ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 

˹ɣ˹˹Ϊ˵Ĺ
Quentin Skinner

ԴĻо

йѧ

˹˹Ϊ˵Ĺ
߼飺͢˹ɣӢŴѧڡ
Ԭ˳ 룩
""ԭartificial person,ôʻΪˡˡartificial personһʵ˼ݾᄈʹùҪǿ֮Ϊˡ--ע
һ
˹˹һΪ1651ġά̹ǰԡУⲿ׸˹ңͬʱĹȨ۵ĸҪ˹˵"֮۷ˣˣϵģȨ֮" [i]ڵмһ䣬˵һ"Ϊͬ壬ҵΰά̹" [ii]˹ĹȨ۵ľ裬ǿԱȷΪȨ""ǸˣκκϷбǹ˱
˹ƪָһ⣬ѱ֤۵һѾõ⡣һ棬ѧͬ˹ΪȨ֮ [iii]˹ڡά̹ģ"ǵ--֮Լƶ"޷Ǿ"ҵ־Ⱥ" [iv]һ棬ѧҲͬ˹˵ģҲDZģ޷Ǿǿٴû˹Ļұûκ"ʲô""һնŲ" [v]ǣͳ⡣ΪһԶ׼ijܹ֮ƶɣͷ͡սиάİȫְܵǸ֮壿 [vi]
֮Ծ۽ڻ˹һĻشһԭϣϸڹ͡ڡά̹ĵ16¸˵ʵϿԱΪ"һ" [vii]˴ϺָDzġ˵ҲȨı͸ˡЩڻ˹׵Ҳδֵע˼оijɹ--о [viii]--Щ̸ܶӦأڹ͵Ǵͻ˹Ϊ˵Ĺһžһ
Ȼ˹ۣҪdzѧԭע⵽ģΧȨҹ֯ǵĹҿƺDzdz̳еۣǴûУǿ۵ģͼȫ˼Ȩְ֮λһ⡣⼤ңϣԻ˹ʷĿ죬ܵóڴʷȤĽ

һ--κ򼯺--οܲȡже⣬˹ƳһڲͬġźܴӰķȡڶĹΪķ֮⡣ҪΪοЧعڴˣ""ϴ˵Ϊʹ۵ĴʵϲûʵʩΪҲԭϲʵʩΪҲˡ
ڡά̹ĵ16µУ˹ֱ룬˻شһµĿǡˣȨ˺˴ĽѾĿ׵رʾˣֱ֮˵ӡ̶ԻԡΪضһΪĹһ壬һһΪλ˱һͨǰжЧƴǰ [ix]
һԼɡά̹ƺѧ˵롷 [x]ѧ˵롷ĵ14ʮףʵĺ壺ֲͬƲߣǴ̵ֻߣ䴬 [xi]÷Щ£ͬPraeponere--Ĵ [xii]ʱ㽫ԴʵʩκΪĺΡ㱾ҲûʵʩһΪ㽫еPraestareΣǾ˵ִ֧ߵΪ䵱ԼΪΪ֮ [xiii]
˹мּ--1740 [xiv]һе--ѾʶһۣԷչһĸȤ [xv]1640ָ屾ġԭڷѧڸѾˣCivil Personsһ [xvi]"һȻ˵Ⱥ"ܹ"ͨԼϳһ" [xvii]۹񡷵汾УԸƪһ [xviii]һлңCivitasΪһˣ÷˵־˵ԼЩ˵־ [xix]
ͬʱ˹ʼʣΪַܹˡڡԭУ"һȺеκΪ""ȺˣΪȺ˵Ϊ" [xx]ڡ۹񡷵Уʼ𰸡ڵ7УڱΪһpupulus"κΪȨܹIJͳһȺ"֮һ [xxi]7еӦ֮壬һȺ봿һȺȣ"һΪܹ"˵ܹһж [xxii]
