵС ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
޶˹Ϊԭ״̬еDzҪѡйὨƵԭ򣬶ҪйὨƵԭѡ֮һѡйظδὨƵĹϵԭǰߵĽԭ, ߵĽν"ƽԭ"the principle of fairness23 "ƽϷԭ"the principle of fair play24ƽԭν"ְ"Դ"ְ"ͬ"Ȼ", ߵ, ǰὨƻʵʽϵ, ضὨƻʵʽûбȻϵǰֻеԸؼһƵʱԼ, ߲ǷԸԼǰֻܹ֮ھضɫĸ, ֮֮, Dz֮Ľϵġݹƽԭ, һĻƽ, Ҳ˵ԭ, ô, ֻҪһԸؽһƵĸֵṩĻȥ׷, ˾ְȥеƵĹ涨ҪǷݹ25 ޶˹ԭְͨŵԵְ˵ ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
ǰᵽ, ޶˹ڡҪѶŵʵʽı绤ŵʵʽ֮µľжı绤ֿڡۡ, ޶˹һµ֣ҪΪһʵʽ֮ŵĹԼΪƽԭŵʵʽ֮ijԭthe principle of fidelityֿ޶˹ĹоҪ塣ŵ, ޶˹д ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
ŵһһĹϵ涨жЩ--нһ--һ׹ԵԼϷ, ǹ涨ijЩijЩжŵ, Ĺ֧?quot;ŵX"仰֮ʹõĹ˼£ijǡ˵"ŵҪX", ͸ҪȥX, ǴһЩʹѵǿΪŵĹǿ԰Ƕʵʽıһԭ, һԼⷽ, 뷨ɹͷԼϷͬȵλЩһ, ֮һ֮, ǵٱΪжݵʱ26 ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
Ҫȷƽܷŵʵְ, һҪʵʽǷ, ҪŵǷԸŵǰһ, ޶˹˵ͨŵʵ涨ǡϺͿǷԭ״̬ǻѡ, DzԸŵʵ˵ǹ˼, ΪŵʹӹƽԭƵijְ֮Ľޣ"Ŷŵı, ŶԼıһһˡһȺijضʵʽǷ, Ȼдڽԭȷ"27 ںһ, ޶˹˵, һŵ, һʵʽʹ֮ΪܵЩ, ǾǽȶСģĺ֡Ϊ, DzԸؽŵʵʽһ˲ûŵְ𣻵ŵ, ŵʵʽ, ˵һ˽ŵǷŵʵı׼, ô, ݵְĹƽԭ, ˾˶е˳ְ, ŵĹͬģ ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
ŵĹŵԭΪڹƽԭһΪһ̸ǿҡǺͬһ£, ǰִĹԼ, ԭ״̬пܱѡһЩԭ͵ġַʽ˿ֹ淶"""ְ"ЩᄈжʹãǴ÷вĺ, ӦǺġ28 ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
ֹ淶, ټǰᵽȻ, ˸жҪصΪ, Ƕ׼ͽȵȣ޶˹Ĺ۵, ǿԶֹ淶¸Ȼе, ὨƷȻϵҪὨƾбȻϵ, е塣ְ˵ǽȻͽҪ֮ģһὨƾϵ, һ־е塣޶˹ǿܰѽҪְ Ҫ, ԼЩһ˵ȫʵʽĽҪ,ԴӼȳɵĹڹ͵мȷ, Ϊ, ǵķְ--ȷĶ--ɷɵȷġΪϷѡֵǵЩ淶, ȡڸϷĹЩҪǷְϵ, һ⡣ʹٺԷɽڹͺõı׼ԭԭͬ, ҲȻȷ˵, һõ, ͥڹܷЩ˼ɺɡȷԷɵƽȱIJֵ, ܿԭ򡣾, ı׼Ļ, Ȼڵϱ--ͬ--ӷɵ, , Ҫô, ȻҪôġ29 ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
޶˹ڡۡйع񲻷(civil disobedience)ľܾ, Ƕ˵--ɵҪҪ֮--ϸӡŵҪӡ޶˹ûһضŵǷ⡣׶˵"Ԫ, ҾȥǸһ١"ȼõҵǮ֮, ô˲, , ŵȥˡ, ǸŵʵĹԹ, Ǹݳԭ, ׶DzԵġжҪõ绤, ֻ"ܴ"Ȼ񡣾ͷɶ, ޶˹DzǸԭܷƶ, ΪʹǸԭܷƶ, ҲһǷ⡣ؼ, ޶˹, ʹһ"", ܷҲȻһȻȴƵij"˵DzƵ, Ϊκοеιȷƶķһġ"30 Ϳͬ, ӳĽǶ˵ֻжþԭ, Ľ˵ȴġ"DZӵһܷ, DZͬһԭ, ڶþԭ, һֽӽ״̬, ݾеӵܷ, ͨҲ;ز巨ɵְ"31 ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
