ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 

ϷƵì

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ҪϷһԭʽĸзԡһԷ񶨵ĸпԡΪϷͬһһศɵĸͬʵ໥ìܵġһìʾάظ˹̹ѧijЩԡ

ؼʣϷ άظ˹̹

ϷͼǺάظ˹̹ѧĸһ˵Ϊ˱Բһʣάظ˹̹˼ƵǡҲҪΪϷʵʹ˶ԣе[1]˵ɡʵһۡҲδɡرνķᄈУϷǼƶԴﵽͬЧǣͬȴǶάظ˹̹ѧ⡣ҪָϷ˵ʵijʽԭۣDZ֤Ľһչһ໥ͻĸ

һϷ˵Ϊԭ

ͨϸDzѷ֣Ϸһάظ˹̹ıº壺

1Ϸʹ÷ŵķʽBBp17

2Ϊ1ϷǽϵͳBBp81

3ǻճǽϷĶBBp81

4ǰԺͽ֯ежPI7

5Ϸᷢ¾ɽ档PI23

ɣ3άظ˹̹Ϸֱӵ򡣣4Щݡ̸

һ4ʲôӣ4άظ˹̹ȻǽԺжһ塣άظ˹̹˵Ϸڡͻһһ֡PI23ǺҪġΪԵĶԾʹ˱ȡˡԲܶԺжһDDϷDDܶһԶĴͳĹҲijЩʣжԣףڿԳΪ׼Ȼǿ¨DD׸ᄈ壬ᄈ岻˵ӲǶ嵥λνᄈֻԵĸλѡڵάظ˹̹渥׸ҲһеᄈߣμTLP3.3ţ˵ᄈ壬˵Ǵʾ塣봫ͳѧҵԼǵȻ˼άʽͬԾ͹ĴĴһʾһƪģͿطһͨˡڷᄈл壬Ǵš츳õĹ涨ЩԴǷԵĶᄈҪתѰҴ壬Ҫڴʹҵй涨һδã塱TLP3.328ΪΪԣûлصûҵԼĹ涨ԣھлûλá۵֮ǣֻҪھԼλãԭϾˡֻ֮ԭϵģΪе൱ӡάظ˹̹Ļ˵ҲǵǸӱ˵ӦóĬ˲̸дԭΪ̬ͼ˵ʱͬĴһͬʱҲͽͬĶһ𣨲μTLP3.2ճдﲻһһӦ˵ģμּ֮ճ߼μTLP5.5563; LO,֮⣩ԭϷھоУھоͿСھУڿܾУԵɿܵ

Ϸԭˡ֯ежΪһ壬һֻгһضϷвһʽPI261ʹ֮άظ˹ֻ̹ǽճԼ򵥵ĽϵͳϷأճҲУϷҲУΪԵȻʷԸҪ鹹鹹ԣμAWLp97۶ôӵϷάظ˹ֹ̹һεҪ򵥣һʱҪľʣѧģμLCp1; PI77,179Ϊøôʱ涨ԴĻĸѧϰСĸѧϰΪĵϷϰĸϰ̫ΪԣCV31POp394395Ϸ̫ΪһĽZ541Dzٺߺ߶˵ʹPI244ԣȻҪʹʹʵֻ֮е¡һԾζһʽPI19Ϸɴ˿ɼԵٴת֮⣬֮СеģУеģͿСУڿСԵɿ涨

