ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
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̵һΪѧ߳ӵɾʱһ۶ڸضжϣάȨȨűʵIJͬʵʶԣ߽˸ιҵĶԺͲַԣǰչ˻̶˵ԺԵص̶졣
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룺·dz磬20063µһ


Եǰı˼άʽڡ·һָһֵòڹ͡ʡĽƶȡǰǿ塢ձԺּѲƫ˽崫ͳеԴչһֱȽữ⻯͡1õģǵе壬йᄈµ壬ijЩ˼ƫͽ򣬲ܴͼἫҲСƶȵӦ˵ķΪеΪʱģֵѧ̵ط˼

DZҲע⵽λԳơѲ˼ִ֪ʶӡԾɰѲԵ˼ʶ̬½ҳ2ڶĻ֪֮١ҲȱϿɡ֮˼еġε塱֣ڶпάȻɫѧߵ˼Ľ棬ž޴˼ڱУԽпάйءרơ˼ķһҪΪз2նĻеĿͶпάԭĶΪпάѰҵ˻ڽ̡֮ì֮ڴ˻ϣ߳ԶһնΪᡱصз뽭ȶһڽɫʱȽᡢǻ̵᾿ڡרơƶξʱһìܵġ

һ Ļ龳еĽ

DZΪ崫ͳӢҲDZΪ崫ͳķ͵¹˼ڴ˼ĻȽ֮еֲ첻̸ռЩҵĹͬ۶Ƿϣ֪ģͽƶȶԴЩҡȽ֮£ӡȽ˹ûԷϵ˼Щִ̣ij˵ھͼѧпչġһЩ־ʿ˵ͼ汾ǻüë飬ûʲôʱ뾫ǿ֮ŨĻ˼άʹŬȥˣҲֻǷһЩƤëص˫ش̼£йѧо˼ΪǿҵĽɫʡԡġĻ˶ʱڵ֪ʶΪ׷Ϊǿǿĸ֮ǡ롰ѧǿ֮Ϊ̵˼ĻЩ˼Ļ֮ол˼Ļսڼ估֮󣬳ijʶ̬Ŀģַ׷֮壬ֱӴٶйĽһӾ硣

˼Ŀߺ˼γɳڵһЩҪﶼǻͽ̵ܻӰ죬ʩ˹ΪһߵĻ˹ˡ3ά̹У˹˴ıīᵽ˻̣ά̹һܹʮ£ԡڽ̡⼴ռеʮ£ĵֺ͵IJֱַΪۻϵĹҡ͡ۺڰ Ի˹Ӱ죬ֻҪʮһ¡ʥְ֡һбظܵաά̹ȫ飬Dzѵó¿Фڡά̹һȷָ۵㣬˹Ψ뻳֮ڹ͡ά̹ȷʽڻ̽˵Ե̶죬˹ָûһȨȨȻģֱڱϵ֮ʱij׵ľ꣬ˣֶĻ壨ȻҲȨߵġȻԡĻɷ棩֮ϣ¿Фƣ˹ѧȶԳΪĺ߸ࡣ4

ͬʱдˡۡл˹ȨĻϣ¾ƹۣܵľеִȨȨ˾ѡٲᡣֽȨָ費ͬʹԼƣ˳ΪȨơԻ˹Ȩ壬˼ᶨָ˭ΪȨܴǵʺ;ǵӸԣֻҪһµκʱʷͻʵ䷴ 5֮ԹٸӢȨĺϷԽ˳ֵ֤˱Ȼ˹Ӯ˸ߵ̸ˣǾܾƵĹĴߡȨѧ˵ĵˣŹΪۡλ߲ġ֮֮ǣǻиĺӣ硶ڽ̿ݡһʾģܹظܵ˵ͽݣûݣ˼̫ij׵ġԼۡ۵㡣6