Щ۵ڣû˵ĹνеģҲû˵ĹЩǼðĹֻ1651ġά̹УǡЩ⣬һֹΪ۲ŵϵͳչȻһŬΪijЩģ֮衣˹ԼʶЩȱ㣬1658桶ˡʱץסĽڸУβһ׸ˣDe Homine Fictitioһ⡣Ժ޶ά̹1668ijʱ˽һô1651Ӣİġά̹ʼΪ˹ȫIJǻбҪطοЩɫ
˹ڡά̹ĵ16£ͼݴһΪ [xxiii]ڸôӽʾ˵ĸʼ
νˣΪΪԼģǴһ˻κĸˣЩйʵķʽ [xxiv]
ֱǣΪһ۲ý͸ܹԼʹعǣۻýһܹ----ַʽϴߵпЧعǸˣһ۵㻻֮˹Ը˵ģΪһҪһο˵ж˵ȥ�"ݼȥЧ»ߴԼߴˣ˵е˸񣬻¡" [xxv]
Щйذݣ"personating" е"bearing"ִǺֵģбҪ˹÷ʱ˿ʲôͬѰġرΪԼѧĴʻ [xxvi]˹ǿģʵȡϷԺ [xxvii]д֮ǰ"е"""̨ϵϷĹѾΪʮϤҹ֮Ρ˵ûʲôԱҲ⡣ƥ˹ѩ˿ĹʱǷԼΪְš֮һαΪ¹ײǽ⣺ýһ"һŲ֦һ־dz˵" [xxviii]һһ͸ǽѷ˵ֲܽǽᵽ̨޳"ijЩ˱ǽ" [xxix]Ǻݸþʱǽ޲˹ŵǡİݡ [xxx]
ɯʿǵжչʾϷʮֽǣ⵱Ȼֻϲһ֡һϷǣά̹ͬ˹˵ǽϷԺϤһϵи�""ɰ"κηͥϷԺԵijߺΪ" [xxxi]˵ģ"һˣһԱ̨ͬƽ̸֮" [xxxii]˹۳ǵģPersonaDZʾϷеߵһƽĴʡ
""һͬһϤķȻǻ˹ѡһʡĶAttribuereijӦΪij˵˼⣬ڽһıʵһϵУAttribuere壺һƷʱȷƭ˵ġЩΪͥ۱ĹŴۼͻǿʹ֮ΪһԭÿһıĴڷͥܵʱѰĶʲôߵĹ [xxxiii]Ϊƽཻˣ˭ʵʩijΪҲ˭ӦΪȨߣǸΪߣҲͲôˡЩǻ˹Ҫƽߡ
˹ӹΪһؼ֣ʼֱҪҪ⡣һ˵ΪΪΪЧʹܹǡ˵һʵʩһΪӦǸˣ壩˵Ϊأһ仰ʲôٴֿ
˹ķɿѧÿһ޶жץס⣬ֻڡά̹ŵóһԼĴ𰸡 [xxxiv]ĽһδԵļķ񣬵1642꡶۹񡷵ij浽ά̹ij֮佫10Ϊش۽չ֮һˣȻǿ۵ģԹ۵ΪԭԵĹ [xxxv]ΪɴʵʩһΪЧعһˣֻλijַʽʵصõȨ [xxxvi]ܵίʵʩΪ [xxxvii]ӦأؼȨ [xxxviii]˵dzΪһȨߴӶһȨλõۡЩڡԭ۹񡷵жûг֣˹˾ݳȨ֮ڣδǹεõȨġ֮£ڡά̹УչȨۣ"ΪһȨ"ᴩΪϷṩ֮ [xxxix]
һڡά̹ĵ16µڽ׶ġȨƣ˵ΪΪijض"ӵ"ڿĺʱ˹̽Щ
ôǸ˾ΪߣӵΪǸ˾ȨߣΪǸȨʵʩΪġ̸ƷͲʱߣнKominusϣнkzoirn̸ΪȨ [xl]
˹ʲôһΪߣˣܹǸȨждʱʱȸߣеΪ߶һҪܹõʵȨ֮Ȩ˽ΪȨߣҵΪЩΪĺеΡֻ֧ͨ˹Լõ֤ġһ˵κȨһΪ˶ܱΪȨߡڶ˵ۼΪȨʱǵ̸ߣΪ̸Щˬһ [xli]
һ֮£DZһϷԵĺ壬˹ָģ