Ƕԣ4ݵIJƺԭ̫Զǡܡ涨ʱʵȻΪϵ²ĻôġܡҪϰʱõĿԡʵֻҲֻǻһԣȻݱһ֮µĿͰϷԵӡ˵ַڣ

1˽Բ

׼ȷ˵Ӧ˽Բάظ˹̹ڡѧоʣǷҲһԣһ˿д»˵ھDDĸоԼDD˽ʹãPI243ȻճԿ񣬵άظ˹̹ⲻڴˣԣ䡰ָֻ˵߲ܹ֪Ķֱָӵ˽˸о˲ԡͬϣʹάظ˹̹Ҫչ20Ϊѧ֮һֶ֪˽Եʧܸաģȣ˽˶˵DzȷģҲܱ֤˽ԣԵ˽˶IJɱȽϡ˽˶ԲɱȽϣǹˣȻδȽϣ֪Ϊij˽أöʱΪԼֵĶ˽еģʵٻظŮ֪Ҳ˵DzóȽϵģ硰ʹС˽ԵġҪ밢˹ƥν˽ԵʹĽ¶áΡ˽˶Ҳ빫Ե޹ءΪҲ̸漰˽˶ҲΪ˽˵˽Ҫ˽˵˽˶󣬾Ͳùԣͻʹ˽˶¶ڹжʧȥ˽ԡǶԵϰþڹɵģμFoglin, p165,171DzзǹԵĿԡһDzùԣֽҲ˵˽ˡˣɼ˽Dzġ

˽ԵIJ񣬱ϷµķԡϷɸ˲ܲ룬һ塣ÿܲĸ壬ȴԼԣ˴ҹе֮⡣˽Բ˵ϷСڣɴ顣

2һϷ

άظ˹̹ȷ˵DzǽϷԵIJ֣ǽԺཻϵͳBBp81˵޲Ϸͻһһ֡˵ǽ򵥴ԵIJԣҪ۵ϷԼΪԡÿһϷģϷһԷڽABĽAøֽʯϴ½ʯ顢ʯʯʯBʯϽAA˳ΪʹһְŴʻ㡮顯塯ԡAкЩʣDDBͰѧĽкʱҪݵʯϵݹȥPI2BB,p77еĸΪ׼ĻǺѷһϷԵġеѧ[2]ͱԹ˵ֻͶķӣôûͶķӡǣҪǶһϷıһϷϽԵıԷǵϷУǵϷڱĸĹܣֻ˵ǵϷֽԸΪḻȴ˵˺߲dzΪķӡǵϷ˵ģ۵ĽУȷûķӡȻϽвһ£ǵϷϽǷһ¡άظ˹̹˵DzϽԵԣһȺΨһϵͳͨѵȥʹãɳĹСѧԡPI6BBp77ֻ˵ѵϷͬϣѧϷ⻹ǵķdzӵϷΪǰ⡣άظ˹̹Ϊ˶ס·˵áѵһϸ˵ѵһֻȥضѵһʵʹ÷ʽһѵͨӡͷȴﵽͬϣ

һϷһ۵㻹ͨ;ǿһǣеϷ̸ϷģPI494ûʲô󡣵ǣеϷڹҲǷȱģڿδǻᷢչߣǵϷǴǴǰϷġôʲôʱϷܳƵأΪϽԵԶʱηԼǷ磬ǵڻѧϵͳ΢ַ֮ǰǷμPI18ӹȫϷԣһ޷رܵѣǻϲΪѡԡõϷṩ绤Ҫ֪һһĹܾͺͷһһͷʵҲ漰ˡԡĸ⡣һƪѧĿ˵DzģһЩƻûᵽڴһԵıʱ׼BBp19ǣһϷڹ嵫Ҫ򵥵㣬ûӡǿ˵Ϸ𣿡ͬϣȻܣΪⲻһϷˡʹ˶ԣһϷһϷȣ˻ijЩܣҲͲ˵˵һϷ򵥾ͲϷҲΪļ򵥾ͲϷκϷġ

3Ϸ䲻ɽ̸

һϷԿһ̶Ϊ֤ΪôϷԾͻܵв˵һϷٱϷ䲢޽̸ıҪҪԴ׼ȷ֤ڡ弴ʹá[3]ǰѾ˵Ϸ˲ͬϷDzͬȻʹãʹнеģͬеʹȻͬ塣ԣͬϷDz໥̸ģһᄈͬ岻ͬᄈͬһ˵ģɼûн̸岻ͬ˵IJһ£ɼ̸ܽͬᄈеϷԻͻ壬ᄈʡǼ򵥵ĻǸϵġȵȡ뿪ԼרᄈͲܱã˿˵Ƕȼ٣ԶȼʱѧͲˡPI38ϷIJ̸ܽϷ໥Ĺϵ

