ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ


ɪ׵


ݡ

ǰɪ׵֮һصѧ޹أ߼ν"﷨"grammaticusڹʱָ﷨ѧУСѧУʦҲͨ﷨ˣʶĻˡ⣬grammaticus Ҳݴʣָ"ͨ﷨ܶдĻ"ڡ﷨ҡаɪҪ߼ǣʽǷЧȡ߼ʽȡڴȷ壻ıڸʵ壬Ҫͨȷ壬ؽСǰʽܶ϶֤ǷЧһҪѧ
ڡ﷨ҵĶԻ¼Уѧgrammaticus substantia(ʵ)qualitasԣ⡣grammaticus ӣôͳʽʿڡۡһѾʼݴ˵ָơ˹ҲΪ磺

Nam virtus in anima est, sed virtus de animo monome praeditur: aliquoties autem denominative dicitur, ut grammatica, quoniam est in homine, denominative grammaticus a grammatica dicitur. ֮УȻνʣʣ﷨Ȼ֮У"﷨"ȴΪ﷨ʶƺˡ

ɪ֤߼ʽ⡣ڡ﷨ҡУѧʣһԿ֤grammaticus ʵԣȻȻͨԻأͨʽ֤"﷨"ˣʵ壩ʽ

Nullus grammaticus potest intelligit sine grammatica
(û﷨ҿɱΪ﷨֪ʶ)
Omnis homo potest intelligi sine grammatica
(˽ԿɱΪ﷨֪ʶ)
Nullus grammaticus homo.
û﷨ˡ

֤ǰóαۡˣԴѧQuid dicis hominem intelligi sine grammatica?νԱΪ﷨֪ʶʲôأѧشHominem.ˡ׷ʣDic ergo in ipsa propositione quod intelligis.ôͰġʡ˵ѧع˴ǰ᣺

Omnis homo potest intelligi homo sine grammatica.
˽ԿɱΪ﷨֪ʶˡ ͬСǰҲʣ

Nullus grammaticus potest intelligi grammaticus sine grammatica.
û﷨ҿɱΪ﷨֪ʶ﷨ҡ

ָڴСǰ֮ûйͬƵЧܵó"û﷨"ĽۣȻѧΪǰԸдΪ

Esse hominis non indiget grammatica
Ϊ˲Ҫ߱﷨֪ʶ
Esse grammatici indiget grammatica
(Ϊ﷨Ҫ߱﷨֪ʶ)

ǣEsse grammatici non est esse hominis.Ϊ﷨ҲΪˡ⻹ǵ˵﷨Ҳˡһ�"Ϊ﷨ҲΪ""Ϊ﷨Ҳκ϶Ϊ?quot;Ҳ˵"﷨"Ķ""Ķ岢ͬǰĽӦΪNullus grammaticus est simpliciter homo.﷨Ҳˣ﷨ҵںˣСˡ

﷨ҡĵڶּѧһǶǶǵ⡣ָ﷨ҽʵ֮ڣin subiecto;ûʵ֮ڣۣû﷨ҡ
ĽҪӵķʵᵽһ﷨ҵʱָأָָƵأѧشָָƵʣô"﷨"ָʲôѧ˺﷨֪ʶʣʵ廹ʵ֮ڣѧʵʵ֮ڡ׷ʣô﷨Dzʵ֮ڵԣѧش𣺼ʵԡ˵ûбˡķԼ򵥹Ϊ¼㡣
һ"﷨"ָijˣ֣Ҳָ"˺Ͷ"磬˵ոײ˺Ͷ﷨ҡҲ˵"﷨"Ԫʵ壬Ǵμʵ塣
""Ϊʵ壬ָ˵ṹָijص㡣ǿ˵"ʵ"˵""֮"﷨?quot;ָ"""﷨֪ʶ"壨ʵ壩ֱָƣsignificat per se"﷨֪ʶ"ָƣsignificat per aliquid""Ҳ˵"﷨"""ijνappellativumָ""ʵ塣֮"﷨"ָ"﷨֪ʶ"ν
˵ĸ"﷨"֮ڡʹ"﷨""﷨֪ʶ""ո"Ѱ˵ĸ"ո﷨"ӦдΪ"ոǶ﷨֪ʶ"ʱ"﷨"룬ٴ֮"﷨֪ʶ"Ӧ仰дΪ"ոǶ﷨֪ʶˡ."룬Ȼɼ"﷨"ָ""ָ"﷨֪ʶ"
ġԾ˵ʲôǼָơһƥ㲻֪ʱͻȻ˺"һ׵ģ"֪ǰɴ˿ɼ""ָ""ʵ塣֮·һƥһͷţʱ˺"һޣ"ʣ"ĸ"˵"׵ģ"֪ǰˡͽмָơΪʵ"׵"֮ڡ"׵"ָ"аɫ"�""ʵ壩ָνIJͬ
ɪʵоָƵ⡣"﷨"壨ں"﷨֪ʶ"ָij﷨֪ʶˣָ"﷨֪ʶ"࣬ˡвͬƣָͬһҲԲָκζûʵӣֱִ֣ɸء۱ɪԶǰԺʱڶָƵĻ൱ѵʶʮ˾졣ִоңD.P.Henry,﷨ҡеһЩ⣬ղ߼ѧҮ˹S.Lesniewskiı߼ϵʽһӡ clʾ"." ʾ""ʱʾ""trm<>ʾ""aobʾ"ֻһab"a bʾ"һab"a bʾ"ûκab"gʾ"﷨"hʾ""ʾ"﷨֪ʶ"йʽ