һ顶˽ʾɹ˼ݺͷ˵ԺԣҪ˶ɺȡɣνɡȾҲԼܹʲôǾʲôɹĽȻ˶ñǰ߶ѹֺߵģûһһοԼģҪĸ͵ʦͨԼźͱҪĽͷʵֶֶͯơƷ˼Ļ˵ǣֻеŵ㣬ѹԵ㣬ſơɵĽûһƶȿԵĻõ̵ۺͱ绤ɵĻרƵģҲĻǶõġһ־ԵᣬӦñ򵥵ػԼΪһֻĹȨְܵƣӦö˵ŶʹࡢޡŰʤ࣬ǫֺ̽еĹػ7ոѧΪڻԼ£ڶ˵ԺԵ̶죬ѧɹĽѧѰ˹ͬۻ

ЩԻ۾Ϊ徫пάġ˵üΪΪɴࣺұΪȨһΣյĶҿκˣʹȨֻϵۿӵȨΣգΪϵ۵ǻۺ͹ʼȨȵġûһȨ䱾ֵػӵеȨַʹԸжܼල㷢ʩ˵ơҿκһȨԾһеȨʱǰȨǹ߳ǹȨھʹڹ͹ʹҶҪ˵Ǹӣҽ跨뿪ķ8

һȨǹ˵רƣdz֮Ϊ˵ıרƣ־רƣǡ˵ı֮߶ϵľȨпά·ʮ˶ͷ̨ڶרƵѣġֻǺųơ˵Ǿ䡰ɣɣЮУȴǵƷרƾɵа˼ݻٵһɶ

֪ʶĹֵ̳ʧ̣ʱ֪ʶ컯̡ʹ˵ıΪ֪ʶ̼䣬ƺȻ徫ľڡʹǵˣҲԽ۵ʽ䣬۵̡֤ĻпάѧĻλֻҪ㷭пά鱾ԿΪѧ֣пάǸͽΪĻʣǸᣩνǸʰǡνڡרơľ裬Եڶ˵Եʶ˳µ߼ȱԴ˵ʶijּ˾ӢĶרƿܼǵķУڼĶרƵľƶȻȴδܽѧճ̡ԱпάѧԼѧ⣬ǽϵжϡ

ӹϣڽ̵͸ʽ

һΪܽġڸ塱ʽѧοѧķ˼DZȽԾģصʦԭȥ˼壬ǷdzǡһȻָ˼ܹսǶʶҽ˱ҲѰһijִָ֮·Ŀ9ԴˣֻҪϸĶ·㲻Ѹܵ

ᵽпάʱǡָԭ˼ҶԹġʩопά˼󣬷ȲǵߣҲDZߣмɵ뷨Ҳзɵijɷ֣壬˼һķֹϵᳫΣҲ޵۹ɫʡҲָпάʽɫ֮һǷԳʵʵġľ֮áҳ117ʩпάĸеһ۸ǡ֡DzʩԾ޷ȫпάݣ޷ȫпάѧ˵Ĺؼݡչпάϵԣǿ뽨һ׹ǹǵĵ±׼ֹ֧淶Ի᲻ԼĵġרơЧأһɹȻеһ䡰ìȻпά˼һ⣬ƺûʶһͻҲûìܵԭ򡱣һ;еԾԵĻͽ˵׷ȴ̣ǻˡ

һĻͽ᲻Ϊڡʥ½ijԭܽΪרƣҪǻص̵ɹȥ˼⡣ͽɹԡʥĽΪ׼򡣡ʥ͡ȷָ֮˵ʥ԰ﱾɵġõģֻǺ޺ǵΪջ͵ǻϵĽ˴ܵϵ۵ijͷʼ䱻IJɵԲֲܽɵ״̬ʥʾֻмĶ䡢ͨڸIJʵ־ꡣΪˣʥ䷳ظЩǣʲôʽġʲôķʽõͳͷʥġδǡּչ˻̵ɹۣġĦʮ䡱ӦζԴԼֵãǰҪ˰񣬺Ҫ˰Լͬࡣijԣ̵ɹʥ֮µIJʡΪĵɾ񡣻̵֮һΪѧ߳ӵɾʱһ۶ڸضжϣάȨȨűʵIJͬʵʶԣ߽˸ιҵĶԺͲַԣǰչ˻̶˵ԺԵص̶졣