ְ޶ȵġһ, ӷɱ֮ij̶˵, ĸڳʱӦ᲻ͬȺмƽطֲ, ߵ಻Ӧκضо̫صķЩܲԴȺ˵, ޶ȸͻһЩ, ˵, ӷɵְ͸׳Ϊ⡣, Ȩӡزķ, ν"񲻷", "һֹġDZġĵʵķԷɵж, ĿͨΪɷɺеı仯"32 ڶ, ӹ̬˵, ʹְжϷӲķɵʱ, ҲûְҪ˼ΪЩġ33 ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
޶˹ԽԹ뽨ְ֮ϵĽ, ԸΪ㡣һ, ְ뽨Թ֮ϵ, Ҫһ, ΪƻԸؼƵǰ, ĹԹ򡣵ڶ, ְϾ뽨Թ, ΪְṩݵĹƽԭͬʱҲҪijԲԭ, ֽơĹԹ򡣵, ֽ--ضķ--Ļṹ, ޶˹۵ǰһṹĻӽ"õ", , ƽԭҪڷԸܳƶijضɵͬʱ, ܳĽְͷԭȻΪ, ޶˹ǿ, 񲻷ӱǷDZġ, й񲻷ӻ˱еɴ˴ķɺȵȡ 塢޶˹Ĺ뵱йᄈ ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
޶˹Ĺ, 뵱йᄈŶ෽ϵ
һ, "巨ι"Ϊҵʽ, ܷ͹ĹԹ򣩵õõǰӡ, ǰᵽ޶˹עҪ--ʵʽǶʵʽĽܵ--˵ҲѾΪҹ⡣ṹ˵, Ŀǰʵϴڵĸν֮ĹϵζԴЩ, ǶͨϵΪֱӵ⡣ĸгֵƵĶȵ, ʹùڶܷҳܷڣеڴ֮⣩ƶķɡߵķ֮, ̶Ȳͬìܡ޶˹һȫͬᄈ۵Ĺ۵, ͽЩì, Ǿġ ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
ڶ, ҹó֯, "Ϸ"һʸƵسڸֻ͸ִý, ΪȫΪ֯Ҫְ, ƶִȫó׵"Ϸ""Ϸ"൱޶˹˵"ƹ", ޶˹ںߵӦ˵뵱йᄈdzصġó֯ĹԹûе塣, ˶һ, ֻоежֵӵġȱʶûعϰߵĵλ͸˵, ó֯һϾġҪش۵ѧϰ̡һ档һ, ȻǷó֯ĹԹе, ЩǷ塢Ըó֮֯ǷԾЩ, Ǿеġּжϵĵ岻ͬڸжϵĵ, ڸӵִе˵, ǰߵҪǺӲõġǶ˵, ޶˹Ĺ뵱йᄈҲصġ ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
, йصһձԳ̶ȸߵ, һκгΪִ, μ""ԭ⡣(John Locke)˵, "ʵΪ˶ΪԱǵƷʡ"34 ˵, "ɡŵԺ, ȫܵϵҲҪܵԼ"35 ︳ԭȻڽ, ԭִɾиΪҪ, Ϊִ֮Ҫ, ЩһŦİˡ, һ˵""ζû˼ල¡ڲ漰ҳϹϵԼйһijضŵԡ޶˹Ĺ뵱йᄈᳫԭһĹϵ, DzһȽϸķ ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
ʮµһݱֽһ򱨵˵, ϺһѧϿʼĩзÿѧһֽʵŵ顷, "֣سŵڿо, سʵԭϸԼ淶Լ, κΥУУΪ, ԸԴ˽ʦļල"36 ˵"ʵŵ"ܵȫУͬѧӦ, ҪȫУƹ㡣, һλѧҶԴ˷dz, ˵"ѧѧ, Ҿ;Բǡʵŵ顷, һΪǶ˸裡ѧҲ, ģ"37 ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
ڵǣѧѧDzӦǩݡʵŵ顷
ݡʵŵ顷ҪŵǴѧĩвסѧĩ, һ˵, һὨ, ֽУĹԲּȱٵIJ֮һͨ, ԵĹԹDzס޶˹˵, ΪԵĹԹIJ, һҪ, ԹƽԭIJְֵͬһ¡Ȼ, IJǿܲ, Ϊһ׵Ŀ, ˼Ͳǿ, ͺ--ǰᵽ޶˹ٵ--ǻ˶ݶͲǰ˶һġǣѧûеְȥ뿼ֽƻʵʽϵĽҪ--ף ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
