ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 


̳

ѧǡǡΪܷ廯

λ

(Ŀ 񣺡ѧǡйѧ20019°)

Ŀ

һǾ廯ܷ
Ϊҵķܶۡ
ᷨι롰
ġѧʷĹ ̨幫ѧ߳ڵֺƷսΪ½ϰѧѧߺѧĿ2001ڴ½ˡ¹ѧۡ[i]²ᣩ͡ѧǡ[ii]˴½ѧĹע൱ߵʡڵġѧǡ¼ơǡ¼14ƪ£Ҫ10ƪ¹ѧΪ14ƪ˸ŵ¹˵Ǻͳڵѧʶ7ƪֱѧΪ⣬7ƪѧģ6ƪֱܷѧıֱչֱۼܷĹܷҵչᷨι͸ҵչݡʹڶԡһ²ԼǿУҲԮ¹1033涨ۼһ²ܷ[iii]Ľ·Դ½Ĺѧоʾ塣ľһϰߵӽǶԡѧǡĶƬͨ.ǡķɢĶԼһĵʾ

һǾ廯ܷ

ܷĹϵΪѧرǴ½ϵѧ߹ע⡣ڡǡĵһƪġܷ֮У˵¹λ֪ѧƺ෴СҮġܷţ桱͸ȡΤɵġǾ廯ܷ[iv]Ϊ¹ѧ֮ҮᄈָʱֵܷʱڸԡԵָܷȨ߼ԵܾסʱĿ顣[v]ȻΤɵĹ۵㣬ҽú˹1959귢ġܷͳһܡһ֤ԼĹ۵㣬ָһܷ[vi]ָӦӶܷԭ̽ϣڵĸӦǽܷʾĸָԭԾ廯ʵ[vii]ڳڵƪУۼ˵¹ϵķιԭԭ򣬼ϸɱƶȵӰ졣

ʵϣӢϵǴ½ϵѧѧ˵ʵķչǺܷѧķչϢϢصġӢȻûгܷȨthe sovereignty of Parliamentͷԭ(rule of law)ԱΪӢܷ֧ڴ˻ϣԺӷɵм֮ȴʵ巨ҲӳϷչȨǡ֮ڵͨԭ򡣡[viii]ƾԴܷ18й涨Ȩͬġ֮ĺͬӡڰҵġҵcommerce clause1930˹Ϊܷʱ̡constitutional moment[ix]ΪܷʯĸȨԼȨƺⶼ򷨵𣬶ڶƻĽ˾飬Ҫ塣

ۼܷĹԴ½ѧо൱ʾ塣ҹʵϴšܷѧ硱͡ѧ硱ѧͬ벻ͬѧÿÿۼԭȴܷ̽51ġι巨ιҡ涨Ĺѧ𽥿ʼעúͲ⣬ܷйزƲȨϺԼ涨Ƕģв[x]ܷȷƶȵͼ֯ijΣȨƣΥܷƶȺܷԭĹ涨ⱻΪܷԭͶ󡱡[xi]ҹ·ܷܵӰԼ