һڽɫʱȽᡢǻ̵᾿ڡ˵ıһеƶǷʱһìܵģܣƶγɹһìܵģԵݽʽֵ⣬жڵһĽΪؼġᷢչʵ֤оԣܺͳһĽ𣬿һǽҰ쵽һһĻᣬǺʶһϵĻͽΪġԽ̻ġĹǹǵĵҪһרΪԭԲʡΪġԾΪĿĵĻ̵ɾɾֵڱϵIJֲͬͬȻѱйһ⣬ȴдڵģһӰ쵽ʷĻ֮һͽӰDZĬĵij̶ȣڽǿĻ䱾Ӱ̶̳ȡȽ˼άģʽʽĸ죬Ωˣѧߺ͢ٲŻijͻһ۶ϡ߸Ϊȷ˵µĴǴǣʹôزܵõƣһĻͽо֡רơ塱Щθ

ȷǻгԱǻͽ£ǹǵĵжϡ׵¡˵רơۡܶ淴˼⣬ĴǡۡԵ¡˵רơĹǹǵĵжǷ𡰶˵ıܶһпάҲʶģ͹аͽ˼룬ʹ˼׼ǿԼ͹ҪǴ֮һ͹ǴΪȷСͳμΪרƺͲɿܣһ涨·ߣ͵÷ԼijЩȨҪԼ˵ıɫDAҳ297ڽпάҲѵʶڽ̲ʼδֹڽ̵鼮ͨͳⷽøǴ鼮˼붼ˡвڽ̵ˣûԼıЩǴ鿯ߵİ취άȻûΪ鿯ܵǴ𣬵Ҳûȥд顣ⲻ˵ÿ񶼸覣˵ڹбࡱDAҳ295֪ΪνԴӶΪпάԡǹǵĵжϡϵġרơûѵ֪

ڽռж˵ĵǷǵжȨȻжרƵıԣпάȷָһ桰ǵж֤Ϊڽ̣ʹƶȾе»ʡ˱ĿҲһӦDAҳ676һǡڽĽ˵һΣͽɱΣţִӦϧһдά̡ˣԸְԱڽ߳õĴǽһDAҳ679пάһԭһСǹǵĵжϡԻˣԻңڶԭDZϸ̷IJ߱Ρűʵľ롣̺һǶڽ̵ΣʵǶڽ̵˺Ȩǡزٵ񡱣Ե˵ԡְԱڵжôСƷжôƣȻԡһϣΪпά֮ΪбҪΪʶ˹ǹǵĵ¾¶רƵΣԡ

һ棬ʷγɵӢƶȡ17Ϳʼγɣ󾭻½̵ĵط̻˼׳ƶȣٽĶ˶ķչμӹľ򣬲Ϊܷ϶͵طȨƶȵ춨˻пάεĴͳȨʵȷĹԭĸԴDAԣVIпά˵̻κ͸ɵļǿݡȨַڽ̺ڽ̱µάϵ˵ϵϣӶֹȨͳΡˣdz˵ġȨƣԻҡ̷һԭμʵֹԡܴٽɵҪϡ

ιһ֡ǹǵĵжϡȻȫܵ¶˵ıһȴǶƶȵĻάһᣬվάϣΪҪ³׷ּңôһԭˡdzˡ壬ô•ʩ˹ڡȻȨʷֶ塢ԴˣҲʶģڡ·һзǿִӦֳữ͡ǣһ֡ǹǵĵжϡȻ¶˵ıô˵ķ˼ͬҲûпάġ˵ı塣ҿĻش漰ĵ̵ķʽ᲻ΪĴ÷ʽ漰Ƕʶ

