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ҹ˾˼κĺʱʲô? ɽ˵ξ֮¡ѧ˹(Easton)˵ξǼֵȨԷ䡣ֵʲô? ֵǮλְһЧõĶôξڹڵвһϵйԹĴֻҪضʱڶ⡣
˵βܲңΪǴȨܹǻۺʵʵǹҡԹҵıԡԴͱԵ׷ʺִ̽˲ƣ顣ʿ(Aristotle)˵ȻɵIJ¶ĸеҪɼͥɼͥĽγᣬɹҽǺϺȻĹ̡˼(Marx)˵ǽ׼IJͽ׼ѹȵĻѳͻάķΧ֮ڡ˹(Hobbes)¬(Roussean)(Kant)ֱ޶˹(Ralws)ԼΪǹ֮ԼIJȻ״̬֮֮䴦ڻΪǿʳĵж״̬˹Ϊʹ˵ɺͲƲȫвDZһȻȨɹң¬Ȼ״̬"˹�"Ȼ״̬Ϊ˷ֹɺͲƲİȫ˽ȼúͱΣգԼɹң޶˹(Ralws)ԭ״̬֤һȺܡּȤ˳֪֮߳Ļ޽Լɹѡ񣬶Ƿ޶˹ԭĹҡԼߵ۹Ȼûʵ֤ϵ淶ۣݵΪ˻ζ
˼(Marx)ıңԴij֮ͨ˹oŵ˹(Douglas North)ΪһбȽƵȻṩһȨ׹򲢱Իȡ˰գͬʱҼǾ᳤ڷչĸԴҲǾ˥˵ĸԴΪijԭʹùҸԸάһЧʵIJȨƶȶı䡣(Buchanan)Ϊιڱϸгû𡣹Ҳһ׷󻯵""ι̵IJҲһȺ˽׷ļһι̱Ǹ֮Ľ׹̣׵ĿΪ㽻˫󻯡֮ι̾ǽ͹ѡĹ̡ϵȹѡѧɵķҿͷϵһѣĿĵɴ
ٵһȨźͶԡƵȨᵼ¶ͺ͸----Ӣ˰˶ѫ(Lord Acton)һʵżȻ¬ҲʶĿܺͿɶ񣬷"ȴڼ֮"ź¬ӦȻ츳Ȩ볾ʵϰסĻȨѹեʳǿҷŵǵ˹(Adam Smith)ȸͲ֣ΪһҪаNecessary EvilҪDzȡһϵƺƶȴʩаļһ￴Է˾ѳܵ"޼""ˮ"ļһաDZϵ˹(Montesquieu)⽻Ȩѧ˵(Locke)Ȩѧ˵ôöж֮顣ǣһõαֽȻͬĹ۵㡣йΪ˳ӦˣȻйʷϴСɱϣijת˲֮䣬"ɱ޵"겻ɢҸͶ˷ǷdzɰתͷգɽڣϦ졣ijϰ˵ֻ˸˰˶ѡֻȰԲս¬ΪԿñƷ˼¬Ĺ۵һޡаȴԶ׼ģʵͨ˵баһʶԴˣܴҽ
Ʒ֮ǰŵǣжʲô˭һжϣñֶȥٽһ˭ܵݱɻΪһаΣһijıͻиʲôλãʲôɫǷҪѪֽ֮尲ںδλã漰ε⡣
νε㣬ҲǴʲôطʲôԭʲôܹʼǵ͹ΪҪǣһμܹ֮иʲôλεһ淶ҲһʵȻ⡣ν淶ָӦʲôԭӺδʼԺμܹǵϵӦȻĽǶȽݡ׷ʺ˼νʵȻǣضʱռȺһǰļȶͼܹôӦô˼Լص⣿ǴӸӪǵ͹ǴӦȻĽǶȳӸҪؼȶͼܹɴĻҺʧ򣬸ԶһѪͻıʽȥıһΡӦȻĽǶȳ˼Ʊػó໥ͻļֵжϣҪôʹñҪô˼Ǵδֹסʷеı嶯ɼ嶯˵ڣʮǿ󡣵ǣ嶯Ȼ˵ģȻ˵ǡǡڽ̵ѹҲѹƱЧߡԱƱûʲôý
ʷδսһdz֧š˵֤ʹͷսġԷΪ޲˹ӶΪǰѻʵۡͶϽ̼ڴһΰʷ죬Ϊ˽һݻһ硣ǷѪɺӡѪģļҲ״˼ҰؿˣBurkeп˵̷˼ǵǣڴһʱĹʲôװһ˵һԼ""塢ʵۡǮˡв׼ͨƶҡ켺ߡ֪ʶӻͨʿʲôΪһеøѪǰ㳡ʽĴɱո(Socrates)¼̤΢ɵӼţļʽĴɺʹݻٸɵľһĻϵضʱͿռżȻڣı΢ͿĿãʲôø屰΢Ϳת˲ɢҮˣHayekͨū֮·йѧС㣨صǡȶɺڵʡˣǵ""ֱӳеɵκѡȷԣֻиŸĿʹȤɵΣκ͹ijڸɺȨļʵϣ壨壩ijξðοܣ