ţͨȨһԼҲԼȨߣѾԼԼҲûʹԼһк [xlii]

һڡˡб¶øΪֱף"ijϣһʵʩΪԼģͽȨ" [xliii]˹׼˵Ȩ֮Ա̹ʳѾȨһΪΪ۵ΪԼģκ˵ġ
һڣṩı׼жһνȨʲôµЧԼٵشˡ㱻һƵĴȴû֮ȨΪûΣΪ˵ѾȨʵʩЩΪֻ"Ȩʮ׵"ʱȨ߲Σ෴"ȨǼٵģֻԼΪһΪ֮߱ûȨ" [xliv]
Ϊ˹ṩһ׻˵ͨ׻ƣһ˽ȨʹЧش˲жΪܡͬڵ16£˹ͨƷȨƣ
ռȨΪȨȥʵʩκΪȨȨ [xlv]ȨʼָʵʩκΪȨͨȨΪͨȨ˵ίл [xlvi]
ǣܹȨжЩȨʵʩЩΪˣȨȥʵʩijΪȨȡԸתȨʽΪȨɴϿԸΪ˽һίбͬڻתʵʩйΪȨ [xlvii]
˹ڡˡܽøΪ"˵֮ͨȨijµȨ" [xlviii]"Ȩ߱ӵʵʩȨ߲Ȩʵʩ" [xlix]
ͨźűʾһԼ [l]Ȩ˻෴Ķ˵ΡһΪ˵Ϊ𣬵һDzΡǴʵģÿһλȨԸתʵʩһΪȨ֮ʱ˷˱ȥijµȨ˹͵�"һijµȨǰ˵ɣʹܳԼȨֹ˶ͬһӵȨ" [li]вԵ̽京壺
һ˻Էķʽ˵ķʽȨô˵ȣ˵ֹܵЩȨȨдȨ֮Ӧ----ԼԸΪʧЧڲȨǷģ裻Ȩڴǰת [lii]
һԼͱ뽫ȨĴˣӵΪȨжʱԼжʹȨ
ڿǻ˹Լһ֮ǰҪһ¶˼·飬ݳԽ˹Ĺ۵ [liii]ǶҲֻ̽˹ٳһʱ顣Уһ˽Ǯһİ [liv]ջ˹˳䵱֮ˣɴ˸Ǯİ˵Ϊ˵Ϊ [lv]շҲһ֮Σա�"Ǯϵĺ"ҲʵʩΪ"Ȼʵû"ǵ˵˴ [lvi]ΪΪDZ˵Ϊ
һֿܵķ [lvii]Ǽ֣һڹΪʵʩΪ֮ԵIJ죬һƶǹһ [lviii]˹δַ϶޴˱Ҫʵϲ̸ΪƺʵʵΪһ亴Ĺ"Ȩ"ţһŶٵöࣩһĿĶԣѾˡһΪij˳䵱ȨĴʱ߱�"ӵ"ΪĺԼһǵΪͽǵΪ [lix]ΪʵˣΪΪΪIJеΡ [lx]

ѾչΪĻ˹ĹΪ۵ĻҪ㡣رΪֹʾҪöࡣ˹ʱϸ˵˽ȻͬʵʩΪȻ˻ˣ
һˣΪԼģߴ˻κеĸˣЩΪǣķʽķʽ
DZԼʱͽһȻˣDZ˵ʱͽһˡ [lxi]
Ҫ˹۵ķΧҪܵΪ˶λǽҪЩͬԼΪܹǵIJͬʽ
Ȼ֤֮ǻ˹۵ĸҵģķʽһֵġĵڶΣϸ﷨Ҫָ""Ӧ""ʹ˱DZˡþȴζָ�""ǵһοʼʱᵽȻˣ׼Ǵˡ
˹ͨϿɵڶֿģڵ16˵"ˣijЩӵЩ˵Ϊ"˺˼Ǵ [lxii]ŪǣЩ˵ԣΪ˶ƾ˽˵ڵ35˵úףڸл˹ƣ"κιҵĹǹˣԼгĴ"ڵ42в˵κ""ͬʱ"ҵĴ" [lxiii]
Ȼҵǣ֮Ļ˹IJѾһϽ [lxiv]˹󽫵16µһλİġά̹ɾöл˹˵˵ǿҵζѾʼоԭԼĹ۵òáκγжϲһֲ͵ľԭڹ˵ijԭԵǾԵġDzû˹ᷨѴ˳ΪˣôȨ˶ǡⱾ൱ģΪȻȻˣȨȻǡƶ˵ȻҼȲȻҲˣ׼鹹ˣpersona fictaʵǻ˹һż""artificial"鹹"fictitiousΪͬʶʹ [lxv]ǽڵIJģܹһˣϸһ"鹹"ͬǾʮǧˡ