ᵽؼȷȨʹ򣬵ڶһڽбҪĹ½Լ̻֮ڹȻҪԹȨľʹָֻšӸ档10ڵڵֶ⣬ͬΪͽڡ˵ú͵¹غ飬пάᵽͨ͵Դٽõγɣʾܹݴ˵ԭ䵽ķȥѰңĪ絽ĵλúȥѰҡDAҳ291ʵĽʹŮƶȺ齫ŮΣDAҳ741෴ιԼ͹ΪܷȷĽֹֹֽDzܴٱ˺͹ԱȺĵжϡDz˵ڼҿƵǺϷģǸɫ񡢷Ժһɫ

ʩ˹ڡȻȨʷйĴ¾ϣʩڡεĸйĴȨϣֲͬ͵ľϣȻ˵ѧԼƫ֮һΰӹ֮Ȩ㹻ڵ¾쳣ϡ˵һ֮ƶڵ˾ϣֵϵľϲζȨϵɱᡣ֮ڡǹǵĵжϡ֮ϣֻҪۺԺơʽУͻ;ȥ£ȻζۺŶЩԸơĸȺͽˡרơDz󣬵ڶȺйԽ֮ʱͬȺ밬̲߻ֹ߱ﲻ뿹顣

һơȨĻٽ̣Ҫ͹ƽ¾ȨϵĶԪʵֹǻ۵лͳһӹϣڿ֯ṹϣڽ̵Ļ͸뻥ҳ֮Ϊڽ̵͸ʽýĹ۵˵ܴһ۵Ļǡһƽ塯ҳ151ڽ̵͸ʽѰ̬ƽ֮֡Աƽ⣬纺•ԣĶԪԳɾ˼ĺΰ뱯룬ѧӦԴ˶ԪΪ侪̾˼֮⡱11֮¶Ĵڱпάġһ⡱Ҳٵ

һ׷ʣڽ̺ΡθԵı߽羿ɴƹ㣬Ȩ˽ȨԵı߽絽뽭һܶҲ׷ʡ̷˼˵רơԤܶ˼·ܼ򵥣İ취ǻɼֵۻ֮ϵġȺȨۡһֻҪַȨȨԼľһ顣ܶڹµȰһǿĹЧԭ򣬸ɴϽ⡣ǣģѧϵļ򵥻òʵϵһݡܶһпάͬԭ򡣴ij˵۽ⶼDZͬļֵԤ裬ȻбȨΪʵΪҵְڱάЩȨ

ȨȻϣǼָǼֹͬȨ޵ĻֵĺжϣԴ˲ûκ۳ɡɫ˼֮䣬ڲ˼ɣŵ塢ִ֣֮֮䣬֮ҲڶʷϵȨȨб߽вͬĿܶ˵ڻڹЧԭжϣпάظڹУڽ򣬺ظƫͳڽķ󡣶ԴˣҪʶпάͳڽ̲ìܣڽҲìܣΪڽ̱ʷϵĴͳ֮һ̻ᡢҲǷΪҪš

ǡǡڶԴĻͳһʶϣ̳епάһĻͳпάĻ̵ɹӶȻȷº͵塱ԱľڣȴʼղʶֱֵʵƶǸɵһ֡ң⣬һƶȡһѧͿԳսģֹĹУκһһݵĽ롣пά˼άʽֻܸһԽܵĽ飬ʹṩ飬ҲδϣӲ׵ҵν֮ȥȴҪпάΪṩһױ׼𰸲ɣһֶһѧҪѰҵһַ֮ĺ׼ı׼𰸵˼άʽ˵ˣǺڸʽı˼άʽһֳͷβΨܷ˼άʽһСģԼ͵뵽˼άʽ֮ȥӦ˻̵Ǿϻ˾䱾ʶվ޵ġ

