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һ20йëһõ顣ëԸʽʩӰ죬Ϊ¼̶ͨľ飬ҲγΪĵ񻰣ʱ񻰡ë󶫶йձģҲ־õĹ׾ë󶫵˼롣ĿDzë󶫵˼ķչʹҲëԼʱ˵

˼Դʷ˼ҲʷĽ̡ҵһͼë󶫵˼һܵĿʱһĿͷдĻۣ˵ȷģڼ򵥶ҪΪر20ǰϸ˼ͨոԴγɵģϵͳ֮󣬾ҪΪﵽһĿĶȥӦáʵϣë󶫵˼뼰ڹ᳹ĹDzϱ仯ģȻë󶫱˵ĸԺйĻ֮ϵĻԭгԡ

һ̵ĸ׶Σÿһ׶ë˼ʵʼ䵼¸ش仯ͱӰ죬γ˱Ҫص㡣ƪԽйëһеһЩ˼

Ϊֹʹˡһȴû˵ν˼ʲôijָΪȻͲܶ׼ȷĶ壬ҲѾЩۻʲôĿǰоۣΪʹ֮ʽıԼνָһָӰԶչѸͣҾȥһϻԻжϵȻ京ٶе㲻ȷС仯ķΧٶȲǸ̶⣬Ժж֮ĽʵһжϣҪ˵۵ԣʵеЩھʻžԵáΣۺ־ӦֽܳʾǽҪ

̸ܹһ20й𣿴20ͳ19ͳʼǷһϵĸ̣ڴ˹Уÿһ׶ζǰһ׶εĺϺ߼ıȻ˵ʵڵǷֻһϵб˴˷ĸޱҪijֱȻϵһ

̽Щ⣬̶ĸ׶ΣҶֲָͬΧĸθĻøȣаġ͵ĸë󶫱ڹȥᵽοߡѶȡȨĹؼͬʱΪҪʵθҪĻθزٵIJ䡣

һθйΪʲ׼ʵģë󶫻ûпʼйʷ֮ǰͷˡȻ1911ĸһɢġ޽¼1949ʤҲ1927꽯ʯĹͬһʮȷ֧֯ɵġɽԼ쵼֯ΪƷƶȴɽ˼û֯19111010յ壬ҲûгɹؿһĽˣ1911Ȼɨ˻Ȩ˼룬ΪδαҲΪ͵ĸ