1 ܷȨܷ淶йصܷԭԼеĹȨʹܷ涨ܽȨͶȨܷ51涨ķιԭ򡢵332涨ƽԭ򣬶ԼŰȨڵйȨʹ
2ܷȷĻƶ£жĵλǸȨصִлأ[xii]Ḻ𣬽ļල[xiii]֯ҪܷĹ涨ԭ[xiv]
3ܷ38涨л񹲺͹˸ϲַ˲ܽΪġʹӡΪ칫غͶԴ˸ԭ֮£زʱֺͶȨܽȨܷȨΥΡƽȵܷԭ򡣢˸ϱѧ˵Ϊһijֵ[xv]ǹҳеĿ壬ǡ칫񡱺ھожȨĵˣӦʵԼʶҪ͹۵Ļᡣ[xvi] ˸ϻΪйܷݡ [xvii]
4ܷȷϵܷ淶ܷԭпƵһԭԷȺͷɱԭΪ[xviii]ԭֱϵǷɶȨȵĵλʵʵӦܷɵԼزܲȡ뷨ִʩرеķɣȷ÷ɹ涨[xix]ҹܷ891涨Ժܷͷɣ涨ʩƶ桱902涨ίԱݷɺ͹Ժ桢ڱŵȨڣָʾ͹¡ҹ791Ҳ涨ɵЧ桢طԷ桢¡ЩΪԭļС
ҹԴַ̽ɱԭܷݣԭ򡣸ܷ涨л񹲺͹һȨʹȨĻȫ͵طᡣල[xx]˷ɱҲзȨ壬ֻѡپֱϷԵĴأܶһԵϵҪ䲼ձĶԹԼΪ淶[xxi]ڷιԭ[xxii]ιRechtsstaat͸Ѿȫ뵽¹֮У[xxiii]ҹܷ51Ҳ涨ˡι巨ιҡԭ򡣷ιԭҪӦԷɹ淶ķɹϵɲӦʹܹԤЧ[xxiv]ڷι׷ƽҪ󣬲ڸԤҶڸӦһ̶÷ɱԭ򡣢ۻȨıϡҹܷڶԡĻȨΪ⣬ȫϵͳĹ涨˹ĻȨƽȨȨĻɡɺ˸ϡᾭȨȨȼõȨ[xxv]ܷȨһйȨ͹һؾֱӵԼֻиݷɻͨɲƻȨ[xxvi]ҹܷ39涨л񹲺͹סլַֹǷѲ߷Ƿ빫סլ ζų֮涨ʹʩöԹסլַȨơ[xxvii]ɴ˿ɼһԭܷᄈеĹ̸ܷԭСľ֡Σա

Ϊҵķܶۡ

ҡһΪҹ½ѧϤ[xxviii]ڡǡڶƪġҡij塷[xxix]УԺ˹˵˹ġΪҵķܶۡΪıԵ¹˾̶ҵķչڱȽϷı£ۼˡҡڵ¹ѧ˵еԴݱ䣬ʾ˵ʵ塣

˵˹ġΪҵķܶۡڷιչģۼ19͵ġҡʱΪȨӦǿȨ˾ȨΪյҪļֵɽע֮С[xxx]޷÷ԺΪģܷйΥֺȨ𺦵İǵ¹1848糱ڴδȫʵġ˾ʤ[xxxi]˵˹̶˵¹ҷչɣӰҵѾתƵԱһԺ͹ԵļǿĹƶȵĹҶԣɱĻ֮·ҿܻᵼ¡ɵķʴ֢ԼԵĹ涨ƷʵĴֲڷdzûӷɵ룻Ȩţų˾Ȩļල[xxxii]˵˹Ϊ˾Ȩ֮£ִйҷɣҴٽ桢츣һ֡ĹȨΪѧߣӦΪιҵһģʽ̽ļֵԭԭ򣬲صܷ۵㣬ιķչ[xxxiii]

ӱȽϷĽǶȣѧ߶ҵۺʵ൱ĹעڳڶԱ˵˹ѧ˵УҲ൱īԮձѧֵТ[xxxiv]ڶ۵[xxxv]ֵТڽҡΪΪͳΪִй֮еߵͬʱһγɾι̣ĵľĹҡ[xxxvi]ֵТڽҸܷ淶ʵʳΪ5㣺ٴתҵͳΣҡִܷĸ淶ڴתΣΪȱԵľӢͳΣʹ֧䡱ԭκ򡰼ƻ֧䡱ȡ-ȨľԱϣΪͳ塱 ݽȨתΪȨơ[xxxvii]ֵТΪܷĻԭŽŹϵΪֵТڵĻӦձѧߴҵıάԼҪĸչֵָܷһ̶ܷԭĹŵۣոܷͳεӦ̬[xxxviii]

