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et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 


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(1) ͳȫ幫ֱѡٲ
(2) ͳ൱̶ȵȨ
(3) ͬʱڸڸ׳ְȨڸ׳֮ϵڹλϡ
ԣһ"ͳ(Presidential System)""ڸ(Parliamentary System)"ϵҪָȫֱѡͳܷ֮Ȩ𣬹ͬḺڸҵȡ򡣳干֮⣬зµ¹κ깲͹ƾ߱"ͳ"ijЩͬͬʱΪ"˫(Dual Executive System)""˫׳"ǣͳѡҪš⣬ͳ֧֣пܽɢᡣ

ν"ͳ""ڸ""ͳ"""Ƶ𣬾ϵΧصĹϵ֮IJ"ͳ"ΪȨԭ򣬸صͳ븺ְطֱѡ٣Զͳܽɢᣬʼͳ""Ӣձȣ֮ڸ֮йϵڸѡٻͬڸǹԱһͬʱΪڶ֮֮ζôְҲɽɢ᣻ڸἸΪһ壬"ڸ"֮ơԣԱ᰸ۣѯ"ͳ"ͳ᰸Ȩ졣

2"�"̨֮""
90ą̊́"ĸ"ʼ֮ǰѾ40"лܷ"Ȼ1947""ʼΪ϶Ȩν""""̤֮⵽˿""̸"ܷ"ıֵ""ȴˣ"ܷ֮"žƵ"ڸ""ͳ"ƫλĹ塣һѧĹʶǻԵѡ"ڰͳ"ְʱŵһֹԱʱʱͬʱҪԵĶִϷԵĿ顣ʵϣ19914"ʱ"ֹͨ"ʱ"ͬʱͨ˱"ԱʱͳȨ붯Աʱ֮Ұȫ顢ҰȫԺ"ȡʱ֮󲿷ġܷġڲȨ""ƻδӰ졣˵žƵ"ڸ"""δйһʩС֮ǻ""̵ǡǽϸӾӪʮν"սʱܷ"ʵġʱṩϷԻʵϵ"ͳ"ʽϵ"ڸ"˵ΪҪ

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ҵ"׶"̨""𽥶Ϊν"ͳ""˫׳""ͳ"""ѡٲΪֱ̨ѡ٣"ͳ"ӵν"Ұȫ"֮Ȩ"Ұȫ""Ұȫ"ȻأнȨ֮"ԺԺ"뾭"Ժ"ͬ⣬ҹɡ뾭"ԺԺ"֮"Ժ""Ժ"Ϊ"Ժ"ؾɰ"Ժ"飬"Ժ"ְ֮Duverger"ͳ"Ķ塣Duverger˶"ͳ""ܹۺͳڸƵŵ"ͷ干͵"ͳ"Ľ֣ܳԶ൳ġ׼˵ġȶķεļѣ̨嵺ѧڴˣҲеĴ""1200ںµ֯ҵļ֡

3̨"ͳ"ȷ

Ĵ""̨""ʵı仯ȡ֧"ͳ"ĹؼģӶݱΪ׵"ͳ"֮ǰȾĴ""""е""֮ĹϵҪ˵֮

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(2)"Ժ"ְ"ܷ"֮5361""֮3涨"Ժ"Ϊأ"Ժ""ͳ"֮"Ժ"ͬ⣻"Ժ"Ա"Ժ""ͳ"֮"Ժ"֮"Ժ"ʩ沢ѯ"ͳ"˿ɣҪ"Ժ"䲻֮ͬʱ羭ȫ"ί"1/2άԭ"Ժ"Ӧܣ"Ժ"þȫ"ί"1/3"Ժ"ΰΰ72СʱӦ48СʱԼͶƱ֮羭ȫ"ί"1/2޳ɣ"Ժ"Ӧ10ְͬʱ"ͳ"ɢ"Ժ"ΰδͨ1ڲöͬһ"Ժ"᲻ΰ