1911귢ĸͳηʽı仯峯ı19ͳһֱڽŵʷ仯̵Ķ㣬ѻƬսĽԭں̶ܴǹڵģ18ĩ19ͳ˿ڵļ־úij֣ЩǾƶԶԸġȻ֧֮գǼ֮ʱǵĴڣҲƽµء

1840˶йԵࡣŷˡ˺ձ˶йȨ͸ַþʹﵽij̶ȣũм˶˵ηޣҼ硢֪ʶ͵ϲڸ϶Ϊı״1950˼Ͷ˹̫ƽ忴һµĸǡάйսǿɳΪսۣΣ̫ƽ˶һƶԺй˶ȡ˱̫ƽŸӽʽ

Ȼж1911θķõġʹ˵ͳߵĵӣΪۣЩͳ߿ҲǸˣӴͳ۵㿴ʧġǰ;ܵľ޴ʹ࣬ʹԽԽйɸӪת˸Ӫ

һֶԵ˼ų⹹йĻϵһθҲ19ҶһֱڽŵĻĽ˼Ĵ룬ʼɢģԺͳӿ󳱡ǵӰ£йĴͳܵҵij˼µĶ¶ֻ֮ܳΪǷ˶֮ǰɼĻǻٽġ

ԺθУëΪһʿ΢ʱǵĻ߳Уڸ֯˶У1915ꡰʮһǩ1925ġئ˶ٵ19261927±䣬ëȻǣȴǸӰˡ2020ũũսʽֵë䲻ǷߣȣȴɹĴߣũݵλսķʽΪ˵·

Ƿζëѧ߼ʮΪһλũҡһЩ˳ֹ۵㣬ɲë󶫿ũϹеDZڸԣΪȻũ巢һЩߵøԶΪë1927겻ʱ˳Уȫ˹˽׼쵼ĸȫ˳֪ʶӽܳڸеãʹԼΪʵũеĿ뱧ʥͽ

ëԱũȥи޿ɵʵΪëäĿظũȥ쵼ǣȻǻġۺʵ϶֤ᶨƵŷڵȷӵ˼롣һֹ۵Ҳվסŵġֹ۵Ϊ1927ǰɳ֪ʶеĽܳռ֧λйͬë쵼µijнܳﲢûܴõйȫġǣë󶫶ũйеĵλʶԼͷijЩũʶӰ죬2020ڵ1976˰֮ãЩͬ˼ȷ˼ġͳɷΪһ壬ȷʵһӵġֳɷֱ˴˳ͻ˼ģʽ

һ棬ë󶫵ĸ۲ЩܹѳΪ֯ߺۼҵĸˣҲһ֪ʶڣһҲͬһ㡣йĸ˶ǴӾ˵ѧʶǿʼġë1939˶ݽĹ۵㣬λɾˡۣ˵˶Ȼ֪ʶӷģɹˡũɵġܴﵽսʤ۹ͷ⽨Ŀġȷ˵ѧ֪ʶӣһ淴ӳë󶫱˶20йĿ

Ȼֿ˶ʼһġë 19198дǵ¡ǵĹҡǵᡣDz˵˭˵Dzɣ˭ɣ4 һʱһֱûиı䡣ģҪһй˵ʹУһȷɵĹ۵㣬ë󶫶ԸвͬҪ֮ĹϵĿ˼Ǹո1939һλøԺ19591960䣬ëξѧ̿飩ʼǣ5Уļ⼯ȷϵͳ˹ʷϵۣ

ʷµĸ߶ȷչڸıϵDZҪǵĸǴ˼塢˶ʼģµۣɴȥƶǰչֻڸƷϲ㽨пܴݻپɵϵɵϵݻٺµϵܽΪµķչɨ·

µۺͶȡȨ֮ǰDzܽ⣬ģչģһձĹɡ6*

ëξѧ̿顷岿ʱһиʷ֤гַչȻŸϵҪۣиȡȨпɵϵ˾ɵϵȷµϵΪµķչ˵·л񹲺͹ʷѧࣺë󶫶ξѧע̸170ҳע

λȻDZһּ⣬ϲ㽨ı仯𽥷չģı仯ֻܳθ֮θͨ۵ĶԱ׼ʹ֮ΪܡּëһǿԾܶԡϲ㽨ҪһµġӦָλиҪȷë󶫱˵ģʽҲӳΪйʷĻı

֮Ĺҵë󶫶ΰֹҵΪйij㣩7ݿʼһḶ́ë󶫺˶ڼΪһ̵IJμߣͨĻմθĴţȻٽ1949Ժ졣ëģ鱾ҲڴһܽձԵĸ۵ʱëҲƾŸٹ̵й˵ϰڰ¡֪ʶӲǧйƶžԵãһֵġ͡ʽͳεУۡҲȻҪŪī˲룬1919ˡë󶫰⿴ǵȻ顣ⷽ棬ǷʶйЩԳĴͳΪĻ֮ڻ˵׼仰˵˵Ǹũң˵ǸũIJμӸ֪ʶӡΪǴһʱΪһ֪ʶȥʵͳι֮ġ