˵˹ѧ˵УҲԮӢҵķչ̡ۼʱ쵽γɵӰ졣ʱʱͳ˹ͼӪһĸҡenlightened administrative welfare stateʵָˡƺͱRecovery, Regulation, and Reformġ3RĿꡣ[xxxix]1994꣬ѧѧԺɭGary LawsonڡۡϷΪҵ[xl]ģµĿ׾ǡDzܵģƶȶȷʵϾһѪܷ[xli]80ʵѧ˵չᄈ½еģٿڶԲȨԭսԼƶ͵ʶ棺
ٶԲȨԭnondelegation doctrineս1789ܷ11涨ڴȨӦڹĹᡱ1892ķƶ߿ˣField v.ClarkУԺ״ƸݷȨԭȨڳָΪһձϿɵԭ򣬹᲻ܽȨڳԱܷϵͳĴ롣[xlii]1935ġ͡͡У߷ԺоƶжȨܵڳ[xliii]֮ûùȨԭ[xliv]1989MistrettaУ߷Ժ֧ƶ̷ָϵȨоָǵķѧӦΪʵ渴ӵУŶĺ͸Ե⣬᲻ͨձԵһָȨĻͲĹ[xlv]ݴѧʥǸУMcCubbinsָģҪҵֹͲȨԭĸˣȨִһʵ[xlvi]
ڶƶ͵ʶԴҵ𣬷ԺΪؿڹȨרҵ֧ƶ͡[xlvii]1984֮ǰԺصƶͽý˹ĪأSkidmore DeferenceԺصƶԿȻƶԼĶжϡ[xlviii]1984л֣Chevronȷԭ[xlix]оƶʱصĽֻҪӦռ֧λʱضǷԺƶĽȨڰʹϵȨԴʳƷҩƷҵڵĹлԭıִغͷԺ֮ȨãΪʷҪ֮һ[l]лְУԺصƶ͵ڣȣضרҵԱʵ϶漰ͷdzӵʵʱرȷԺиרҵƣΣƶ漰γɹ̣ͳѡرȷԺŸǿϷԻܸõĽ⡣

ǹ֮ǵ¹ѧ߱˵˹ġΪҵķܶۡձѧֵТۣϵлԭ򣬶δҵֵģʽҲǶҵİļֵжϡͨʵ龳IJִֿͣʵͷչѧ˵ۣձ˴ҵ˾ҵҵķչ̣ǿۣھͳģʽΪĿִУΪʵֹĿġʹtransmission beltΪһʵ϶ߵ[lii]

йȲϵĴ˾ݽ̣ҲĴͳչǰľһҵͼڹŴҹŸ߶ȷķ⽨ƶȣ˰ƺͿƾƳΪ֧йƶȵĸܸˣͬʱйͳڷϰֹ֧ƶȵķ[liii]ʹ1949꽨֮󣬸Ȼǵλ֮µġ񡱣ĸ߶֯ṹУ˼֯Ϊ˹֯һ֡[liv]ܸܷͷɹ涨ʹȨĻأȫ߹Ȩأл񹲺͹Ժǹҵлء[lv]ලԺʹȨԾΪǷϷ顣[lvi]ʵǿʵȨԣȨغлصȨԵƶȽIJͬԼƶȱ죬вɽջӢ۲˼İᵽй۵йڣʹڴ龳£ӺϷ˼гĹϵ÷ɹǿƵĹϵ΢ϣҹȨۡ淶͵ѧⲻ˼Ļش𣬶Ƕѧ˵ϸо[lvii]

ᷨι롰

ڡǡĵƪУҵʦ˵¡Ͷġ巨ιᷨιеƪ巨ιҵָ³ʿߵȷԺ1882оġʮּɽУ1850ꡰеġ족µĸ֡족ΪΪձ黯ΪԤ[lviii]ɷι֮£ڱȨͰȫҪ[lix]

ڡǡУڻۼᷨι롰[lx]𡣵¹201͵281ȷᷨιԭҪ19˿ҵ޲׼Լлȴʵ⡣[lxi]ǡŨرī˸˹1938귢ġһġ˹ָչִ֮񡱣ִָи޵ռ䡣Źת֣֮͵ϺΪṩǷȱġչˡְ[lxii]ڳڵУˡչˡ۵ִ壬Ҳ쵽˿ܴȨΣգˡչˡġۡԷ޷չԼʵֹʱҹȨĽ롣[lxiii]