(3)"Ժ"ְ"ܷ"֮6276""֮4涨"Ժ"Ϊأѡ֮"ίԱ"֮֯ʹ"Ȩ"ɰԤ㰸""ȼҪ֮Ȩ"ί"3꣬ѡΣÿΣһ25µףڶ912µף"ͳ"ɢѡ"ί"ְǰͬݻᣬ"Ժ"ɰͨ"ͳ""Ժ""ͳ"Ӧ10ڹ֮ú˿"Ժ"֮飻"Ժ""ͳ""ͳ""""⻼"֮뾭"ί"1/2֮飬ȫ"ί"2/3֮"""ί"üι

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(2)"Ժ""ͳ""Ժ"鷢飬"Ժ"临Ľǽְܶϵ"Ժ"ͬ裬ʵΪ"ͳ"˸Ϊ׵"ͳ""Ļų""Ժ""ʯ"Ʒ
(3)"ͳ"о"Ұȫ"йش֮Ȩ"Ժ"֮"Ұȫ"ȫһרĻŻж԰"Ժ"ڵȨɢ"Ժ"֮Ȩ"Ժ"֮֯ȨϾ"Ժ"һ"Ժ"ֵ֧"Ժ"ij⣬ӶȻ"Ժ""Ժ"ٲȻһʵ"ͳ"

⣬"Ժ"ʧȥ"ͳ"ĵȨƺ⵴Ȼ޴棻""䴴Ȩ͸Ȩרжƻ˵˶"ͳ"ƺã˵Ƕ"Ժ"ҪǣƣΪ"ڶ׶""Ͷ"ͷ""ѡ٣"ȫѡ"·ʡ

ԣɵ½̨ۣ""Ѵν"ͳ"תΪ"ͳ"һתǡǻƶ""ɵġмڴˣ̨""ʵεδչƣ벻"ͳ"һƶԼ

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1"ͳ"ı׶
"ʧܵͳ"Ү³ѧѧJuan LinzڱȽ˴"ͳ"ҵʵ󣬽"ͳ"Ϊ
(1) ѡһֻΪѡͳѡѡţҿȨͳһѡأһԺԺĺϷԡ�"ϷԶԪ"ơ
(2) ͳԱѡһ̶ڣͳڶأصĴͳһ㵼Ϊ"ͳ"Ҫ"ڸ"

LinzΪν"ϷԶԪ(Dual Democratic Legitimacy)"ͳȶȫΧڣֻ⣩ʧܵҪԴȨµͳƣ໥ӵжѡٻԪĺϷԴ"߼ijͻDZ״̬ϷԵرȴûһԭԾ˭"̶ڵĸͳƵһ׶ˡ봫ͳ֮ΪͳƱ֤ȶԵĹ۵෴LinzΪһ̶ͳųѡĿܣ"ʹӦʹ仯ν̵üѣͳʧȥҲ޷滻Ըְ"

⻹"ͳ"һҪ׶ˣͳѡ"Ͳ"Ͳĵͳѡʤȫʤȫ䣬ҰҪɢʧеԴ"ͳ"ڸԸת˶ӾͲͳѡ˫ĶעͷգٽͳѡΪĻѡƶ£½׶̨""Ŀ֮һȷ"ͳ"ľԶѡƣȻ"ѡƶ"

ͳƵĺϷԶԪ̶ڸԺѡԵԣͳIJȶȱͳĹγʵϵĶã˸޸ձհʽ"ͳ"ȨķġʵʧܣΪԵģ"""ϷһԪ""""ѡ˫ࣩӮ"ƸܷӴĹá֮µͳѡٲλģһڶŵĵԶΣֻҪڵĶŸλϷԻɾͶƱŻǿӶ֤ߵԣҲʧԣѡټѡ٣־߹ӮԣѡΪķԵ䣬ܹڷҪãҪǣֹӮԼǿѡҳ϶ȣڴ˻ϵĶ൳ƵȶͷнΪЭмߡ