ԵĹ۵ǻ˹ŪģԼǵƫʹһǸˡʹһ׵Ӣİġά̹ĺһֵУڽλһһ۵ĹСĦҮΪȻˣϵ۵˵˳䵱ϵϵĴˡ˵߷ֱԼķʽϵۣĦͨϵ۵ĻҮͨΪʥ�"̵ͳ" [lxvi]˼ϵȨԲͬʽԼӶԼתˡ˹˵Щĺʹϵ۾಻ͬ˸ΪΪ"ΪĦһˣʥӻһ"˹Դرǿ˼ [lxvii]
Ȼ˹˼仯ʾøΪģڡˡһٴβ֮ʱΪйʲôأ̸ʱζűߣ
漰ڷϵ÷¶塣˾ǵΪǸ壬Щ˵Ļ˵ġЩԼģô˾һȻˡ˵ģô˾ˡ [lxviii]
İġά̹Ȼȷһ
˾ǻԼ˵ʵʩΪǸ塣Լжô˾˻ȻˣԱ˵жô˾λжĵǸ˵Ĵˡ [lxix]
˻ˣ˹Ϊ˵ǸڱΪˡ
ȻҪٶ˹λڴһʽļʱֻеͷ϶ķݣǾͲˡ˼кǣ䵱һʱ䵱һΪɺϿɵĽɫ֮ߡΪһͨ෴Ĺˡ˹ٳӣΪһ֣һʦһʦһԺԱһܼ࣬һһʦһͷһ໤ˣһݳȵȡ [lxx]ЩеǸڻ˹δֹͣΪǸг䵱һɫǹ磬УǵΪΪ񷨵鹹ƺ͵ڡ [lxxi]Ȼϣõһһһ̨
ҲԽ֮˵Ի˹۵ñǣδȷرһŴڹѧǴ󵨵ģ޶ȿ˵ҲֶԻ˹۵ĶⷽʽȷġȻ˽Լת--ͨͬⱻԲͬķʽת಻ͬ˸񡣵ͬ䵱˵ȻҲɽԼתˣΪ֮ͬΪͬʱҲǽԼһ˽˵ĸתһijһõϿɵĽɫĹ˵Ϊ
Щ볢Եķ࣬ڿڲ˹ǹĹȻ˵ĶĹ۵㡣һȻijܹԼˡû˹Ķ˵ij˵Ϊ"Լ"ͿɱΪһ"Ȼ"ȻѾģκܹⷽӵԼΪˣջ˹Ĺ۵㣬ҲܱΪһȨߣӶܹȨ˳䵱ˡȻ˻һͱǣΪijȷĿģͨίǵжܹԼתɱ߻ˡ
ǣǿ˵Ϊ˽Ȼһ໮ֳ˹˼ϵ뷨һ뷨ȻЩܹԶѡϣ趨ʲôɫ˸ˡ˹ϲ֤޵һ仰ǣڡά̹ģͬʱ"е"಻ͬ˸ǿܵġ [lxxii]˹ԸԵ˼עĶԲķġ׽ά̹ġ𸴡У
ڸ˹һдUnus sustineo tres personas,mei, adversarii, et judicis:˵"ֻһˣȴˣԼҵĶǸˣԼǸ"ΪԵʣһˣΪΪԼ绤ԼˣΪΪĶֱ绤˵Ķ֣ΪдЩְ˷ˡͬϣͨ׵Ӣ䵱ԼȨˣˣԼһȨжһʵ׼ȷ˼ [lxxiii]
˹ﰵʾ"ΪԼ"˼ָĵڶֽ˼룺һȻij֧ˡijܹ˵Լ뷨ԼijŵͬԼԼͬˡ
Щ˼ֵ֮ǿΪʹȻ˵á [lxxiv]˹ƺƳ۵ĹоѾЩν۵һ档һڡԭ̸"ΪȻ˵"ʱƺе˶Ȼ [lxxv]ڡά̹ȷرʾȱ䵱ԼĴҪЩ˰"ͯɵӺͷ" [lxxvi]һ棬ЩɵܹʵʩΪҲʹȨΪܹйǵΪԵõȨļ໤ǵΪġһ棬�"ǶʱڣܳΪʵʩκΪȨ"Ϊûǵļ໤µκΪ [lxxvii]