ܷй涨Ŀ֮һٽձ鸣promote the general Welfareɾиٹ̸崫ͳתõᣬ¡ʱڣͨϵĻȨܵսʱᾭȨ1935ͨˡᱣϷ־ϣƶٱΪǸ΢⣬һҪΪṲͬŬͽ⡣[lxiv]˹ͳ1944걻ΪڶȨSecond Bill of RightsݽУἰÿ˶Ӧý㹻Ǯõ㹻ʳѺ֣㹻ҽƱϣҾӣúб깤Լ䡢¹ʺʧҵ֮ǵȨ[lxv]19621980䣬Ϊġ桱public interestʱѸɺ涼綨ΪµȨ1970ĸ²߿УԺ˴ͳȨۣΪʸȡ˵ķȨӦܷɳҪ֤[lxvi]һʱڷԺμ˾ĵ˷Χչˡߵġ桱ߡԼɢ֯ȡ[lxvii]ʶͳģʽı׾Чʣ1996䲼ˡĸ﷨̽ݣ˽˵ķȨԸΪгĽ·ҵҾԸȫλĸ[lxviii]

йѧ߿ܸͬ͸Ũ᱾λ˼ĸʱѧ߰1927ִָĹңά֮Ϊ㣬ظһԿ֮Ļ֮ΪһҪ񡣡[lxix] ҹܷ涨ͶȨ42ϢȨ43ܽȨ461Ȩ[lxx]Ȩڵ44涨ԱܹҺıϣ4511涨ϡɥʧͶ£дӹҺʰȨѧΪҹȨܷ淶[lxxi]4512涨ҷչΪЩȨҪᱣաȼúҽҵΪȨƶԱϡ

ܷĹ涨ҹȺ䲼ˡл񹲺͹Ͷл񹲺͹м˱Ϸл񹲺͹Ȩ汣Ϸл񹲺͹ŮȨ汣Ϸȷɣ𲽽ϱաʧҵաҽƱա˱աաȼáḣƶԼŸᱣƶȡ[lxxii]Ȼ򲢲ᱣ[lxxiii]ҹᱣƶٵۺʵȷʵҹѧսҹḣIJԴǷܷϵƽԭǷڡIJ𡱣[lxxiv]ٱIJȨǷ÷ɱԭһԭԼٱΪᱣսʧҵȸɺͷŵظϸҪļ򻯵ķʽ[lxxv]֣ڴֻ⣬⣬蹫ѧڸҺͷᄈ½ϸµо ġѧʷĹ

ڵѧʷĹǡһ˳һһо̬ڶԵ¹ۺѧ˵зƷͬʱѧ˵ӦѧߵѧԴ˼黳ԼʱξᱳԹաвʤö١СҮԡܷţ桱ʱҮѧԼԵԵλĹУתΪ۶ϱκܷʱ[lxxvi]ҵĸʱѧʷϵ÷ضʩص˹򡢺գʮ¹ѧݽͼԾȻֽϡ[lxxvii]˻ѧʷĹպӦѧʵıرҪڵЩеĿбϸƷζʵ˿˿ۣ⡣

ֵһǡǡеĵڰƪ¡ѧػߡdz鼸й̿顷ƪ¶йѧ˵ʷĿţʱڵѧ߰ɡ衡±ϵѧ߼˽ܡ[lxxviii]׷ģһȴԭѧ̸ܶʷ[lxxix]췭ʱ̿飬Ϊṹϵѧ۵Ĺע۵ӣԹϵԮ۷Щ͵ûʲôɲӱŬijɹ

ָģϵϣйѧγɺͷչһֱܴ½ϵرǵ¹ѧӰ졣[lxxx]Ϊձָձ۹ѧŨJڳġձͼ˵¹ѧ߰С÷Ү׫дġ¹[lxxxi]ϵṹ[lxxxii]ҹʱڵѧУɡ±ȶϰľʱҲΪࡣ[lxxxiii]ʱйѧձѧġ[lxxxiv]ҹ1980ؽѧʱĽ̲ıϵܹϣ൱̶ϲʱڵѧרڴ˻Էչ׳[lxxxv]йѧ¹˼ӵijм̹ϵʷİ곤ѧнഫӲ죬йѧ۷չ[lxxxvi]͸ҪҹѧӷɸͷɼϼԹա¹ѧܸϵԼγɵۣDz塣[lxxxvii]ҲdzڵġѧǡڣһСȻԶԶ¹ѧȫòıʣĶǵԳ¹õž½ָģⱾǡΪ½ѧһţܲĵ¹ѧУ˸ļƬǹ⡣[lxxxviii]