˽ԲܣӦԭӲٷ֣һϷӦԭӵͬϷɽ̸Ӧԭӵ໥ϷԵ֣ǿԵõۣϷ˵ʵһԭۡȻԭжصĵط˵ÿһϷܶģάظ˹̹Ծֹ̬ΪԭγɶԱȣڵ֮⣬ڵ

ƵԷ

Ȼάظ˹̹гֵĴ࣬ȴһӰĸⲿƬ滯Ϊ塣1931꣬άظ˹̹ѾʹˣCVp14õձעģȴǡѧожۡڸ65֮ǰάظ˹̹ɫɫϷӣȴһֱûиϷıʡǷڱؾأûСάظ˹̹شɣ˵ǣЩвһֿǰͬһȫһͬĶDDЩ಻ͬķʽ໥PI65һ仰ǰ䱻Ϊ壬ǼƵľ

1ƵҪ

ӡѧоάظ˹̹ơĶҪʹõ⣺һʻһձԡϷȴʣԿѧʷϵͳڰͼġ˵ڸԿ֮֮磬Ķ֮ģΪǶشҪaΪƺĸͬĶbͬĶǸƺıʡַ˵͵־ѧľ伯ۣÿΪпԶ弯ϵĹͬʶϨDDͬʵĴʳΪֱϵҪάظ˹̹ͬشΪǡͬǡءŹǽ˵ԶԡɣPI65أǡơԱвͬƣҲϴ϶ƣ϶۾ɫƣļƢƣȵȣμPI67أƣӦʹøʵˡΪ䲢û໥أôͬһʽͳأɴˣмƵĵһҪ

γɵҪÿ嶼øϽ֮µһ֮

޴ҪͲڡҪҲճеġ˵ʶģʶ壬ÿʶ˲ȫͬ۵ȦʶٳԼ֮һΪ֮һʶҲȦӡκνȦˣͨȦʶκˡ˼γɵҪÿͲᱻ

ֻҪмγҪǾͿʹһƺһ壬ʹ˶ԣͳҪиͬʲܽһ֮£ҪȻ̫ǿˡӼγػй֮ͬȻҲи嶼ֻ֮ͬѡάظ˹̹DzΪϷӦɹ涨PI567ҲԹԡжһΪPI207μRFMp342,p330ͱάظ˹̹ϼƵϷҲǿйͬġǣݼγЩͬĶڸʵʹ˵DzҪģƺĸ岻йͬ[4]άظ˹̹ȷ˵һζȷʵǶԵϵԵϵǹеɷ֮֡ͬᣬһֱӵһ˴йͬƣڵĸ壬ͬһ壬ȴκιͬĶPGp75һأάظ˹̹˵ʵijһΪijһĸУҲһһͬϣɴмƵļʶҪ

ʶҪгԱĹͬһʶ

γҪͼaΪһʶҪڴУֽbΪһڰͼʹøʵΪѰұʲΪűʵıŵԿܣˣһʱҪøݣֲϲձıʣ֮еķпܡǣͨ۹ļƵҪͲձˡάظ˹̹ûзĴڣԣҲûн峹׵ؼʹ˶ԣһߣһǡߣһߣһǡߡ

Ҫ㹻ףǿ˵ܼгԱйֻ֮ͬһ֮ͬΪıʸеǣݼγԱҪйͬУЩͬγɵķʽͬôͬγɷʽΪгԱУıʨDD㱾ʡγɼ壬ͬ㱾γơ磬żp52ΪһŴĶ⵱ȻһֶǣԴάظ˹̹ļƣԵòϸ¡Ƶķʽϣάظ˹̹˵ijԱ䡰Բͬķʽ໥PI65ͬķʽ໥Ҳ˵ļΪеǡơеǡӾֲơPI66ǰƢʵȣҪ漰ĸԱȽϵģijλֻҪ漰ĸijֲԱȽϾˡƷʽӦĵǡ?hnlichkeiten im Gosen und Kleinenһѧڴѧߴؽˡ󲿷ƺСơʵǽƷʽIJͬǽϵĶ[5]ɴǿԵóƵķʽҪ