潲˶1949ʤй׵ģʵѹ㷺ΪܡǣȺ߸Ҫһ۵⡣ֱйٷʿĹ۵Ϊ˶ǽʷִʷķֽߣͺر˶DZ1949ʤҪҪı2080Ǹƫһֹ۵㣬Ϊʵִʷʼı־Ӧ1949ȡȨΪ˴ʱ嵽ʽĵ·⣬һƪȨԵУ͸¶˵1956꣬˵1919Ϊִʷ㣬ʱִʷӦ1949ꡣʽ˼ʷһǡı׼ΪɣǴ˲ֹͬ۵㡣8ݿȡõëֵ֧Ĵ˵Ĺ۵㣬˶ΪִʷĿˣ׵ġ

³1919־ʲ׼׶οʼë1939ġرǿָʱƶȲûзı仯˶ǾͳΡ9ë󶫵Ȼ֪µʽҪԣͬʱëֲεΪ˶һԲμӹ˶ǻʱĴ¼10

19191949ԵҪʲôبʱ֮30йչջʤ30ꡣʵйǿƶʤԭйҪӳйں͹ƵıȻơ͹۴ڵйũҵƶ⣬ϵҵ¹淶𽥽岢Ϊİϵ棬Щλʹ˾вʤֵơ

ǣۿ͹ôй1949ȡʤʤʵǽǡйһǷӳ˶ȡȨĶҲӳij൱̶áë20йдԼӡûķĹ۵ȫǿˣȥԺ˼ܵƣһЩȫʵϣ˼쵼Ӱ̺͹㷺гɰл񹲺͹Ϊë󶫵йȥԺ󣬾µӡѾŪ飬ѾͿĨǴȻɼ

ëΪʲôܹ40Ĵ󲿷ʱڣйƵĿƴﵽ˵ij̶ȣ򵥵˵ΪΪһУй෽ĴijЩؼԵȴ⡣ũ֪ѧʱǣйũ塣ë󶫵ͯʱĸƶũתΪụ̃ʹë󶫴ӡ󶷽С֪ũڵIJƽȡӵйвغеˣЩҪһ̶йũġҲdzƫƧڵأЩطӰ켰ζȫ롣Դ̷ͬ1898ィѧë󶫵ĹʡѾµ˼ζ򣬶Ҳ˷Ӧ

ȻëһйͬйϺϵĵشʲôë󶫲ͬ˵ĸصأʮͻһһʼʱͷdzԼ쵼嶫һЩǿͳߡغĿʵ۵˵ôۺأ̹ʵȷԼܹǡǿҵű䲻ܱ֤һһܵҪνɫûţҪΪһλǿ쵼Ƿdzѵġ11

صһë󶫼ᶨԼй˽ϵһⲻǿҶЭ壬ұȻְййĻҪȥ޸ۣ˼塣ȷʵë۹Уֱڡʵۡ͡ìۡƪУǷչΪ˼֮ǰԨԴһֱ׷ݵdzϵйȥǡʵǡ͹Ŵġ֤

ũļֵۺ֪ʶӵʹУۺйĴͳЩëõ˺гͳһͳֵ֣ʹܹ20͵йʷзãһǺʵġڲͬʷӰ£а˻Ӱ죬Щֳʽڲϱ仯ͷչë󶫵ƽ˼ĸʱڣԼÿһضʱ˼ԭⱾнһֻʵչһ˼

⣬ҲǴë󶫵ĸԺͶһǶȳ⣬ΪԼ˼̬Ҳ˱仯ʱë󶫹ĵҪѰҽйij·ͼʹķȷġʱڣڼ֪̽ʶͬʱʮעشһѧ˵ѧ˵׷߽Լġ꣬Ľһչѧ˵˽ڽʽĻȻͼùȥ֪ʶΪδָһ·

й֪ʶӺ쵼˵ڽë󶫵˼ʱҪǵҪȻǸıͬʱҲϣʵ෽IJ죬Եת۵ҲDzͬġ磬θ¡19825µһ̸н飬йʷΪֱë󶫵˼ƽͬķڡ12һЩ߻ë󶫵˼뷢չķڲͬڵʷķڣë󶫵˼еÿضɲ֣罨ѧ˵֮࣬ӦķڿܣͬʱҪǿЩ涼ϵġ13