2002612賿

* E-mailַ[email protected]

2002612賿
* E-mailַ[email protected]
[i] 񣺡¹ѧۡ²ᣩɽ20013°档
[ii] 񣺡ѧǡйѧ20019°档
[iii] ѧǡҳ235
[iv] ѧǡҳ3
[v] ѧǡҳ17
[vi] ѧǡҳ19
[vii] ѧǡҳ7
[viii] Τ£йٿȫ1997棬ҳ26
[ix] Stephen G.Breyer, Richard B.Stewart, Cass R.Sustein, Matthew L.Spitzer, Administrative Law and Regulatory Policy: Problems, Text, and Cases, 4th edition, p 20.
[x] йѧߵij̽μƶоѧ־20015ڡйܷѧ߶ԲƲȨμ󣺡ܷ淶淶ܷ淶ܷѧһǰԡɳ2001棬ҳ182-216
[xi] μ塢Ԫࣺܷѧԭй񹫰ѧ2001棬ҳ541
[xii] μܷ851051
[xiii] μܷ3392110
[xiv] ܷ33涨ġͳһ쵼£ַӵطԡԡԭܷ271涨ľԭЧԭȡ
[xv] μ𻪣ͨʵֳ塪Ĭ˹ֵۡ11ɳ1998棬ҳ189
[xvi] ءë׶ѧۡ߼ΰ룬ɳ2000棬ҳ459
[xvii] ӱȽϷĽǶȣ¹1涨˵ϲַغͱǹҵ񡱣˸Ϊ¹ܷ㣻ձѧɼεۼܷʱܷ13˵Ϊ13ǰˡ˸ϡԭΪ˸еһһĸˣ޶ȵܵءеġҸ׷Ȩ͡˸ϡԭϣγɡΪ˸ɴڵңڱִ֤֮زٵġȨһԵȨμά¹һϡ涨֮̽֡ʱ1992181ڣҳ36-48âķݡձ򷨵ķչʾ19971ڣҳ69
[xviii] ȺͷɱԭΪ¹ձϵһԭ򡣲μءë׶ѧۡ߼ΰ룬ҳ103-121Ұ꣺˳룬ɳ1999棬ҳ50-57澸ձ.ءѧ199812ڡҹѧ߽ȺͷɱԭΪйϵһԭμӦ꣺۸١ءйѧ19971ڣݷƶȱеӦꡢԬࣺоʵ֤顷ɳ2001棬ҳ242-244
[xix] μڰ¹廪ѧ磬ҳ25̨ۡ1998棬ҳ128
[xx] ܷ21323
[xxi] μءë׶ѧۡ߼ΰ룬ҳ105㣺뷨ɵáࣺ2000棬ҳ152
[xxii] ҪָӢġΡrule of lawϵġEtat de DroitԼ¹ϵġιҹܷϵķιԭ򣬶ŲͬԴ䣬˼вͬμRainer Grote, Rule Of Law, Etat de Droit and Rechtsstaat: the origins of the different national traditions and the prospects for their convergence in the light of recent constitutional developments񣺡ҵķ塪Ӣķ¹ι֮س񣺡¹ѧۡϲᣩɽ2001棬ҳ37-114
[xxiii] Ӧע⵽¹սĴʽιʵʷιת䣬ɼӷιΡȱࣺ뾭ɡ۴Ե31997棻ܣι֮سģࣺ֮һ㷨ԭһ̨1994棬ҳ289-302
[xxiv] ۡ1998棬ҳ134
[xxv] ķμ󣺡ܷ淶淶ܷ淶ܷѧһǰԡҳ92ѧ߽ҹܷȨΪȨɺᾭȨμκʡʳӢ˼ܷѧѧ2001档
[xxvi] μSabine Michalowski & Lorna Woods: German Constitutional Law: the Protection of Civil Liberties, pp. 80-81񣺡ܷȨơ¹ѧۡ²ᣩɽ2001棬ҳ354-355
[xxvii] ȻҲסլַȨһڽޣݡϷ109111Ĺ涨Ϊռ֤ݡˣԱԶԷԼﷸ߷֤ݵ˵סѲ顣Ѳ飬⣬Ѳ˳ʾѲ֤
[xxviii] ҹѧ߶ҵɲμȨĿתءձ2000213գƽۣһ֪ģʽѧ1999棬ҳ149-157
[xxix] 񣺡ҡij塪̸˹˵˹ġΪҵķܶۡس񣺡ѧǡҳ22-44
[xxx] ѧǡҳ25-26