˹ҲûнȻһ뽡ȫijڵһࡣڻ˹ӢһдԼ20% [lxxviii]ջ˹˲ȻˣٴĿ [lxxix]һųȻԴʵ񷨽"ף"ͳһĺϷͥ"һ" [lxxx]˵һˣ˵Ȩͥ˵ж [lxxxi]ⷴζֻҪѡʹȨļͣ˵ӶŮܱȻˡΪȱԼ˵ж [lxxxii]
Ҫ˹һ෴ĹһĹ۶ŸҪԡΪֹѾһЩȻ˿ͬʱˡ˹ȸȤģЩڸϲȻ˵ˡЩܹȻ˵ص㷽治ܳ䵱ȨߣӶȨԼĴǣЩ˿˵ǵܹЧعǵ£Ϊǵʵʩɱ׼жij˻ijʵֵġ
˹ûʲôرһָ࣬ΪˣԽЩͨȨ˶ԸһλõѾģ˹һҪǵࣺЩܹ""ǵģЩֻͨ""йǵˡ
ڡά̹У䱾ҲdzĴߣû˵ʲôڡˡһУʾֳ˹DZ̨ϵԱ̬ˣ
ڹŴ [lxxxiii]ľԺҶ˵IJԱˣDZ˵磬٤ũԱϰ٤ǼߣǸʱǰ٤ũȻں̨ [lxxxiv]ʹûǼߣԱĸʱҲ [lxxxv]
һģĻĿǰ˼Ҳ½˵̨ϰݰ٤ũĽɫڰ٤ũ˸Ϊᱻڵ٤ũΪҵΪȻDz""٤ũΪֻ"ͨ"ΪڽȻʶһģĴģϷ˹ʾ׷ףȷָҽϷˡΪʱҽװһеûˣûҵΪܹЧع [lxxxvi]
һЩ߷Ի˹ڲʱ̨ƥǿģ˹һ۵㣺ЧĴΪͱӵȨȥȨijȻ˻塣ƥ˵һҪһϷеԱһ"ûжǵΪȨǴûȨҲûʲôȨ" [lxxxvii]һʷ˹䡶ԭһ1640ΪֹϷƷǿڽһ͵һֱӢɵһص㡣Ȩ̨ϵĴȨĹԱά٣ÿһ׼ݵϷôﹺ֤ [lxxxviii]Ժ󣬸нߣӢеϷԺΪᷨر [lxxxix]̨ϰݰ٤ũȻǿܵģѲǺϷģΪѾٿܻñҪˡ֮ҪΪ˹ڰʾϷȨþȨʹ˵һ۵ʲôһֹ֮۵Ƿʷġ
ת˹˵ķࣺЩͨˣжˣʲôˣΪܹӵ""ǵСģ˹ϰһЩˡȤģǸ壬е鹹֮ҲƵķʽࡣ嵱У"̻ᡢԺ"ΪЩ"֮""ܳ䵱Ȩߣ˲ܸǵΪȨ"Ȼܹܺõر"Ժͷ"˻ܹõίдӶȨǶж [xc]УЩżȻȨߣ"Ϊżʲô" [xci]ȻڹŴdzΪ񲻽ӵвƲܹʹȨҽԺŵӵУЩڵõȨˣʹȨ񸸣ǵжĺϷȨ [xcii]
šҽԺ֮˹ΪһҲԵôǶԵã˹ڡά̹Щʱȷʵеԥ˵ǣ"⣬ʲôܱ" [xciii]ȻʶģDZ۵һֺܲҵķʽƺҪ˵ǣҽԺ٤ũһǴʵ塣һҲΪġ෴ҪǣҽԺΪһȨĹͷЧشôͷΪ�""ҽԺŵΪǴ""ҽԺŵΪ
˹ӲͷƤһҡά̹ʱдö˵Ϊжܱ"жܱ" [xciv]⵱ȻӢİ桶ά̹ ""йشǡšҽԺȵˣȻģҲֻУ⣬DzܱЧشͬʱ˹ڡˡаһ˵øֻҪܹЧش"ʹһҲܵһˣǾ˵ӵвPڷΪ" [xcv]˹Ĺ۵ǣȻܹЧشôҽԺȷʵˣǴˡ
һʹû˹һд˭ȨȥȨˣѾȫϣ˹ʱĻشնģάΪҹԱдȨڲ鹹Ĵˣ˭ӵУţԼĶ壬߳ijĿͯӣȻأǻбҪһ£жһȨijȥЩ˵ĵǷЧһǵж