ƷʽҪԱƵķʽǿԲͬġ

ɴҪ·ҲסˣγƵķʽһҪֻͬͬDzģһȡˣʲDZʡڣ巴˼Ƶ

Ϊֹһжǣάظ˹̹ڡѧоУƫƫ˵һЩΪǿӲĻ磬۲ԡϷȼijԱ㽫ῴʲôȫ干ͬĶֻ֮PI66˵񶨹ͬĴڡƺԱ˵ڡԭ򣬿пԿάظ˹̹һͷ񶨹ͬĴڡȻάظ˹̹ȴʮšҪ룬ֻǿPI66ʵͼôӴ˴ǿԵóƵĵĸҪ

нҪԱ䲢޹֮ͬ

⼴˵һУҪһԱκһԱͨнУΪĻ˵Աʶɴ˶еļһ֡ǿơ˵άظ˹̹һߡ޲ɡǣһ˵ȻڡѧоĶжԡԡ롰ϷϽձĹͬ۶ìܣҲǰùġѧ﷨е˵ͻȲάظ˹̹ڡơϵͻơԷ񶨵Ŀԡ

2ƵĿԻԷ

άظ˹̹Ϊγһ壬ЩšĻϷѵԡ֡дȡǣάظ˹̹û˵еĸǼʽĸڴˣȻԽͳΪάظ˹̹ʵĹ۲ǣʵҲǡơҪ󣺡ơҪΪһձԵġǢĸͱвǼʽĶĴΪǰᡣ˵£һǼʽĸһʼ壬ôеļͶǼƵġеļ嶼ǼƵģеļһʣơȻڲƵķʽȷԲͬǣǶγҪʶҪƷʽҪнҪһЩҪԣЩҪͳǵıʡע⣬ЩҪ㲻ͬһڲԱԼƵ㡣ǰһʵʵģһڼƶΨġΪһձĸҪΪ⣬ǣǡǡձԣʹΪȻĹޡڲһʼµеۡƵìܡ۴һʼ壬ֻΡһʼ壬мԣһ壨ʼ壩ȫƵҪڱʼһγҪȷһ塣һ壬ôм幹һ塣ڴ¼УʼƵķʽͬDZʼƵķʽԣ¼ԱƵģһʽļ塣Ϊ¼мΪԱձġɴ˿ɼձϣơõġٻصóһ۵ǰ裺һǼƵıʼڡΪˣҽƿһԷ񶨵ĿԵĸ˵СԡΪԹɵͬԼĸ˵ǡԷ񶨵ġΪԲͬĶΪǰᡣ

ۣϷƼì

ǰ˵ƿԹɵͬԼĸʵϣԼDzͬ涨һԷԿ֪ΪձʱDZԵģΨġϸϣԼԼĹ涨ҪԼĹ涨Ͳò趨һΪԼϽıʼڡɴάظ˹̹ǿƵļҲһĵˣձϣӸĽǶȣԱȷ޹ͬΪһ岻ƼDZʼ塣ҪôһƼڣûһƼڣͳ˱ͬһƼڣʹüȻΪҪͲòԼһĶҪǵ͵ĺڸ֤Ȼ趨ĶԼʲͬǣƻǿԼĹ涨ﵽ켺ĶPI122POp175ͬġϷȻûйͬ㣬ǣȴԽǶϷΪǿ֮һ໥ӡڴһУDzϵشһɵһˣԣֺͷԻίҪġPI122ǣƱֹԻ֯͵磬ɼڷDZı£Ȼ켺ߣ⻹ǿܵġ