1.clh trm<>
2.clg trm<>
3.clgclh
4.goh

ȷбʾɪ׵⣺

1. Esse hominis non indiget grammatica.
(Ϊ˲Ҫ﷨֪ʶ)
2. Esse grammatici indiget grammatici.
(Ϊ﷨Ҫ﷨֪ʶ)
3. Esse grammatici non indiget esse hominis.
(Ϊ﷨ҲΪˡ)
4. Nullus grammaticus est simpliter homo.
(﷨Ҳˡ)
Ƶ g h﷨ҲˣԿɪ׵֮ȷijЩִ߼ϵı֤ѧҵĹעֵ֮СѧҲĿѧעʷԣ߼˵ѧijߡõķǣǰ֮Ȼع⣬ƵµĽۡǰȻϽ塣ǡ﷨ҡ͡ϵۺԳˡǰǴ߼֤޹ءѧۣ봫ͳ۴ྶͥڵʱһָ¡

νۣǴͳ۵һ֡ѧΪһѧ⣨ӦãѧһѧֳƱۣо塢ơԼʵ塢ԡϵʡȷ롣ѧۣۺۡѧҴֽйʶһӦ""ơѧڸSumma,Questionesۼ⡣ʶ⣬Ӧ De Humanae Cognitionis RationeDe Intellectu, De Gradu Formarum,De Cognitione Primi Principii,De Intellectu et Intelligibiliȡ͵ֻͬаɪס˹̩˹ء˹ѧСDe Veritateר顣
ɪ׵ʶۣڡĶԻ¼УڡƪͬһЩԻ¼У漰ϵͳڡĶԻ¼Уʱ½оصⱾר档·Ϊ֡һ¸ڹ͡ĶԻ¼ԭġڶעԭĻ⣬߼ġķ԰ɪ׵صҪѧ۽гıȽоָɪ׵ʷϼִ塣
ɪױΪ"Ժѧ֮"ʷλѾۼȻΪֹѧ߹ڰɪ׵о 䱾֤ѧۣ̽߼ġʶ˼ķʽص㣬̺Ŀѧδ˽֡Ӧ÷ڹͷּڽʾԺѧչʷһؼԵ⣬̴ͳϣѧʥֵͬʱο˽ѧĶߡ