˹ĽʵʩȨΪ˱йصĴ֧ӵеʵϵ [xcvi]˹ΪһֿΪֹϵϸϵȨϵŵӣ˹رȨͷάȨıŵߡ [xcvii]ڶֿΪֹϵǹƹܵĹߵĹϵڽ̻ҽԺӣҲͬɵӡӺͺӵӡЩҪ㹻ķȨ໤˳䵱 [xcviii]ֿΪ֧ǹұеġ磬Ϊʿʱջ˹ʿȨ"Թ" [xcix]󣬻˹˵ֿԣֿرҪֻǺڡά̹ۼͥȨʱȷᵽһʱ֧ʽ [c]˹뵽ͯӣԴΪ˶Ȼ״̬׶֧ȨΪĸʹӽ�"֧亢ӵȨȡ־֮Ȩ" [ci]Ծ߸ȨŸ [cii]

ڿû˹һʼ⣬ڿʼѾΪ˵Ĺһ˷ֽ⡣һʵܳΪȨȨռߣ
Ҫ׼ȷؿ˹Ϊ˵Ĺܵͼʲôλáά̹16¿ƪһȻ״̬µһȺ˵ȫԱ跨""һϷҵĹ [ciii]˵ΨһķʽͨȨijijЩȻǣӶԼתˡⲻ˵Ⱥͬ⽨ʱԵ˵ķʽжġǷڽսνķҵĹ۵ [civ]磬Ϊ绤һߣɫеĵʱ˵ΪԼһһΪ˶ԼΪһȻˣ񹹳һȫ"ܹ䵱һ˵Ľɫ" [cv]˹ɵģǽһܹΪһ˶жȻͳһַɹ۵㡣"ȺȻزһ"˵"ʹ֮Ϊһ˵ģǴߵͳһDZߵͳһ""ʹһȺ˳Ϊһ"Ψһ"DZһ˴ʱ"һ仰ڹ֮ûȻͳһͳһ빲ֻͬһʱܴﵽ"ñķʽȺУͳһ" [cvi]
ڵ17л˹һתԷĻơƺÿһӦͬ"԰ǵһȨһˣһ飬Ҳͨ˵ǵ־һ־"ʵʩһ໥ԼΪ˵"һˣһеǵ�"˽"Dzֹͬ⣬һ£Ǵҵһͳһͳһͬһ"ͨ߶ǵĴܹһ־һĵһ˵ķʽж [cvii]
һȺʹԼγһͳһ壬γһˣ˵ƽҡȺ˵ijԱǻһͬ"һˣһɶɵļ壬еǵ˸"Ⱥ"ͳһһˣͽͬ壬ľͽй" [cviii]--ڡά̹л˹ҲΪ"" [cix]ͳһϵ۱ӵľϷʽһֱӺ--ܺ˹ǿش죬ȺĺûԱΪ"˻еĻŮģȨȴ" [cx]ڻ˹ϣƺȨ˵֣Գصǣ"Ǹΰġά̹ĵ߸𾴵˵ϵ۵ĵϵ֮õĺƽͰȫϾǴġ" [cxi]
ǻбҪ֪Ⱥ˾˴֮ʱȺ˵ijԱǵж˵֡˹ش˵˵ֽȨߣ˱Ȩȥ"е"""ݹһ˵Ľɫͬ"һ""е˵ˣȨߣ˵Ȩ" [cxii]İġά̹ͬIJøΪDZһģ޵ġٵְλȨȨӵΪ"е˸" [cxiii]Ȩ߷ܻһȻˣھУǸȻ˵ļ壬ڹƺƵ [cxiv]ȨߵĺϷݽǸ"ߵľԴ" [cxv]
˹ĸֵ֮ǿֻ˶ģõ߶ּ򵥻ˡǸ˵ͨһȺ˵γ�""Ȩ [cxvi]Ȼģͨͬһ˶ʹȺתһˣ֮Ǹ˵ֲȨ߶ǹҡȨͳһһ˵Ⱥ֮˵֣ǾǹҵĴ˵֡
һװڿԿȻʵĹܹΪȨȨռߡ˹ȻϣʵʩһΪʵȨ""ʵʩ [cxvii]ȻСĵؼ֣Ȩ߲ǵȨߡְλռߣְλģǵĸİȫ⡣DZʹȫȨȨȨһȨҪеְλ�""ϵ [cxviii]һкϷȨߵλǣǴ"Ⱥÿһ˵Ĵ" [cxix]




ȻѾģ˹ĹΪ۵۵ǣۺʱһ˻ͬһλǵʲôΪλˣǹǸ˻塣Щߵ˽ԴǶʵʩһΪĺ𣬶۵ΪʵҲǵģЩʵʩΪĴ˵ġӦأۺʱǵȨʹȨԱȡǵİȫ⣬ʵʩΪӦԼģӦڴǸˣˣΪ⣬ǿǡأ֮ͨΪͬҵˣ÷ɴӶ֤ǻðȫ̡֮Ȩ߳ߣ�"ǹͬĴ" [cxx]ˣ"ʩ˵"ȨߣȨߴǸˡǸ˵֣˹սһģƵģ�"ˣͬ" [cxxi]