ëƽ˼Ľ׶λʱڣԼʶһ׶εһ׶εĹؼԵת۵㣬й˵һֵġص񡣶˵ˡ֤һķ˵ë󶫵˼ķչɷΪ׶Σÿ׶Լʮʱ䣺

19171927 һ׶Σë󶫾˶ֲͬѧϰѧУͲμӸָ壺ѧᵽᡢйš˼뷢չǴ塢ʵ嵽壬ӳתũۣ˼19251927ũЭṤڼﵽ˸߳

19271936 һ׶ëڡߡǹȨ۶Ϊˡëйڵλľ޴仯ڽάʱ쵼ĶУһ֧չΪһ·ߣҲһɱ𣩣19351Ժë󶫽ڵڻϵĺ޿Ȩڽ׶Ρһ׶У¶ʼǸЩУũΧеսۺʵγɣܡ־սսԭ1938ȷƵǣͬȺ·ߡһµĹ۵ͷʱڿʼ֣ܶϵͳһʮꡣ

19361947 һ׶Σëд1949ǰȫҪ1936дġйսս⡷1937дġ֤Ψ۽١ʵۡ͡ìۡǺнѡġŰ¼ӡ˹ŵġҫйǡһij棬һٵϹ̨19367˹ŵϸܵԴë˼й˼룬19421943˶мԹ᳹ȴٽһĿʵ֣Ҳڵڵĵλ19433£ΪξֺǴϯҲʽسΪ쵼еλߵˡ19454µĵߴδϣ˼ΪȫָϡЪ˵ĵͼʧ֮ë󶫰עת˳ƽսظĸ¸߳1947ףս¶еúܺãʤ

19471957 ëָӹսȡʤзҪãͬʱ19471949䣬ʼйȡȨԺٵڿʼʱǿѭģʽѳкعҵᵽλᳫȽߣũ壬ﱣ渻ũΪ˴ٽũҵĻָ1955꣬ͻȻñȽϼˣë7·ƽũҵ廯ĺ٣ͬʱ1956ֶ֪ʶһװߡġʮϵı棨ǵһͼԲͬͨĵ·ϵͳ195652սӼǵʿʱ޶رһλᳫٻţټ1957227աȷڲìܵ⡷ԭУëǴ˹ֵġͶɱͬ˵򣬲׼йϡţл񹲺͹ʷעĿоԵת۵֮һʱ̣ԶĽ׶ȴΪ¸߳ȡȴë󶫵˼УҲڵʱС

19571966 1957ġҡ˶ë󶫵һηdzĴ죬19581960ġԾһĽֻҲȺڼʱë˵ڶߣ桢ܶСƽ˸ƶ͵ߡԷġƽġԾԽԽŭʹ1962ﵳİ˽ʮȫˡǧҪǽ׼Ŀںţʱ׼ڡ޲׼ĻбΪڡɡЩˡ14

19661976ꡡë󶫵һʮձġҵıжԸڵڵĶֺЩΪ˼ϵˡΪϹŻ˿ʼġ19661968ꡰĻĵһ׶Σǻֳһϣ飬Ȼã˶ݱһ޷ƵѪɱë󶫲òֱžȥͣë󶫻ŵʱ򣬱Ϊһ̶ܵƵģεĺûõָëվʱԴͳ˧λԽǿй⣬ȴԽԽûгЧʱ̣˼̸˵1966ԹԼϻԸ֮Ĺеһʧȥż