һӼƵóĽϷķԵóϷ䲻ĽȻͬڡѧ﷨Уάظ˹̹ƱʱѾԤʾԺͿͨԵȻ֪ʲôԭ򣬡ơάظ˹̹ıгֵĴٵÿڡѧоУҲֻζѡڡơ УͬͬҪģϷʵϷʱάظ˹̹Ҳע⵽ͬIJأCVp10PI103ǣϷԭԵӰ죬άظ˹̸̹ԼڸIJʱ˵ڸҪ֮ͬҪ֮ͬ죨μֺϣp220Ծʹ˱ϣĺǣͬϷͲͬʽ䲻ɹͨάظ˹̹һȷԡУıɵӵų⡣ų켺ߣϷͲòصġʾϷʾܵĶȻⲻεģOC618άظ˹̹ԼҲò˵̫߼ѧۡIJˡOC321⵹ûʲôֵģΪάظ˹̹ġ߼ѧۡһ߼ԭۡ׿˼ƣͬΪԭ۵һֵġϷ˵Ǻ롶߼ѧۡġάظ˹̹һһȦֻȥˡ

οף

AWL Wittgenstein's Lectures: Cambridge 1932-1935, from the notes of Alice Ambrose and

Margaret Macdonald, edited by Alice Ambrose, Rowman and Littlefield: Totowa, New

Jersey, 1979

BB The Blue and Brown Books, Basil BlackwellOxford,1980

CV Culture and Value, edited by G.H.Von Wright, translated by Peter Winch,

the University of Chicago:Chicago,1980

LC Lectures & Conversations on Aesthetics, Psychology and Religious

Beliefedited by Cyril Barrett, University of California Press: Berkeley and

Angeles, 1967

LWL Wittgenstein's Lectures, Cambridge, 1930-1932, from the notes of John King and

Desmond Lee, Basil Blackwell: Oxford,1980

PG Philosophical Grammar, Translated by Anthony Kenny, University of California Press:

Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1974

PI Philosophical Investigations, ed. G.E.M.Anscombe & R.Rhees, Tr.by G.E.M.Anscombe,

Oxford, Basil Blackwell, 1963Լģ¥룬άУӡ

ݣ1996룬꣺1992

PO Philosophical Occasions,1912-1951, edited by James C.Klagge and Alfred

Nordmann, Hackett Publishing Company: Indianapolis and Cambridge,1993

RFM Remarks on the Foundations of Mathematics, edited by G.H.von Wright, R.Rhees

and G.E.M.Anscombe, translated by G.E.M. Anscombe, Basil Blackwell:Oxford,

1978

TLP Tractatus Logic-Philosophicus, Tr. By C.K.Ogden, London, Boston & Henley,

Routledge & Kegan Paul LTD, 1955 and a new translation by D.F.Pears &

B.F.McGuinness, London, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1974; Լ뱾ܼ

룬ӡݣ1996

WVC Wittgenstein and The Vienna Circle, conversations recorded by F.Waismann, ed.by

Brian McGuinness, Tr.by Joachim Schulte and Brian McGuinness, Oxford, Basil

Blackwell, 1983

Z Zettel,edited by G.E.M.Anscombe and G.H.von.Wright, translated by

G.E.M.Anscombe, Basil Blackwell:Oxford,1967

Baker, G.P and Hacker, P.M.S.: An Analytical Commentary on Wittgenstein's Philosophical

Investigations, Volume 1, Basil Blackwell: Oxford, 1983

Fogelin, R.J.: Wittgenstein, Routledge and Kegan PaulBoston, London and Henley, 1980

ֺϣάظ˹̹ѧ֮·ϴѧ磺1996

żάظ˹̹ķDDϷ˵͡ơۡ

ѧо20017

־֣֪ʶDDάظ˹̹ѧչо㶫

磺ݣ1998

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[1] μżάظ˹̹ķDDϷ˵͡ơۡѧо20017ڣp49

[2] Lamb,1979,p42

[3] PI43ǴʹãPI421ӵǾӵʹ

[4] ΪҪ󣺸ƺĸһйֻͬһᡣȻڴάظ˹̹ҲһΡĻ۵һ㡣

[5] μBaker and Hackerp132ҳ3Σ