ǿ˹һ۵·ǺҪģΪƹĹ۷һֶ˸ĻDZڵ [cxxii]DZ֪˵Ȩߵ־ͬ־ͬģΪ˹չʾһͼ"һлĹͬ壬ͬ־Ȩߵ־" [cxxiii]һϷ־ͬҵ־֮䲻ܲһ£ջ˹⵱ȻġȻҷѾĻҪ֤ģΪ˹֮κлͳһֻΪһкϷȨ߶ǴߣǵһйΪǸˣˡ
һ˹ģֹȨĴðںϷȨЩǴ۶ȨоȨĴݵ֮أ⻻ᷨ˭ȨȨҵΪ
˹ûйشȨдȨȨǴĴˣеĴ˱õȨҵΪҲɹұȨһ˴ȨԼΪһȻˣܹʹԼȨԼ¡ҲһȻˣ෴һϹҸ簬³Ϸеİ٤ũһˡ٤ũڣΪϵĴʶʫԱüɽȱȨϵĽɫͬһͷϵʵ塣
ⲻ˵˹Ϊһ鹹ˣһЩ߼ֵġ [cxxiv]Ѿ˵Ķǣij˴ǣǵĴʵʩΪ�"ͨ鹹"ˡԻ˹ۼΪҪ֮ڣȨʵʩΪ""ڹңʵʵеĹҵΪ
ȻܹҲ鹹ģҸΪ鹹˵һеһ֣һٵijԱҽԺŵȵʮơЩһܹжΪܹ""ΪȻҲһܸκδȨӶȨԼĴ˹˵ģ"ͨˣûκ" [cxxv]ȷʵĴģɱΪ֮Ĵ鹹˸ΪơҽԺδ˻ʱȻǶûȨ�"ֻһ仰"ûнʿǾ"ʲôҲ"һ [cxxvi]
ô˭ܹȨҵΪأǶһЧȨڶȥߣŵȨͷűӣĿ쵱УѾһﵱ֪˴𰸡ģһǶԴȨһȻԼӵȨȥǴȨκΪһǣһȨ뷴һʵǾʵĹϵ֮У֧䴿ˡ
ڹϣջ˹ֻһֿܵķʽַʽЩܵõ㡣ֻȨѾõȺеÿһ˵ȨȥʵʩΪȨߵĹΪҵЧΪһֹ۵㣬˹ͬҵʽ壺"һȺ໥Լÿ˶ΪȨԱʹܰΪڴҵĺƽ빲ͬķʽȫֶεһ˸" [cxxvii]
˹һ۵úܺáȣָȺеĸԱɵӵʵʩΪ֮ȨЩΪΪҴߵȨʵʩ˹Ȩ߱ȨȥʵʩΪ·ʱһ˵úǵжȨȻ״̬ÿһ˶ӵеġЩȨԸΪۺַʽʹԼȨ޿ָɣֻҪжЩʽDZԼֺҪģͨЩʽֹвðȫ [cxxviii]ΪʹЩͬȵȨսԵĵʶάֺƽ÷ʽǽǵȨתȨߣʹǶԼһȨߣӦŸΪЧظṩƽһضĿġ֮ȨȨߣҪʹǵЩȨЩȨֻҪһʹͻᵼս [cxxix]
󣬻˹֤˵͹˶ԣȺ˵ĸԱ--Ծ--һʵ֧ϵǵ֧ȨԴһʵȺ˵ͳһ¹ҵIJȺҵĹϵͬȻ״̬ĸӤĹϵĸ׽Ӥϣ˻˶֧ȨȺ˵ͳһʺҡ˹Ϊϵ֮֮仮һƽߣһļˡ"ͨԼЭһʵڷһͳһϵ۴ʱһҪˡ [cxxx]


ʲôʹ˹γһӱ۸ӵĹۣΪעڡά̹ƪʱ˵ϣµĹ˵ϣ෴Ľ֮ͨѽ"һı̫ɣһ̫Ȩ" [cxxxi]
ЩŸȨˣȨۼң1640ĹȨЩƣһȨ"Ȼ" [cxxxii],ϵȨ"ֱȨ" [cxxxiii]һͳߴǴͬ⵱лȨ"ȨѡǵĹҲѡǵĴʼ" [cxxxiv]˹ҿһԼĹȨˣս۵áش˵һȨ"" [cxxxv]ȨΨһԴֻЧ"ÿһ˵ͬ" [cxxxvi]Ȩߵdz䵱ҵĺϷ˱"ЩҪͳÿһ˵ͬе" [cxxxvii]ȫ˵ķϵ۵Ľ