2̨"ͳ"""
Ȼ֮ͳƶΪδ̲ͬóȻؽͳƵı׶и̨"ͳ"ܷȽܷ֮һЩ̨""ϵ֮ԸȨ""ȶ΢Ӱ졣

ȣ̨"""Ժ""ͳ""ͳƹܷ֮׹涨Ȩͳ"ܷڵڶһ׹涨"Ȩڹͳ" ̨"ͳ""Ұȫ"ƺ"ԺԺ"ȨƿȨȴ"ԺԺ""Ժ"еϵ˹Ȩԭ֮ǰ"Ȩƽ"㣣ڸ"ͳ"еߣΪ"ͳ"Ȩ󿪷֮š

ΣƶУ"ͳ"޶"Ժ"ķȨ"Ժ"ֻάԭҲ"Ժ"֮ΰܱ"ͳ"ɢ""Ʒǿ"Ժ"ķ"Ժ"ʵϱ൱"Ȩ"һ棬֮޴Ӿ"Ժ"ڵ֮ڽ""ĸ£ǿҰϱصңʵʱ"Ժ"IJΰͨѡٶȡ"Ժ"֮Զλʱ"ͳ"Чʿǽòίһ�"Ժ""ԺԺ"ص"һԪϷ"Ҳɴ˱Ϊ"ԪϷ"Ŀǰڵ£ƼԿ϶ǰִζ̨"ͳ"ַ干"ͳ"µ"ҹ"ľ棬""еĹ̸д᲻ƵַչģĴ""ʵÿ¾

ٴΣ"Ժ""ͬȨ"ȡ"ͳ""Ժ"ѡ"Ժ"ල"Ժ"սȥ6"Ժ""ʩ""Ժ"ֵԽǣֻҪ"Ժ"ܻ�"Ժ"֧֣""֮ijͻͲɱ⡣"Ժ""Ժ"ͨķɡ鲻Ҫ飬"Ժ"ڣ"Ժ"δ"Ժ""Ժ"ƱسһֶΣ"Ժ"ƣڱͬʱ"Ժ"ڵڰȻزȡӡƣս"Ժ"Ѳ

󣬼ǰִ"Ժ"ְ"Ժ"ϯλҵԻܴܿ"Ժ"תƵ"Ժ"֮䣬"ͳ""Ժ"䱬""һԶ׼ģһȻǹ"ֺ"ηߣֻҪϵִ棬ã֮"̨"пɳ䵱̸г룬ִȴ衣һ̨пǰԴ"Ժ"֧֮"Ϸ""Ժ"Dz᲻"ͳ"սġʱ"ͬӵΣ"ƽȡ""Ļ롣"Ժ"֮Ȩȡ"ͳ""Ժ"ֱԱʵϼܿ"Ժ"һκ깲͹ʱڣ˵DZͳƿijͻ

Ȼ۾Թʱ�"ͳ"֮λΪǰᡣ""У֪ͬ񵳵"ͳ"Ȩ"ͳѡ"ɾԶķֻܸڹ񵳣ΪԶƣ"ʡ"ͣδ""гдѡཻ߽񵳵ĵطѡٻֵõģˣ񵳺ͨǰ"ܰ"ɽ"ͳѡ"ͣ""ѡ"ڶ׶""Э"

3δ̨""ǶǿȨ
ڶۣLinzνͳƵı׶ˣIJȶͳȨΣ빫ߵĽӲͳΪڸδǫ̃DzɱģѾõع۲졢оӲͬǶȵ֤ʵδֵ̨ɽǶǿȨ档йؼ"ͳѡ""Ͳ""ڶ׶"ɾԶ˼ǿ򡣿ǵ"ͳ""ڸ""๫""Ʋ"Ƶǻ19962000ڣһֻǿԣĴ""ν"ͳ"̨""δ̨""ҪԴڶ͹ǻԵǿȨ