ϵϵķҰһԤֹ֮

ڻɫ˼˵Ȩǡ츳ģ⡰족ϵϵۣڳ۵˵ȨԾǡ츳ģ⡰족еĵһ棬ɵľʵȨʵϣǵһڽһֵһοںſʵֵģ˵Ȩʵ֣ʷġڲĹʵֵġǣͱ۽׶ƶȰţӶι̡ʱеĽΪĸϵľʵнܡһû׶ƶʵ׶ΣẴɵ̶ȡ֮ͼ׼ȷпά˼Dzܽڶڡɡ롰֮ı֤ϵѧ߼ϵĿ죬Ҫпάοѧͼȡһʲôķֱ硰ɡ롰ɡ롰Щ

ǣݶ·󣬱߷һ˵󣬳ᵽʿ̹ġ֮⣬ͺᵽ 塱͡ˡⱾųо·ѧ֮У塱һʳֵĴԶԶҪڡ塱һʳֵĴڡһʳֵĴͬԶԶڡһʳֵĴҪ֪ϰΪѧϵͳ֮Уƶȡ롰ƶȡ˵Ⱥšڡ塱롰塱֮һѧߺٻȥעǮ͡˹Dzߡһйѧȶ󣬱ߵóĽǣ˹ijɹ֮ѧʧ֮Ǯǿģÿ˶ȻȨʾȨܳΪƶԵĴڣȡȶĴڡ12˲ûΪߡ˹ѧȨɫʣǻ˹ҲȻѧָٰ߰13

֮£пάıҪö࣬ȻΪ̽ͽҪԶԶߵأǼûʲôѧ߻ݡһ棬ѧ߽ĸ֮пάһ˲δԳơXXߡѧߵױظڱסһҲ˼ұ˶мһ˵ĸǹ۶ϵѧϷǣϵпάдʶѧ˼֮󣬱߸Ϊȵط֣ϰΪĻϰ̲߱ŵľ޴֪ʶռ䣬֪ʶڶôij̶ܹıǵͼ

пάijĵһ1835ġڶ1840ģƶ1856ʽġ롶ƶݵIJ࣬16ݡǣΪǡдȣʵ߶ԡƶķ˼ȣпάڡ˵ģдʶȴпά˵֮ԿԼĺģܺʱҲҪҵϣǴҵǿʽĽѵ˭ҪΪдһƪ̴ʣǽǴشκ˶Ȿ飬ȫҾû뷨佱ȫͳʽҲҵȫĿģΪΪκηƶ־ԵƣûΪɿܵⳡкΪⳡѾɻ򼴽ɵʵӾⳡĹҳһʹⳡչƽĹңӶȻӦĽпܣ̽ʹķţijеġֵ̽ģ󣬻ԡƫͼ顣Ūľʹ֪ӦϣκͺʲôDAҳ16

ڷƶȵѸٱһʰԭпάȫλε˼漰뼯ȨơСũá˰ƶȵȵ෽棬УΪҪҲҪһǾʱʱĻáܽΪƶȵԱ־޴ԭ֮һĻǡ

пάɶڷ֪ʶӵķƷΪڡƶĵһ£ԡ18Ҷ˺ԱΪҵҪμңΡпάг˱ĵӢͬЩ˴ӲճΣ෴ǵδʱڸѣû˿ȨһDzκιְȻDz¹ͬȫΣͷоѧѧDzϹͬйصĸ⣻˵ģĵЩ̸Դԭʼʽ⣬̸۹ԭʼȨԭʼȨ֮ȻĺΪ໥ϵϰ׵Ĵϰ׵ĺϷԣ̸۵ɵԭÿ춼ֱ̽ʱƵĻϸ񿼲ṹơоʷͻῴDZžƷιijͬһеģŶձۣϵ;ȷԳƵķɵͬһãִͬӣ۵ͬΣλжءɡӱĶͬһ£߼ͳһһٳ׸ĸṹ֦޲ͬһԸеġǺεȺ˵ľΪΪµĶμʱȴЩʹдȴܵӴĸ14