һ֪


һɪԵǰ᪥
ڡĶԻ¼Уһ£Ԯˡƪʮµһ£֤ԡɪǰ᣺һȥijTڣfuturum erat aliquidijڣPraeteritumerit aliquid ɪ׼̶ʵ˭ܹ룬һʱһˣڹȥʲôʱ棿˭ܹ룬ʲôʱֹͣΪ棿ɪΪ벻ܳ
ƵӹȥֱԶȻûʼգΪ㡣
ɪ׵֤ʽì༴ʽ߼IJɷԣԡάظʩ̹˵߼ռʵܺ͡ Dzʶһû߼硣ڴڵ뱾һ߼άظʩ̹Ĺ۵㣬ֻͨ߼Ľṹȥʶ磬˶ʶ;ǵ硢߼ռаԽṹзʽʵִ֮ܺ͡ѧĹ۵㡣հɪ׵֤ʽ"п˺ս"ìܣΪ㡣ѧĹ۵㡣ǡĶԻ¼һҪ˵ĵһ㡣
ڶ㣬Ҫ˵ɪ¹˹ͬɪԳ˼԰¹˹ΪȨڡƪǰУûκ¹˹һµ Ե֤УҲȷʵԿ¹˹֤Ӱ졣ںߵڶԻ¼УҲì֤֮磺"ȷ֪Ҫһ磬Ҫһϵ磻ʹһϵ磬ĿҪ޵ģҪ޵ġ" "ǵء죬DZģҽԲ֪ǻáȻ߼ʮȴԶˡ߼óҲԶóʮĽˣҸղ˵ˣDzģһ˼ά˵޲?quot; ʵԼȶ߼֤֮𡣰ɪԹڵ⣬вɷ񶨵ǰᣬΪ㣬ԸΪܵ߼Ƶ֤֮
ɪ׵߼Ͳ˹ʿµġƪͲġۡԼ˹дעڰɪͬʱɮEadmerɪ״Vita Sancti Anselmi һУɪ׫дĶԻ¼ħĶԻ¼־ĶԻ¼﷨ҵĶԻ¼ָɪ"෽ͽqualitas qualias IJͬԼ÷"tum qualitates etqualia quomodo sint discrete accipienda exponit
et instruit qualitas ָʣ"ɫ"qualisָԣ""DZ޵Ժɪдĵص㣩ղصIJ˹۵ĵ⡣Ϊɪʱϲͬڰ¹˹֮
Ҫָģǰɪ֤"ʼ"ʱ�"ʼ"Ϊ"Խ"֮ͬʹáڴ˵㣬ĻҪķ
ֵԪ
ĶԻ¼ڶֵԡɪװղ˹ķʽһ㶨塣϶Ķڣ񶨵Ķ󲻴ڣΪ档༴˵Ͽ͹ʵΪ档ʿ´ͳʶ۵ĶӦۡ
ǰɪڴ˷չһֶصۡʵָƵĶǷ汾أָƵĶֻ򣬶汾ôDzأ಻ǣΪ棬⽫ԶΪ棻ʵֻеϿ͹ʱΪ档ôп϶񶨵ĿʲôأΪűһνĶ󣬻һȷˡ˵һ϶ĶȷʵʱǰӦȥˡɪõ�"Ӧ"ʡԭ£
Mag. Ad quid facta est affirmatoDisc.Ad significandum essequodest.Mag.Hoc ergo debetDisc.Certum est.Mag. Cum ergo significat esse,quod est,significat quod debet. ô϶ΪʲôأѧΪűνĶȷʵڡǿ϶Ӧģѧ
Ȼǵġˣ϶νĶȷʵʱӦñġ
ɪ׳¶ʱaffirmo϶nego񶨣Щ͹ԵĴʡǵһ˵ʱ˾ֵζĶdebeoӦã˵Ͽ͹Ϊ档͹ǰӦӦȷijˣָȷ֤ʽ򵥵ļʽ(pq)(qr)(pr)мֵζ?quot;Ӧ"֤
̶ɪʵ϶Ķ󲻴ڣ񶨵ĶȴʵϴʱǷǰӦأʵϲڵĶ˻ҲǰӦҲ⡣
ɪΪΪ棬Ϻ棬Ҳȷʵһ棬ΪһȷǰӦ⣨Ͽ͹԰Ӧȥ
һָƵָĿġ
ﰲɪ׶Ŀļ֣ݴֵԡ?quot;"ָƵһΪȷָƵδָƵ propter quod accepit significationemquam propter quod non accepitָڣԳڵĶһԳڵĶܹ֮ڵĶֻܹڵĶ˾ԡ֮ĿĶԣĿΪϿ͹۵
ˣ֡һⰴָ֮ĿȥʱΪ档ָƵóʱΪ档
һ棬żԵһ⣬÷ı䡣ڶ棬Եһ⣬ı䡣"ǰ"͹ϴڵʱȷʵǰ죩ǰԹɵĿȷسʳ֮Ϊ档"ǰ"ʵϲڵʱҹǰԹɵָϿɳ֮Ϊ棬䳣壨ĿĶԣܳΪȷ
ɪ׼̶ָijһУ棬Ϊͬһȷ?quot;Ƕ""˲ʯͷ"УˡΪȷʵԶǶԶʯͷ
ڶµĽ˵ȷʹһʱе棬dz棬ͨжһʱֵһ棬оҪŪ棨ȷԣָԵķе
ڵڶ£Ҫ򵥵˵
һɪ֤漴ȷԣ"Ӧ"debeoӦãʣԴde-habeohabeoΪ"УռУУ" De_habeoԭΪ"ӱȡãȣ" debeoԼΪ"Ƿծ""񳥻""Уģ""Ӧ"ȡ֮,debeoһֵζĴʡɪ debeo ȷԣڱһֵԵĸǰᡣ
ɪ׳""ָƵ""Ϊ accipioԼΪ""Ϊ"""""ԾӶijΪij¶Ƿ飨Ӧ豨"ȡɪ׳""ָʱaccipioĺ쵽󳬹Լij̶ȡʵ˵ϵָۣϵۡɴӡĶԻ¼ϵõ֤ĻҪۼ֮ڰɪ׵accipio÷УһDZڵġԵǰᡣ
ɪͬһ⣬ʵ²ķ⣬ֵȡжϣǰᶨķ"Ƕ"У̺ν֮УΪֵĹϵɾݴĶжΪ档˵ɪ׶ڷ⣬гġصб𣬲Ժޱ