ǰ޶˹Ĺ۵, ûһְ, ȡءһ, Dz塣ڶ, һDzԸƵġȻû˵ĿǰУʵеĿƶô, Ҳû˵ѧѧܴѧμӰڵĸѧǶDzǿǵ, ô, ӦǺģײǿֽƵĹԹ, DzμӿԵǵĵְְǵԼ, dzŵ׵ʱ򡣿ԲΪһֽԵĵְ, ԸؼߵȽơԸμĩԵʱ, ѾԼˡǶ˵, ŵԲȫǶһ١ ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
Դӳŵص⡣޶˹Ĺ۵, ŵΪһὨ, ĹԹ"µŵԶҪ", ŵ򲢲ͬҪŵԵijԭҪԭ, ҪùƽԭŵֽǷ, ԼǷԸֽơǶ, ŵԲ׷ǵǶһ٣Һܿʵ䷴ڿ֮ǰҪѧǩ𡶳ʵŵ顷, Ҫ˿ڽ̵֮ǰǩ𡶲͵Գŵ顷ûô, λѧҶѧе, ȫǿġ˵, ֳŵ彨ƵҪ, µŵԲһְЩڽʦͬѧѹǩݳŵ, ԼijŵĻ, һҲûеġЩλѧһ"ѧҲ䡢"ѧ, ʣû׵ijŵ, DzǾͿԲ""Լˣڻ˵, ʽijŵƺǰʾ, Ȼûijŵ, ǾͲгŵ漰Ǹְ, ͸İˡ ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
ٽһ˵, һǷ׵, ŵҲһǷٵ⡣Ϊһʽijŵ, ܱ֤ijŵһֵġ˵ÿ̱һЩ, һѧѧŵǵĸȫʵ֮, ɵ, ѧıҵDzǸԼƭȡ˵λ Ϊ˷ֹ, DzҪһŵŵٵijŵ߼˵, ŵпȥ ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
Ȼ, ѧĹԱ˵, ֮Ҫѧǩʵŵ, ȫdzΡĻ, еѧܻԼڿôôĻ, еѧΪ, ȻԼûŵ, ͿİõΥ ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
һ˵, ҪŵĶֻгŵ֮žԼĶŵʮԪǮ"ʮԪǮ"һ㱾ûκԼ, ŵ֮Լˡŵ컹ǰʮԪǮ"黹Ǯ"ȻҪŵžԼ, Ϊ""Ǯ˼Ҫ, Ͳǽˡ, ŵ컹ǰʮԪǮʱ, Ҳֱʱܵ"黹Ǯ"һԼ, ܵ"컹Ǯ"һԼ, "컹Ǯ"һԼûе, ֻŵ֮еġԴ, ǿ˵ѧѧ֮ҪѧǩԲ׵ijŵ, ΪѧУĹԱ, һѧѾûκԼˣ׵ijŵ, һDzԼġʶһЩɸɲDzμӵij˽Գ, 뷨Dzֵġ ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
, ѧȻӵ۽ǶǺܳ, ой˵, ȴԳΪһܺõĸ, пǵڵ״ô, ӦòȡôӦ취 ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
ӱ˵, ֵͬӵ, ǿԵóһۣ޶˹ѧйᄈе岻ںij"", ҲڽһЩ"" ( , http://www.yannan.cn )

ע

1 John Rawls, A Theory of Justice Revised Edition (Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, , 2000), 1. ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
2 ͬ, 46
3 John Rawls, "Outline of a Decision Procedure for Ethics," in Collected Papers, ed. Samuel Freeman (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1999), 17. ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