֮Գƪпάԭֳɫʵʿֳ̫֮ɫˡڷɫ׼ȷգһпάƶȵϸıȽϣǾܷdzʶ˶̲֮صġѰִԵĸ֮ɫʡڴ԰Ǽѿ¬޲˹ȶĿ̸֮ͽǿĸСũĽƽϡʦͷѧҶڸɵ΢ķιػйǾ侭ĻǣǵԭǡоЩ⣬̸Щ塱

пάʢܷԭ򣺡ܷҲԼͨһԼߡˣܷһз֮ףκηɾ޸ɼԺڷӷɵʱҪȷܷҲȷġǼ˾ȨּѡϷĴð취ʱҪѡϺ󷨵İ취ȻȨڷܷҲһз֮ףپȨΪоĸݣʹȨʱַֿȨΪʥȨַĹҵȨDAҳ112ܷ֮ϣڷǷϣȨϡҲеְ취IJ㣬ǸԸ޲Ψ֮ڸְϲΣյĺԺַΧ޵ĿijΥܵȨҲΪεרǿ֮һDAҳ114˼ǣеͨ壬ȨȻԭԭΥܷԭ

ִңҪܷϵƶȣκһܷκһɵִжҪ١绤ʦڹһַ˵ĻڣҲһԭǵζµĵʵμֵȻҪ¹ȻԴٽǵԶ׿ʶһжСϵĽƽϡ÷ͥ϶ڷɰIJЩȴޱҪ֮»Ϊޡ֮Ҫ֤ƺҪķ

۵ķУпάֵ÷dzе¾Ͼ񣺡ҵߺһеʶ֮ʿӦиǵ꣬ǵáǹδˣӦŽͬЭŬʹİáߵкͶԷֵȰᡣҵ۽ɢкۣ˵һнǾӦ۵ΪҵĴС Ψ෽ʹҷСΪǵѧ˵кģǵʹᡣ˵Ψϵ˻һôǴʹ˶ԼһصʶǣΨ߱˶ԼȴʶΪгָ֤ԼҲʱDZֵȴʮָ߰ԼDAҳ677

󷨹ЩǶЩʦǵIJмһˣͬҲڷľ޴ƻԴˣпάᵽġһԤʩʱ˵伤鷢ʱеѧҶʩһεԼʹ侲ͰѧضǵĹϰȥԿıܣǶԹij羴ȥԿȰǵĽ۵ȥԿĺôϲǶԹ淶İȥԿƶȵӣǴ³ŵϰȥԿļꡣDAҳ309

ʹһЩܽᣬǾǣ¬޲˹ȶġϵᣬϵ˹ͺܶġϵķᣬǰͨ˵˸𣬺ͨijճΪ˽ijܽԤֹר֡άƶȵҪԭ֮ʱпάоϵΪ˰ŵĶصġ˵ĵƣϰߺ顱رǿǡһֱΪġDAҳ320Уһϵ۸Ķ䣬һԻΪҪġϰߺ顱һԭġơ

ڡ۷ľУϵ˹ȨΪȨԾʹŵص㣬ֱŵΪֹȨȨ˾ȨȨȨţʹмȨŵص㣬˾ȨΪءй徫Թʼѿʼȷˡ治иƶԼٵġرܡȳԭڡϾ¡˾ȨӰ족пάᵽˡ治ԭΪ˾ȨҪδ֮δ׷֮ˣԺüУԺԭΧԼΧ⡪ֹ涨˾Ȩıδ룬پ빫֮ͬdzڶɵȰϵԭάDZ͵͵ģûԤԣӶ˸ѡռᡣ

뷨ϵ෴ϵӴɺΪʹԵͱˣԼ򵥵ĵ۹갷ӵȡһ̬Դ͹ᣬ뵽˽һ棬ϵ۶ôߵĴ¼ֵ䱾ȻԵص㡣κ϶ΪһȻĴΣϵеȴǷεΣεηչΪ˷ԵΣ޷һʽջᷢչĿռ䣬ԵĶһϵҪҷʡǿ˻ڸģ•άġׯ԰һŰġľ