[xxxi] ѧǡҳ27
[xxxii] ѧǡҳ31-32
[xxxiii] μѧǡҳ33-3443
[xxxiv] ֵТ1933ձݴѧѧڣҪСܷͶʮҵķѧ10֣Թѧк衣תԴȨֺۡ룬ɳ2001棬ҳ51
[xxxv] μѧǡҳ38-41
[xxxvi] תԴȨۡҳ52
[xxxvii] μȨۡҳ53-54־ۣȨ֮ʵ乹붯̨̬ܷ̳֮֮ۡ199310³ˢҳ178-181
[xxxviii] Ȩۡҳ56-60
[xxxix] The Era of F. D. Roosevelt http://www.clas.ufl.edu/users/brundage/20thcentury_grad_course/Fall_2000_New_Deal_class.htm
[xl] Gary LawsonThe Rise and Rise of the Administrative State107 Harv. L. Rev. 1231-1254 (1994).
[xli] ͬעҳ1231
[xlii] Gary Lawson: Delegation and the Constitution, Regulation, Vol. 22, No.2, p 23.
[xliii] ֱɼPanama Refining Co. v. Ryan, 293 U.S. 388 (1935)A.L.A.Schechter Poultry Corp. v United States,295 U.S. 55(1935)ıϿɲμйƳ1995棬ҳ296-297
[xliv] ɭ˹̹(Cass Sunstein)˵Ȩԭֻ1935ôһ꾰תJames V. De Long, Annal s of the Administrative State: Is ATA a Rising or Setting Sun? Regulation, Vol. 22(1999), No. 3.
[xlv] Gary Lawson, Delegation and the Constitution, Regulation, Vol. 22(1999), No.2, p 23.
[xlvi] Mathew D. McCubbins, Abdication or Delegation? Congress, the Bureaucracy, and the Delegation Dilemma, Regulation Vol. 22(1999), No. 2p 31.
] James V. Delong, The Chevron Doctrine: Running out of Gas, Regulation, Volume 23, No.3, p 5.
[xlviii] Skidmore v. Swift & Co., 323 U.S. 134, 140 (1944) (þΪĹǰϢжϣԺ͵˿ܿԴѰʵָϡض͵Ȩأ俼ǵȫԣЧԣǰʾһԣԼصĿ)
[xlix] лְChevron U.S.A., Inc. v. Natural Resources Defense Council,Inc, 467 U.S.837(1984).
[l] μCass R. SunsteinLaw and Administration after Chevron, 90 Colum. L. Rev. 2074-2075(1990).лԭӰչķ棬ڴ޷1984ʮ䣬лֱ4195ΣѷԼʰôܺͣ4172ΣμRoyce C.Lamberth, Reflections on Delegation in the Chevron Era, 56 Food and Drug Law Journal 11(2001).