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£Ե£ɪ˼롢־Ϊ֪Լһﱾе档˼Ͽ͹ʱdz˼Ϊ档˼벻Ͽ͹ʱdz˼Ϊαȷԣͬ˼ҲȷԡDZnobis datum est ȥڻ򲻴ڡ˼Ͽ͹ˣǰӦ˼ά˼Ϊȷ־棬ҲȷԡڡԼ844Уϵ۳ħ""ػȡ־ΪɷűġʹһֱӦȥԸ᷸ҲᱳӦȥԸǰ־ıĿȥԸӦȥԸDzȷԸ༴DZԸˣ־е棬־ȷ
ΪеҲˡԼ320-21ľijƣ"жı޹⣬⡣""ı"ճԵ÷"ж"""ǷʡȻ""""ͬһ"ж"ô""""ͬʡϰ÷һӦ£"ȷġġƵ"¡""""ͬʣˣȷ¡Ϊȷԡ
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Ե棬ȻһࡣdzڱԵͬ"ǰ?quot;ǰ죨ʵǷǰ죩dzԱԵΪıԱdzɪ׼̶֪档ѧ˵˵֪Ҳ棬ʱ֪ƭ ȷͨһ壬ΪijɫʵDzɫȴDzɫͬʱΪijɫʵȴɫ
Ľ¡αǵ֪֮Уǵжϡ֪Sensus exteriorαı洫֪Sensus interior֪ʱԼƭԼеʱܹԼĴʱܡȷһСӿһܵſޣΪ̵Լһ˿ͬһȴе£С˶ͬһܵĸоûʲôͬǵ֪Լ֪жϲͬСӰѵˡͬʱҲϴ˵׻֪жϡ֪αı棬жϣsed judicio animae imputandum est

ڵ£ֵע⡣
һɪʱճķڹ;ĵ塣ʱָIJԼ÷ĴճǾԼ÷Ա۵塣ɪִѧ֮һ
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ġе檥
ڵУʵܷϣκʱ䡢κεص㣬κζ⣬ѧش˵Non est pu_tandum.롣DzеġȻ˵ˣߣеĴڶԣʵĴڡһдŵн档ңıֻ棬ûαΪαĴھDzڡȻһнĴڣôǰӦšӦȷԣ漴ȷԡ

ڵ£ڹ͡
һɪ׳Ʋκζ⡣ڡ˵ƪҲǴ֤ϵ۵Ĵڡɡ1.֤ǰʹ""ʣҲ˵ΪѧĿԶھеʵ档ڰɪףѧѧĽ߲ģȻ֤Ҳ±ΪɸʵΣ2һߣʵΥĶˣɪǰʱӦпǰᡣ
ɪʱ�""ʹáessentiaΪʣԴϵsumһΪ""ڶΪ""ͨɪ"Ĵ"ʹessentia ڡĶԻ¼essentiaָ"ʡ"ʱҡڵ""ĺȥ˵αĴڲܣʱֻ档ִӷʽǷܴʵӦãҲʹƵ޷ȷС

塢"Ӧ"媥
ڰ·"Ӧ"塣ʱͬһΪҮѣӦֲӦáҮղӦѣΪΨһ޹ˣӦñȻҮӦѣΪǴ󱯴ǵĸԸͨ˿෴Ĵͬͬһʵν
ʱһʾжĴʣ漰ߣ漰ߡ percussio ˣָһ actioжָһ passioж߶ԣ percussio ʽָ""Ա߶ԣpercussio DZʽָ""﷨ϣpercussio ɹȥִʱʽɣ亭ӦΪ""ճ÷ϣpercussio ָ""ָ"?quot;˵ӦӦĴʣpercutientia ˣ percussio 򣩡Ȼʵ÷ȴֻһpercussioָжָ
ʱ"Ӧ"ͱйء"Ӧ"ôһԭ򡣱ȷ˵"Ӧñ㰮"ʱұôʡΪӦñ㰮ұӦþһ񡣶ʵϣҵ˼ȴ˵"Ӧþһ壨ң"ԣ˵"Ӧñ㰮"ʱҵ˼"Ӧð"ͬ"ܹ"ҲƵ÷˵"տܹ˹"ʱҵ˼?quot;˹ܹܺտ"