һ˼ҿһ֡塱ĺܽ׼ȷҪһݸпά߸Ը˵һ̽ͽ濼ͽᣬ׵ij˼άΪһݸпά߻Ը˵Ǹߣ˵һϵijԱdzдʱķġϵ᣻ҪһпάҲ˵һɹ壬Ҳ˵һޱɡߡǣڽ˵пάȤƺǡߡˡڡ·һйпά˼ʦһ£ĵ£ʹõǡпάɡƽΡҪǡʱ١ƽԭ򡱡ϡпάʽ塱ǡǡûᵽпάΪҪݣͽߡԼݱһЩضļᶨֵۡͬأ̸ʿ̹Լ•ܶǰߣᵽġɡƽΡںֻǰѡƽȡֹѧġЧ֣ˡɡ͡ΡƫƫûгܹͬЩ˼ʦ˼صġ塱һʡ塱ȥˣѧȥˣҾƶȵĽȥˣΪʲôƫƫǡɡƽȡЧʡЩĺ£Ϊʲôƫƫdzѧʺ֮DzǶЩѧʻijԤֹƶµġרơ

Ҫ׷ʣʱĽǸֳ޲˹ȶġϵֳܶܶġϵпά˼˵ĮģҲѹҪпάڡǹǵĵ¹淶֮䡰ûʶһͻҲûìܵԭˡȻϵ˾ϸѾҪѧἰһΪһѧһĽһ˼·ҪпάȻڡɡƽȡЧЩѧйֻǴʱǡϵпά̥dzΪˡϵ޲˹ȶ

ڡѧִĴѧƵ֪ƫǽֻС·һʩ·˽ͷ˶ڳˮ̰۸ܶδƲǫ̃˾ƵIJ֮ʱӦ̨ˡôϡˮ⡯һΡΪƶȿͨ˾;쵼˵̰ٴһЩһȫѡнѡ̨Ҫһʱ鼤߶˹ҾƵ޲ϽûӦ̨ĶһƪС㣬ˡʱĽӦ̨һǡϵһǡϵǸԵ˼άʽأ˼

ġ нõĿ᣺Խ

һй֪ʶϵdzͼֵϵƫĺļֵļֵԣΪǾͼĹߡڡδ1986괴ŵġ˫رࡱһУָѹɡǸй˾޴ҪԭӦ˵˼ȻԶԶġйתڼ壬ܡġԡɡΪĿĵļ򵥻֪ʶսڼʶ̬ȫԿ˫£ѧϵ֪ʶ㡢ûڶԴͳ¡ȨԾӢΡṫ֮ϣʾǿҵĽһԪɫʣǿҵԺɫʡṫΪһЩѧһƷг˷ܲѣۡԵľԭ򡱣ȴ񷴶ִƶȡ岻DZֵùϣʧȥ꣬ʧȥԣȥǸսǿߣʵ磬һ־棬ʶ̬ͽ廯ıȻ̫Զdzdzľ壬Ⱥ˵¾ȱȨص㣬dzdzľսΪͨרƼȨ֮··ʯ

罭ܽ´˵ģʵ嵱ȻֻһִУսӦҲֻһ׹̶ľ籾ʮӢشνԱв׼츳Ȩʮͷ˼æŴ׵˼󳹵סձƷŷ޸صרȨ͵˼ɹضԿȨƣҲȫԵȨ˶һʱĩȴĹţԼֵĺжҡҡ׹һĪչĸ״̬᲻ݻԴͷȻڿ޺֮󸴹ľʡҳ126