μJeffrey E. Shuren,The Modern Regulatory Administrative State: A Response to Changing Circumstances, 38 Harvard Journal on Legislation, 318(2001).
[lii] Administrative Law and Regulatory Policy: Problems, Text, and Cases, p 19.
[liii] μϣйоѧ׳硣
[liv] μ壺Ѱµ㡪йԴ˼ءϾѧѧ20021ڡ
[lv] μܷ257123
[lvi] μϷ35
[lvii] ۲һΰٲǵоҪ龳¡ѧԡɲȨоΪĿǰУԡɲȨһʵijԲȨĹϵִ֮µרͳۡԤк͹֮Ĺȱٳ̽֡ӻв٣򷨵ζ£עִľʵѧͻй·͵Ŀܡ
[lviii] μѧǡҳ97-98ձѧҰҲΪ죬ѧϣָƷľе񣬶һָάֹáμҰ꣺˳룬ɳ1999棬ҳ9-10
[lix] ءë׶ѧۡ߼ΰ룬ɳ2000棬ҳ6
[lx] ڡǡУڸ˽LeistungsverwaltungǶġɡμѧǡҳ47-48ҹѧڰ߼ΰԵ¹УԽμڰ¹ҳ10-11ءë׶ѧۡ߼ΰ룬ҳ8
[lxi] ѧǡҳ99
[lxii] ѧǡҳ79
[lxiii] ѧǡҳ85-86ڡۡɲμ񣺡ĸ¹ѧۡϲᣩҳ189-193
[lxiv] μࣺᱣƶȡɳ2001棬ҳ46
[lxv] Administrative Law and Regulatory Policy: Problems, Text, and Cases, p 20ݽȫĿɼhttp://www.polsci.ucsb.edu/projects/presproject/idgrant/sou_pages/froosevelt12su_remarks.html
[lxvi] Goldberg v. Kelly, 397 U.S. 254 (1970)׿ɲϣйƳ磬ҳ400-401
[lxvii] Administrative Law and Regulatory Policy: Problems, Text, and Cases, p 27.
[lxviii] Matthew DillerThe Revolution in Welfare Administration:Rules, Discretion, and Entrepreneurial Government, 75 New York University Law Review1121-1220 (2000).
[lxix] ɣۡӡ1927棬ҳ2-3ת޺šйѧ޺šࣺʱйѧйƳ2001棬ҳ94
[lxx] ҹܷûд涨Ȩܷ92͵26йڻܷ淶μ󣺡ܷ淶淶ܷ淶ܷѧһǰԡҳ225-228
[lxxi] 󣺡ܷ淶淶ܷ淶ܷѧһǰԡҳ221
[lxxii] μʷࣺ̽ᱣϷоɳ2000棬ҳ98-102
[lxxiii] 绹ˮ硢ͨĻʩṩӪʽŴҵϢṩȶ෽档μȺšԪճ湫˾2000棬ҳ11
[lxxiv] μйᱣƶνӳ̽ءս20002ڡ
[lxxv] μJerry L.Mashaw, Bureaucratic Justice: Managing Social Security Disability Claims, 1983꣬ҳ18
[lxxvi] μѧǡҳ15-18
[lxxvii] μѧǡҳ15-18
[lxxviii] μѧǡҳ219-230
[lxxix] ڶѧ˵ʷоɹɼ޺šйѧ޺šࣺʱйѧйƳ2001棬ҳ93-100ëѰѧǶαʷ̳200187գ
[lxxx] âйʶڰ¹ءѧ20011ڡ
[lxxxi] ڰС÷Ү¼ѧ˵ɲij񣺡¹ѧߡ¹19ѧķչء¹ѧۡҳ126-132Michael Stolleis, Public Law in Germany,1800-19142001꣬ҳ392-394
[lxxxii] μ񣺡¹ѧۡϲᣩҳ132˳ձͨۡйƳ1998棬ҳ69
[lxxxiii] ʱձŨJġܷۡ˱룬Ⱥ緢У1911926յ3棩͡Ҫڷ˼ǫ룬Ϻӡ1934棩ľеġѧ֮Ǩ룬ƽѧѧԺ1937棩ȡμëѰѧǶαʷ̳200187գ
[lxxxiv] ɽ1927ڡ̹ۡԡȻз֮벻˼һϣ֮ܡǣΨ֮˵֮ƣΪҳɷдʵ֮һDZʦŨʿ֮֡ɣۡԲ֡ת޺šйѧҳ97
[lxxxv] μӣҪɳ19836°棻Ӧꡢάѧۡ˳1985档
[lxxxvi] Ҷطָģĸ↑źؽѧһʼ۶ǽ۵ֵ̬ģ۵ķչʼ1989꡶Ϸ䲼֮󡣲μҶط᣺ľ񡷣1999棬ҳ5-6Ϊѧѧһְַҵ߶ѧһѧҵ̬оõһķչμףϵԭ򡪡 һȽϷķйѧ˶ʿģ2000꣩ҳ3-4
[lxxxvii] ӿԾٳܶ࣬ҹΪĸΪ͡ΪĻ֣Լ¹淶ļо¹ϵһ㴦ֵȸͿ൱档
[lxxxviii] 񣺡ѧǡйѧ20019°棬