ϵڰ£ɪ״�"Ӧ"֮ԾԵʡ
һ﷨뱻Ļ壬ʹ"Ӧ"ʾеνʵáһǶ˵"Ӧ"DZʾĴʡ
ͬͬɣͨ"Ӧ"ʵν⼴˵"Ӧ"ΪһʾֵĴ亭֮ȡ"ͬ"ҲȡڼֵԵǰᡣʾɪ"Ӧ"Ϊ""綨ʱijֵּԡԵǰᡣֻԳ֤еDZǰᣬܹж֤߼ǷЧԼ͵ĺ徿ʲô ""IJڹͪ
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ͬһ˵˼ԸҲгνֻҪܹ۲쵽һ˼Ըڱ֣жһָƣԴ˸Ƿʵ˼Ըʲôͬɣ֪Ĵ֮ҲָƵαΪĴڱӦôڡ
ϵھǶԵйжȵIJ˵ǸճԾ�""ijЩڹ͡ݹ۲ָжҲָԵαɪ׽жָƵķţȴһʵ۲ȽжԳܹ䵱ָ⣬֮ⷭ趨ǰ塣жΪֵ

ߡԪ
ʮԡһ棬ڰӦڻȻȷȴǰӦΣsumma veritas non ideo est recti-tudo,quia debet aliquidһomnia enim illidebentȴκڵΨһɼڣnec ulla ratione est quod est, nisi quia estһȷԵ򣬶򲻾Ϊ򣬹ڡһΪ򡢻ΪΪΪȷĴе棬ĹͬʱΪ˼롢֮򡣶˼롢֮棬ֻΪΪ򡣪
ˣ⣬ңɪףڡƪ֤֮֮ʼա?quot;ȥijT"ʱ棬ĿIJҪ֤ⱾʼգҲҪ˵Ȿϵֻۡ˵趨⣬޷һеʱ䣻ʵԿΪһǸ֮ʼա治ڣڡ�"ijT"Ϊ棬ȷʵijTڣijﲻܴڣ֮СȻûܷԶΪ棬ô۱Ȼǣ޷Ϊ֮Ǹʼա"ȥijT""ij"ûвʱʼա

ڵʮ£ֵע⡣
һɪ�"ʱʼ""Խ"֤֮ͬ㡣Ȼִ߼ֵ֮ͬڰɪδ֤
"ijﲻܴڣ֮"һδ֤ǰᡣ಻ܵóۣǰᣬҲʹһԭģǰΪ֤ıʣ֤ѭԡ
ʾڱĵڶмԳۡ
ʮµĿһԵ֤Ϊһ֤׼ ˡ"ȷ"媥
ʮһ¸¶˵⡢˼롢־жԼﱾеȷ֮⣬㻹ȷôѧش˵ҲģֻǸеʶȷԣһǷֱȷʮֲͬΪʶȷԿ۾ǰ۹ЩȷֻжϡʵѵʶȷԲжϣȷһǰҲжƽôѧ˵Ȼ֤ƽ棬ƽҲ۸оȷֻжϡ
½۵ûŪĻǿԽΪʶȷveritas est rectitudo so1a mente perceptibilis
ѧ˵ǡý綨ıҪȷǹ㣬ǹ"ȷ"һвΪȷԵĶ"ʶ"һп֪еȷԡ
ﰲɪײδ˳ȥܽĺ壬Ƿֳ嶨˵հɪ׵Ĺ۵㣬?quot;ȷ"壬ʽ綨""༴""""ɽ˵""ĺ塣ߣ־оת롶־ĶԻ¼͡ħĶԻ¼Իԭһ𷢱˵"Ի¼֮һǡʲôʲôΪ棬Լʲô塣" Ի¼ѧ⣬ʱIJۡ
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ôʲôأ֪ȷԣ򲻿ԸȷԣԸȷԣʹ͹Ͼȷԣʯͷأ಻֮Ϊ塣֮ȷԣԶ˵־ȷΪʹһ˼άжȷȴû־ȷ಻֮Ϊ塣ǣȷأӦԸȴ֪ӦԸҲó֮Ϊ塣Ϊ˵־ĿģԸʲôɣΪʲôԸֻе˵־ȷĿ
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Justitia igitur est rectitudo voluntatis propter se servada