˵̨""棺һ""Խȥ�""ƵƵ""󶯵һ棬ǻԳ"̨"ͼΪ˸"й""һһ̨"·µȨƣ""Ϊʳ"Ȩ""̨"ƵΨһ;̨ѧҲ"ĸ"ʹ"ȨɱתҲʹ̨ڲֹڹͬIJͬţܷļܹнԵı빵̨ͨͬʶۡ"ңһ棬"ĸֻǽ˹񵳵תȴδʹƵ뽨ʶ"ԵĴ""Ϊ־"ν'ڶ׶ĸ'༴ƺΪĿĸƽdz" νֽƶ""ļԴ˴""е"Ե̸"͸Ը""ŵIJٿصȵ͵"η"ʽΪ˵ڹȥԻѡΪģת䵽Χ""ԴᡢѰʵĿµ"Ϸ"Դ֮ϡ

""ں""𵴵һ棬ǻڴ½ǿҷ"̨"£ƶȿȡ"̨"ı߼ʿ㣬ΩͨԱ߼ʣ""ͳԴеĹߡͬʱԱȵѸٱ仯һ񣬼˹.ŵ˹ƶȱǨԭʱᵽ"̸ľ⼴֮ǰͼƶԴɶδľԱȵһȵƶԼԵδIJ" ""ǻΪ"̨"潻ĹߣҪڳȨռͬʱԴ˵ɵΪ""¶ʱը

""ϣͽ""еijͻ""Ȩ䡢以صͽǶƺں޷""ȱݵĸã伫󻯣"ͳ"ƶȡìܵȶڳ""зֻϣ""𵴣Աȵشı䣬ӶӰ쵽ߵƶLinzоͳңзɱдһȱɵΪĵԱܴٳɶ൳ƣͨ"ͳ"1987Ӷ൳Ƶת䣩ԭͳͳش֧֣ѡʱ"(Anti-party)" ע⵽ڳɹѹ"""ʡ"˺󣬹"ʮ"ʾ"߶ͳһ"ǿ"ͳ"Ѿγɡ룬ֵ̨ķչпܳǻĹˣ̶"̨""̨"ĺҲ׸ı亣Ͽľơ

ġ

о̨"""""ԪϷ"λĸԼϣ˽⵽δڵƶأӶǫ̃ηչԤڣҪǣͨ""ڲȨṹлķ־ԵأΪ֪ҪdzϣܹԽıϷġ

ˣʱڹƶȴƶȵԣ߾ǷǼԵ㣬˵ķȫԺͶԶԵȣͨȨľƺ⽫Σ͵ƶơҲ""Ҫ󡣷̨""ƶ¶ƶȵʧ⣬ɶ˶Կ˷ĹߵķԿı̬δƵӰ졣

1. תҰ, 1996"'ͳ'֮̽"̨ŷ¿Vol.11.No.1(19961º)
2. Linz, Juan J.1994. "Presidential or Parliamentary Democracy", The Failure Of Presidential Democracy (Edited by Juan J. Linz and Arturo Valenzuela), p.6, The Joans Hopkins University Press.
3. Ibid. pp.7-10.
4. ּͶ, 1989Ƚܷ p.422 ̨:ͼ湫˾
5. ֮Ԫ,1995"ͳơƼ":йѧ1995^ĻתShugart and Carey(1992)(Presidents and Assemblies, p.70, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)¹19301932ͳӵ֣μ±
ͨ ͳ
1930 98 5 1931 34 44
1932 5 66

6. Ԫ, 1997"Ǫĸ֮о"̨ɽѧڿ Vol.5, No.1 (19972º)
7. ˹. ŵ˹, [1990],1994ƶȡƶȱǨ뾭üЧp.113Ϻꡣ
8. Linz, ibid. p36. LinzScott Mainwaring "Presidentialism, Multipartism, and Democracy: The Difficult Combination"һģMainwaring԰ΪͳͳƶȵıԣָΪ˺ĻνṹǸҪġ Comparative Political Studies, Vol.26(1993), No.2, pp.198-228.