1640սʱڣͬĹ۵Ϊ֧ʹõҪ۵㣬ԴɹȨ˴ӷҵƷУ1642ġ۲졷һ۵ҲӰİ汾 [cxxxviii]귴ɵſƪ [cxxxix]ƪдϷȨԲΨһʽǵ"һȺ"ȫķʽжͬͨ"ͬԼ"ܽ [cxl]һǣȻһȨ"ԴȪЧԭ""""˵Ϊ˵ΪС--ΪȨ֮ԴȫҪС" [cxli]һǣΥ֮ȨȫϵԼDZ뱣ջǵͬⲢԭȨ֮Ȩܽģ"ȫ"һȨ"ɶԸȨ"ʱȨӦرֶ"һȨʵij" [cxlii]
ܻ˹ͬһкϷͬ⣬Ҳ֧ߴһ۵еóļʮֵ顣෴Ѱ֤ƵЩһԹɵرΣյġУǰ׼ӵķʽͨ׼ȷΪۣѾвˡ
˹۵һַʽһȺοܳ䵱"һ"˵Ϊһ̵ǡ⣬ȫε۵׹ܣ
˵Ȩܵ˵Ϊ󣬱еκһ˵Ȩ󣬶˵ȨΪСȨСȫһһ۵ûʲôΪȫһԼÿˣָͬ˼һ˵ǻƵġ˵ͨȫһǶԼһˣȨ߳еǸˣôȫһȨȨߵȨͬ˵ǻƵġ [cxliii]
˹Ҫ֤ǣȻֻͨһȨߴӶתһʵ壬ҪһʵȨȨʹƣûʲôˡ
Ȼ˹ӦΪԽɵ֮ҪʽͨȨһʲô˼һķΪȷһ̣Ǿܿ붩ԼʹȥȨⴿDz߼ۡ෴ǽͬǺϷΨһԴһ˼룬ǿҺȨǵֿΣȫݵġ
Ѿģ˹֤˵ȨΪҪЧʵʩ뷢ȨתơһԼһͨȨˣauthorising agentͶĴȷΡһ"ӵ"ǵΪԼҲѾȨжκεΪһΣDzҪȥʹڵȨΪְʱΪõķʽȥȨѾԸתǵȨ
ڡά̹ĵ17£˹֤˵ϷɵԼòȡʽȺ˵ijԱͬһȨˣǵͬһȨԼԼһЩȨѾתƵľ�"һַʽ"Լ"ͺ˶ÿһ˵ҳ˻壬ҹԼȨ" [cxliv]ͬʱ˹漰ԼľȷԡȺ˵ijԱͬģ"ǵһȨһ˻һȺ" [cxlv]ѾģвֱӺáһһ־˽תһˣˡҲȨ˵ĴˣȨ˱"е""֧"ˡȻ˵һо˵Ⱥ˵ijԱȻǵȨߵһΪȨߣͬʱѾȨȨȥǸˣ˵һΪȨߡȺеÿһԱ"ԼȨ˳е˸йعƽȫȡκΪΪ" [cxlvi]
˹ڵ18תһԼĺ塣Ⱥ˵ijԱѾʹԼжȥðȫ֮ȨѾתҹȨȨߴԼʹǰջ˹ȨۣȺ˵ijԱڱ봦ڲľ֮£ȥǵȨʹѾȨȨ߻ȫжԵȨȥʲôԱƹµÿһߵİȫ




˹һȺ˵ijԱûκȨȥѯǵȨ֮Ϊǻһȥ"ӵ"ǵȨѰǵİȫʱܲȡһΪ˵ջ˹ĹΪۣȨߣԼɴ˶ĹҵĹΪȺ˵ÿһԱΪǷԼȨ߲DzʵҵִΪڷԼ
ڵ18µһ֮ܽﵱУ˹˵£
ڰԼ֮ÿһ㶼ǰԼȨߵһΪöϵȨߣԾͿԵóһ˵Ȩκκγ񶼲ֺܹκҲûɿظ壬Ϊһ˸һ˵Ȩκʱһ׮ϲܶȨ߹ֺȻԼ֮ÿһ˶ȨһΪȨˣ˱ԹȨֺ߽˾DZԹԼȨ飬DZӦÿظ˶ֻÿظԼ [cxlvii]
ܻ˹ں䵱һʱԵ⣬ʵûбҪֲظ [cxlviii]ڹΪ˵Ѿʹܹ֧۵㣬ǸʱļҡԼ۲һƹȨķʽȷĻȨûơΪ۾ڡά̹ѧĺġ
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