šͳһԪ
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㡢ڡͳһı壬һȷԼ˵־ж˼롢Խڷıʡ
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ȣҪоɪʲôʹ veritas桢ʡһ¿ʼϵͬʱָϵʮָȷԡʮһ¸Ľ˵ǣʶȷԡ˵ϵһ£˵ڶֽΪָƵȷ߼ȷˣɪڼֲͬӦ Veritas ʡ
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߼ȷ ìܣɪָʵԳ߼ȷ
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ʼɪײճ rectitudo ĺ塣Դݴ rectusֱģ rectitudo ԼΪ"ȷֱϸطɺΪ淶Ʒʡ"屾ֵԵǰᡣ
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ģһռ򡣪
壩ۣʼյ

ڶ֤ԴӲͬǶȽУ磺жǰ۵ƵǷЧǰǷΪ棻̽ǰĺ壬ǡ
Ӧжǰ۵߼ƵǷЧǰͽУͬĴ"""ʼ"ֻ߼ֵڴǰᵽ۵Ƶбֲ䣬֤ƵʽЧ
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֪ʶ߼֤αʽԣ֤һѧ֤ǰʶۣ֤Ҳ˵һѧڹ͡
ڰɪסֵ֤֮ڱĵ¸ϵͳۡ

ġɪ׹Ե֤Ч
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塢ɪ֤аĿѧ
Ȼɪ׵Ľ۵ԵǰᣬܷԵسѧ֤Ϊѧڹأ 򵥵سѧ֤Ϊѧڹͣ޷˵԰ɪǰΪ֤ij㲢ͨ߼IJóۡʧѧ֤ڷѧ֤ʱưɪ׵ĽΪһѧڹ⣬רǰ̺ϵԣ֤ʽԣӦΪѧ֤ھԺѧҿѧѧĹϵ Philosophia ancilla theologiae ɪ׵֤Ƶ߼ʧ󣬵֤漰Ҫѧ⡣֤ѧ壬ۡ˴֤аĿѧԼӷ˵
ڰɪ׹һ㶨弰֤Уѧʶйص˼롣 һ棬ڶּʵ棬ʵԵһָּνΪǰᡣֻеָν治ʱʾ"ʵ"ˣʵԳԣָνȣʵɴ۳ʹҹҲ?quot;ǰ"ϱ"ǰ"֮¡ʵԳķʽָͨνԾϰõԼ˵ʵԻۺԳԣָνϵ֮ǰᡣɪ׳"ûһķȥָӦָƵĶָô" бжϡ
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ζǣڰɪ֤аĹֵָǰᣬ᳹ף֤ܵóѧԵĽۡΪɪ״ĴԼŵָ֤ʵԵijԿɹ۲Ŀ͹Ϊж֮׼""""""Բڹ۲췶Χ֮ڣԶòǵȷָƺжϡڱ֤ʽ롶ƪϵ۴ڵ֤֮ͬʣߵǰ᲻ھпɹ۲֤Ϊ⡣