4 Rawls, "Two Concepts of Rules," in Collected Papers, 34.
5 ͬ, 35
6 ͬ, 36
7 "Թ""Թ", John R. Searle, Speech Acts: An Essay in the Philosophy of Language (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1969), 33-42 ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
8 ڼʵ׼͵ԭ֮, I. Kant, Kritik der praktischen Vernunft/Grudnlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten herausgegeben von Wilhelm Weischedel (Suhrkamp, 1996), 46-51(I. Kant)ʽֳ֣ģtechnischʵõ(pragmatisch)͵µ(moralisch)ʵǹĿĺֶ֮ĹϵΪʵָĿ, ҪʹôֶΡĿĺֶεĹϵĻһֽԭ֮ĹϵֹϵǷdzȷ, Կ˵, Ƿġڼ, ҪʵôĿиָ, ʵõĹ, ҪʵֵĿľҸϽ, ʵõĹĹһ, ҲһֹĿĺֶιϵĹ򡣵, Ҹ˶ģΪҸĶ, δΪҸ, ҸʹҸֶ֮ĹϵDzȷġ뼼һʵùĹ--ҪʵôĿ, Ӧôж, Ƕڵ¹򡣵¹Ĺ涨ΪӦ顣ǿν�"" ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
9 Rawls, "Two Concepts of Rules," in Collected Papers, 30.
10 ͬ, 33
11 ͬ, 31
12 ͬ, 43
13 Rawls, "Justice as Fairness," in Collected Papers, 47-72.
14 Rawls, A Theory of Justice, 47.
15 ޶˹ȷָ"Ϊƽ""˼ǣԭһƽԭ龳еõͬġ"(ͬ, 11) ͬǰһҳ, ˵龰"һƽȵԭ龳"an initial position of equality ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
16 ͬ, 123
17 John Rawls, "Legal Obligation and the Duty of Fair Play," in Collected Papers, 127.
18 ͬϡ
19 Ľ͵Ȼǻ, Ϊһ, ޶˹ԭǴӸһԭ, ԭ״̬±ѡġΪ, ǿԭѡ֮, "عͷȥ"""һձԭ--Чʵ彨--Ƶ޶˹, м˵ĺô ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
20 Rawls, A Theory of Justice, 5.
21 Thomas Pogge, Realizing Rawls (Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1989), 41.
22 ÷һµĿ, ʹõ"ְ"һʶӦ޶˹õ"obligation"һ, ʹõ""һʶӦ޶˹ʹõ"duty"һʡ ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
23 Rawls, A Theory of Justice, 93.
24 Rawls, "Legal Obligation and the Duty of Fair Play", 119.
25 Rawls, A Theory of Justice, 331.
26 ͬ, 303
27 ͬ, 304
28 ͬ, 307
29 ͬϡ
30 ͬ, 311
31 ͬϡ
32 ͬ, 320
33 ͬ, 316
34 Լ, ƪ, Ҷľũ (ӡݣ1996), 11
35 ͬ, 119
36 20021214աƵıһЩ, 硶人2001626յһ򱨵˵, 㶫ҵѧƳһ¾ٴ--ԸΪŵ, һ༶˼࿼ơĻ㱨200231ձ, ʦʮһ˲ѧԺѧԱ֣سŵ--ְˮ ( , http://www.yannan.cn )
37 , "Ϻѧѧ," ԡ˿Ŀ⡷, ַΪhttp://www.xys2.org/xys/netters/others/essays/donghua.txt ( , http://www.yannan.cn )

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