Ϊ׷˵ıϲ׷Կʼ˼ֵԾͼֵжϡ׷һߣԲȺ˵Ϊ˵𺳵Dzõǿպеĵ·ʵӲõǵп¿޾޾δ֪磬·˵Կʣһ˼ҿ𺳡׷ʲƾնѧ˼Ū飬ճ֮вɢΪ֮Ϊˡ֮Ϊҡ֮Ϊĵڡ׷ļֵߣԱߵĿͺ׼DZ֮Ϊ˵ıº;翵µͶעѪĻ⣬ҲӡӡȺ̸۵Ļ⡣׷硢ᡢˡȺϵ׷ʺ͸ҪԸ˼ֵԾ͸˵顣
׷ʲӦڸ黹Ӧ쵽ر۶˻ˣǸǰͳ㣬ÿһӶİ֮Уʿ�"ζ"޷ӱΣ벻ˣεԻϷ׷ʱÿһ޷һʵԲͬķʽΣλͬ׷ʻDz׷ʡ˼Dz˼һɻرܵ⡣һһͼܹ֮УԳ꿪ʼ㲻ò뵽һμܹ֮вжϺжӰһܹϵĿԣôһݻرܵǣεڣμܹԸڣӺδӪ岻òԵ͹Ӷһ͹ͼܹܳξð
εǹ淶⣨ֵжϣҲʵȻ⣨͹׷Ȼһ淶ӦȻ⡣ΪʲôᲢۣε㲻ܲǵµĴͼȶͼܹӦȻĽǶȳʱܼԹһͶĤݣʷϵ־۹£߼޵ʹ޺޾ŭ𣬽ʹѡȡʧȥǰᡣһ֮Уһ磬Ҳ˼ij㣬㣬ʹһͼֵʧȥΪıܳ嶯ҸͶij顢һӢšͶȡɵһ볹׷йأǰǧйʷʢ�"ʿ""Ӣ""ʿ"ȻȪų"""""Ӣ"ɹ"Ṧΰ"ʷʿӢۣల£ɧijij"ͷ任죬̿󱲳¹"³ѸӢۼʿӽࡢɫ׷׹ǧйγսԻľ⣬ΤWebberν"һͳ۹"˯ǧꡣʵȻĽǶȳ˼ε㣬Ϊ"ֻ˶"ʵͽȻ̾ʧȥֵУƶȴɥʧΤΪӦóϵܵԽ׷ʣ˳ϵƶȴºͱľΤھ۶϶Ȼһͳл۹ƽֻ֮ܵĻȨ;ӡޡѡֵܵȷƵ׳ȴδܹȶ�"ʩ"Ƽ˵ĵѧע׷ʹԵѧȥԶԨ"ɾնȻɽ"ʿ黳⾳Ҳ˴Уʵ˰˹ٳ˷ԹĺϷ׷ʡ"֮Ƕǣֶ֮"ΪΣ黳Ȼѧ͸ֵʧȴԶ׼ˣǧҲ£׷ʣҲΣĿֻӢۺǿ֮ĽǶͽ"ֺ"ļź֮£Ѫȷ硣ǧһΣתƣʷ֪ʶӻƾļȻҵ"""Ȩ"γɳԽֵԳ׷ʣĩϵƣ˹ͣƺͳƣԬθҸ𣬹̶֣񹲺͹Ǭ˹һͳ꿹Ԯ巴Ծ硢ҵѧ졢ũҵѧկĸʮƽ١㷭׼ۣĸ↑Ҵ߹ʮء
زֶ˲ϱһ⣺ΰŹȻһݻرܡòʵôε㸡ˮ棨ճ˵�"Ϊͳһ"""ΤνΣģ塣Ѿ漰۵һ򣨵۵ȫִԹΪģƲĵ֮ͳ㡣⣬"ͳһ"ǽִǰִִҡһβһ졢ԾγʶѰҵ塣νѰҵ壬һ�"ֺ""ܿ"ֵһεС"ܿ"ءԹޡЭݺͽЭ̶DZķʽ壬Ϊֱֶ׷ʵ塣""б˵"εĹΣĹ"ʵβʧΪһ棩ǻۣҽӦĴǻۣΤ̡ԴΪʡǣΣεĺϷ׷ʺڣεڣһֻرܹ淶ĽһִʵȻĽʿƾƵķ֮ǣִ򱻸µںʵģҲģʵȻģҲӦȻģһȶʵȻij㲻ݻرܣҲһӦȻ׷�"Ϊ""Ȩ""""ι"ȣܺӲȡ˵ ˼а¡ʩ˹Leo Straus˵úã" μʵҲģѶ߽ȻֿǾͲ"
Ҳ˵εһˡһ˻һһ˱ӵһ⣬ҲֵǸǻ۵⡣ֻнεܳееεС�"³ɺ"ƽĻдഫϰϰĶأȲھ÷չ֮Ѫšʴӡ֪"˭Ӻ"ҲȨػǻȲӪҵԭ۵׷кν˷ֲŭϲԴлʷݼšε⣬һ㹻ǻۺԡijξðѰε㿪ʼ


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