ɪ׵Ļǰ֮˼ԨԴ
һɪ֤еһǰԴʿ´ͳ֤һǰᣬΪԵǰᣬɪ׹ԡԵĽ۽ɴɪ׼ţϵĴͱ壬ͨǵ˼άͱ޴磬е棨ǰϵ۵ııǶϵۣIJƵģ¡
ǰ˼ԨԴһΪʥѧһΪͼѧ
ʥĽУѰһѧʵۡ˱Ϊϵ֮ ϵ۴˵ıĿʹҫϵۣϵۡ硶ԼԼ316"ϵ۰ˣĶӴ͸ǣһIJ"Լ顷830"ԤˣֳΪ塣Ϊˣֽǵҫ"Լֶǰ顷1312"·žӹۿģ壬ʱҪˡ֪ޣʱȫ֪ˣ֪ͬһ"˻ڴʱ˲֪ܳϵ۵ıԣֻǷ·"žӿ"Dzɼϵȴͨɸ֪ʶT͹ʵ֪硶ʥ䣬ѵ13.5 ԣ"֮ĺΰãӦ֪ҫ"硶Լ顷1.20 ƣ"ԴӴϵ۵IJɼԣϵ۵Ĵܺԣ֪֮ġ"ѧҿ͹ǿʶʵڣDzԵʵ
ڽϵϵ棬ɪڰ¹˹İͼ崫ͳΪԵijڡ֮Ϊ壬ΪһԵ壬䲻ȫ֡ ϵ߱ʣͨlocutio˵"ֻ֮ܣԴ" "ɴĵʥԣ֮УӰ񣬶ΨһıʡûеһԵıʣж߱ʵIJģ¡" еΪʽֻģ£Ȼǰͼ⡣ڻ˼ܰͼӰߣҪɡһΪϣɽѧɡΪţClemens Alexandrinus c.150-c.211 Origenes c.185-c.254һΪ¹˹ѧɣ˼ԴŬ˹Plotinus c.205һ270ڡסУ¹˹ưͼߵ˼롶Լϡ ѧѧش硣
ԶڶʱŬ˹AlbinusͼʽʽΪе˼롣 ͣŬ˹ϵͳĴۡ趨hypostaseisʵ壩 ̫һ֪硢硣̫һǴڵ򣬶ԽڴڣΪ޶ԣԽ趨һпԼԡ ֪Խڰͼ磬ĸ޵꣬˴ອѧ֮ອһ塣 ֪̫һĹϵ""Ϊ꼰깹ɵͳһ塣֪ĹƺǣһЩ겻ܱԭʽ壨壩Ϊ͵࣬ǰ߰סУ߶⣬֪磬׹䡣 ̫һ֪硢϶µĵȼϵɷʽ""̫һ֪䡣֪硣˽ʱ֮""ʱʱ䡣 ʽ֪С˶̫һʶͨekstasis״̬̫һ֮һ УһЩ۵㣬ⰲɪ׵ۿܾ壬磺һڷΪʽȼ֣֮ھ֮⣬趨磨̫һ񣩣֪֪磨ϵǣеԭ͡
¹˹Ӧڻѧֳ֪ܷȼйٿԸӦĴ̼γΪ֪֪ͨ"ע"йٵı仯Ϊֱ֪֪ǵϵеformaԭ͡ 㲻䣬ʲΪޡɱʶҪϵ֮ҫһչʹӾ֪˵ͼڡ͹еı֪֮ױҸƣдƵı׼֮ʣϵеԭ͡ϵ֮⾿ͨЭʶ¹˹δԸϵͳ˵ִоۼԽ˵籾塢۵ȵȣδԲͨ ۵ìܣԲ޵Dz֪޾Եȴ֪޾Եʽԭ͡˵ڱһ
Ҫ֮ɪ׹㡢ڵ˼룬Դʥ¹˹İͼ塣һԵǰᣬΪʵжϸ֤
ߡɪ֤ʷ媥
Ȼɪ׵ġھԺѧ֮ǰʮһͣ۽֮ʱڵ಻ʧµɫڽ԰ɪ׵뾭ԺѧƽʱҪʶԼӱȽо԰ɪʷϵĶصλ
ʮͼʮͳڣԺѧҪѧΪͼɡ˹˹ɡ
ͼڷø޻ݹ˹ͳʶ۷ԵİͼɫʡţʶȻͨϵ۵ֱ˵ǡܳΪ˸֪ĶͨһֵԵãʹ޶֮ȷжϡ ͼ۰֪Σ˴ۣıھ¡Ƕ԰¹˹ѧ˵޶ͼδܽ۵Ļѡε˵岽裬ҼȻż޶жϣ಻֪߱ȻıҪ
ɪ򲻲޶֮;辶ָжϵȷȷָƵȷͱʵȷָƵȷڳνϷϿɹ۲Ŀ͹֮漰ıԭʱۡڴ˿ɼɪ׵̺ԭʼĿѧ