ἰ¼Ϊ־׶Σǿĸأ˼·ҲܵóһЩ𰸣

Ըγʱڡ19824ݽУ1927ǰʱΪѧͽʱڡڹʱҰΪԸγʱڡһĶθ¡ӰĽθ¡Ϊܰ2020ڵë󶫵һѧͽ15ݳһdzȷ֮⣬һ㣬ҲDzáѧͽʱڡʵĸ˵ɡëһʱڴµĹǶôȷijָѾ߱൱ȷı׼ʸҪʦջרҵسʵϣ2020ûСʦɹëѧϰɽȡ¶㣬ͬë󶫵䡢ȣǶ곤ĸ쵼ˣǵûһ֪ʹйĹȡóɹ˹Ϊ֪1925ǰй£ʵ֤Ҳһɿĸʦë19171927䣬ᵽЩѧһЩҪķ棬ëѧġ

1927꣬ë󶫻ûֵܵѵȫոУԺȫͶ֮ȥˣҪ淢չͱٵ⡣19271936䣬ë󶫡¡»˴˾ӣƶսսʹйȹڳǰͳڼЩǶʱ䣬ڿսɵĸΪĻǵӰ졣

ȷʵжȡȨġйʽ·ӰʱڣëܽǰʮĽѵΪͨũװͬʱʵҷdzɹع᳹Щ˼룬1947꣬йʤˡ

ӡȡȨйʽ·йʽ·19471957꣬ë󶫺ͬ־£Ʒ񵳵ʤɹǵעת徭õ񡣵1957й˶ҵȷʵϣɹ

˼ġԾ1958꣬ë󶫶ԱȺȻսԾʱڣʤʧۣ֮ǣ2060Щ߻ԲߵսҲ¶ǵĻţ60ڣԱս

ʮꡰĻڡ˽ޡĿں£ëͼ壬ΪԴԵȼнˮƶΪݵIJı֮УҴ˵硣ЩˣĿ൱̶ʵˣܲô͸ıĿ˵ë䷢չʮǰŵıȫһִ

ʵϣĻһ䶯ûëймһԵıȻⲢζë쵼й27йʷֻǸת˲ŵĽ׶Ρ෴1949ǰ1949Ժë󶫡ë󶫵˼뼰ë쵼ĸʵӰ죬ֱȻԶ塣ڱġУҽԴۡ

ע

1S.SchramThe political thought of Mao Tse-tunghereafter PTMTp.15.The first edition of 1963 began with the same sentence.

2K.MarxRevolution in China and in Europe20 May 1853F.EngelsPersia and China22 May 1857.For extractssee H.Carrre dEncausse and S.SchramMaxism and Asiapp.119121123124.

3S.SchramPTMT pp.354355գʵࣺë󶫼6331ҳ

4Mao Tse-tungThe great union of the popular massestr.S.SchramThe China Quarterlyhereafter CQ49Jan.-March 1972p.84.

5ָĶʼǣʵë󶫡ξѧ̿页²̸¼塷л񹲺͹ʷѧࣺë󶫶ξѧע̸71808ҳ1998ӡע

6ݡë˼꡷1969걱棩334347ҳMao Tse-tungA critique of Soviet economicstr.Moss Robertsp.51pp.6667

7ݲμ£йִʷ⡷ءʷо19834

8ݣ9ݲμ£йִʷ⡷ءʷо19834

10ݲμ7275ҳ

11ݹë󶫵쵼ƷʺõĹ㷺ۣμParty leader or true rulerFoundations and significance of Mao Zedongs personal powerin S.SchramFoundations and Limits of state power in Chinapp.203256

12ݲμθ¡ë󶫹ۺ߶ʩķë󶫵ļƪµθ¡ȫ潨ĵ·321ҳй뵳У磬1983

13ݲμ֣־쮣ë󶫽ѧ˵ʷڡءë˼о19852

14ݹڴ19571958ļߵĻıȻϵμS.SchramThe limits of cataclysmic changereflections on the place of the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolutionin the political development of the Peoples Republic of ChinaCQ 108Dec.1986pp.613624

15See the Preface to S.SchramMao Zedonga Preliminary ReassessmentgiԼע12̸֤İ档