ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ

 

ʷ콨sܷһýڱʱϵ


ϵ̰֮ĹϵױǴѧѧʿpſ˴ѧѧʷ콡8սܶάרʱƩoܷһȷԭoýڱʱϵɡ


ʷ콡˵oױǴѧѧԺרһſΩoܷһ(First Amendment)һssڽֹ̻Ž̩rۻɩrƽΪʹԩѩƽԸȨ(Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.)o۩pܷһ涨""ԭеõ֩pȫıΪܷƶΪo۳ɩo֮

ôoý۳ɺͷ̰֮ûнةtʷ콨˵o߷Ժ״ŦԼʱ(Sullivan vs. New York Times Co.)oΪý屨ȷ˼ԭ

1964oMontgomeryǾֳΪoŦԼʱھƽϢСʯɧʱıoһֽŦԼʱ浽ԺoҪ⳥50Ԫp߷o͵߷Ժ

ʷ콡˵oԺöߡԺΪoȩo˽ܷɱoڹ˵oӳΪ֮oʵѾԸ˸˵IJ˽o۵ļලoΪ֪Ȩڹ˽Ȩξֳoڹ

ΩoýıҲܺƩoʲôطԺͨһo޶ýǷڱʱԹ˩oֶָýδ֤ıoֻҪû֤ݱý"ʵ"(Actaul Malice)ɩoΪý岻ȫʵoر·֮Ķʱڸ˩oֻҪýʵй֤oʵΩoɹĶˡ

ٴΩoý˵ľ֤״ýԭһԺΪo֮˩oΪһ涨ýе֤Ωoýٹ˾ľo븶ʱpǮ;oҲе߰ʦΣoΪԾڱɩoӶýļලáԩoԺöoý屻ʱoξ֤ѷ

ͥгƩoܷһ"ةpةp㷺"(uninhibited, robust, and wide-open)Աo֤ݱǹѻ"ȫȻ"(reckless disregard)ʵࡣ

ʷ콡˵oȻoýҲ"޷"ĩoýڱǹʱo۳ɾͲԭ򱣻o׳"̰"˾ڱʱoϵɡ