ͼѧ˹ʹޣMatteo ab Aquasparta c.1240һ1302񶨸ԲΪ֪֮Ϊ˵Ǵʡʲʱյƣ಻֮ơڹ֪̿Եıʣﲻ֪䱾ʡ˵ǵĶΪڵ֮ʣ಻ìܡΪǴǿ֪ĶǴDz֪Ķֵıʡǿֻ֪ǸֻǴӦĸгʣǴӸгˣǵĶDZʣ֪ɡ ֵ֤ܵƿ׷ݵͼĹŴۣ
ΪΣڰɪ׵ۡĽơȷ˶ָƵıʵ棨ɪףͶıʣޣ֮˵ǵԴѧҽתѧ𰸡ͬߣ޶ԸγɲȤɪʵо˸о֪šָơֵ⣬Ӷṩһԭʼѧ
ޣ͵ϼˡ޻˹һ͹""adequatio rei et intellectusѧ˵ʿ¹ʽϵѧΪڡ꡷IV. 4430a3гƣ"Ͳ֮ԣ֪뱻֪֮Ϊͬһ"˹ָ֪ϣʵֵ֪ʵֵı֪֮ΪͬһΪ֪֮ıʵֵ֪֮ʽͬڸϣʵֵ֪ܣǣʵֵı֪֮ΪͬһΪ֪֮ıʵֵ֪֮ʽ
ؼĸ"ʵ"actus˹Ϊ֪֪ܶڱ֪֮ԣDZܡ֪Ḻ́DZܵʵ֪֡֪ʵʽ֪࣬ʵһ֣ʣǻ֪ܷΪ֪ܺͱ֪Ρ֪ܽĹʹ֪ܸӦʵʽ˼""ĸࣩɹ̡˹϶̳˰ɪ׹ǽʶȷԵĶ壬չһ
ѧѧ˵
˹ţһȻ֪ʶʼԭìɣʽԸо顣ֱ֪ʶǹǰڵĶ֪ʶ֪ʶǹԶ֮ڳıʵ֪ʶľԭʼѧɫߣ˹عڹѧ˵Ҳ߳ĸ˼롣ܵ˵ǹڶԭ͹ѧ˵
罫ɪ׵뾭ԺѧҪɵӦۼԱȽϣʷϵ塣ͼۺͰ¹˹ɵĹѧ˵һֿ͹۵ĵdzԽԵԭΪݣѧ˵עҪѧ⡣˹ʿѧоʶ⣬˼Զȱֶ֤Ρɪ׵ѧѧ档ڰ¹˹ͳ⡣Ȼ֤ԺԵĹУɪķʽʵо
ֵָƵ⡣ָͨйٻõĸоӡΪ֪ĿɿϰõΪʽԸоȷжϣȷʶ͹硣֪ĹǶԷɵġֵıʽжϡԼŵijԼָƵĿ͹֮ʱ㹹ճеȷʶָƵ⣬бʵ棬ҪоˣɪṩһֳĿѧ֪ûн˵Թ۲췽ʽָԼԷʽõо֪ԣ۲۵ıҪңָ۹᳹ף֤ѧĽۡȻ֤ʵɪΪʮʹָ۵ߣ߼ۿ˵ͶӦھԺѧָ֮Ҫչڡǰɪ۵ʷ֮һ棬ҲӦ۵
ѧѧԷ룬ǡǡǰɪ׵ı⡣֮Բͳһ˸ȷѾĵƽ̩Ȼ֤Ȼ֪ʶķʽ֤ģȴͽȻƺΪһֽѧѧϽ򣬶ʾѧڹˡ ˡɪִ֤媥
ɪ۵ִ壬Ҫ档ȣɪ֤õķԼ浽һЩѧ⣬һ"ִ"֤Уʮעʶеãһķעճ÷ĹϵָָԵճ÷ϵµһ˵ອԹԼķʽо⣬Ȼʿ߼Ĵͳͬʱעؾ۲죬ŸоʵоָƵ⡣ʶۺķҰԼָƵָ֡ȷĻԭ߼Ƶųѧ֣ۡ߸еѧ뷽ϰɪǶپ?quot;ִ"һ˼ҡ
棬ɪ֤ʾصìܡĴͳָ֮ijͻʵΪֲ͵ṹ֮ìܡһռֵѧ˵ָԿѧԣ༴νԣΪʶۡһռ壬һ˵֪ʶ֮Ȼɪͼṹзʽľԡֵ˫ԡָƵǾ֪ʶ棻ʵıȻ棬Դھ飬ռԵıԭ
˵ʵֵȻͳһֵʶĸԴȴ;˴ִѧѾʶΨ۵֪ʶԡѧѧҲϣһ۹ܵĴ۲ԲڡΪѧijʼԭ빫Ȳֱ֤Ųɵؽܣһ־һпѧʵĿѡԣѡ㲻ܿʼʵ顣˽˵־֪еá˶ѧʽ߼
졢ͳƣֵжϼ۴Ȥô־顢ֵȡȡ֪ʶ֮ȫУԺ־巽ʽѧ֮̸Ըչ޶塣ڣҪձ߼϶岽ʽʽϸ֤ڴˣɪ׹"ͳһ�"֤ʽ塣

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