һζ֮ɢĻдȱʷģȱϯµĻȨһʹʵ֤αֱ̨ᡰľʡз֡뵽·һĺ崫ͳеԴչһֱȽữ⻯͡˼ܿ͸оij쳣һܽǡǡǰԼпάݵпάһͽߡɹ塢ߵĶߣȻߵܽвһҲпάЩݡǣڵµĽβڻشִᡰ塱ĮִΣ֮ʱҲǿпάֵеɫʣҲֻǽȺϵ·Ҫչһ֡ġ塱ǰǡ崫ͳеԴ

ע崫ͳеԴԼ͸¶˼Ϊֱӷӳд·һĸĿڣһֳ˽ѧ˼̫ຬ֮ǿģпάƺͽijɷֶߵijɷ֣пάļֵУͽij׵ij۾Ҫľãǣʱ־ĨɱһɶǿҪ崫ͳеԴ˼֮ڽ˵ƺֻ壬ΪůDZøаġз˼֮ģ˵Уһݵؽٵһ⣬ǰ岻УͻصԴͷȥùŵȽ塣пάɫʵѧҪôԺԲƣҪô崫ͳɲ֮һ˼άչһ̶ȣȻȨȨĺ϶ΪһȻξϵĶȨϵĶĺ϶ΪһڴϣйͬȨڣͳ뷨ͳĺһ֮ǡר塱Ҫ߿Աøе£οԱø

һһСΪĸ֮˼άdz׵׵ı˼άʽ˼άʽǡһԪۡӡηչۡ˼άʽ̸壬¿Фָʹ챻ΪѧΪӢΣdzɫʵģΪִϰԵΪijֵּۣȷԣȥʶ硢ȥijֹ滮ԼӵйʦԸ飨Ϊǡļ׿ˣһǰһвֱرͼйصĶעų15Դ˹սġ·һ飬̫Բˣ罭пάļֵ۵ijȡᣨҲ⻹ģȡΪ߲ء׼ȷذпά˼۵㣬ˡпάIJ˼۵㡣

Ʒõijַչִȷ֡¡ĸоԴˣûΪǽȹȥʱζԹˣԹ˵˽ᣬԹµǷֱ߶õɥʧ2006°꣬йΧӽͬޡѧصĹ۵֮ʱߵġԵܷȨɵһӡһ߹Ȼ֣пάʱִԺͶרΣ֤ڹɵı绤ԾɲʧҪ壬DZͬܵһűֶԪʱΡʱ߾ָܷһԭԭչŵһάִĹ¹淶˵岻ı׼𰸣ǷʢƵĴٽҪdzԽϵ塣

пάɼֵۺпάҲͬᣨһǡϵᣬһǡϵķᣩԼķḻʵĹܵ•նԵġᡱɫ֮һǶʶ̬ͽһַ񶨡רƼȨıǵ磬ԴǵԺԡӦӸв֮顢Ӹʡ֮ģѧӦ֪ʶڸǵͼڶֵ۵ӹУѰ󵽸ߵơд˾ģνȨơǡȨʶܾͻΪ̣ʩ˹ڡȻȨʷ˵ġŵȻȨϵġִȻȨпܵõȽϳɹںϣɡ롰ɡɹ۵ۡʩ˹ʩعڵ¾ϺȨϵѧ۵ĽҪҲпܴ󽵵ͣרơȴʻĴͳ;ͿԵõȫµпʵָ߲ε

пάдλѧضǵĹϰȥԿıܣǶԹij羴ȥԿȰǵĽ۵ȥԿĺôϲǶԹ淶İȥԿƶȵӣǴ³ŵϰȥԿļꡱеķѧҾشֵԵ֮֮ʱDzѷ˼пάı֮ʱͷǷһdzֳ¸Ҳܽġŵܷ֮йŵȻȨִȻȨ׿Խ˹ŵȻȨڸ߹ȰִȻȨڸɵļͳһԭʩ˹еûе˵еΪȷˣ˵ûΪȥûӰԼֻԼӲҪߵ˵ǶôӺݻʩ˹ѧҶСĶһ˶ûʶʶ̬壿

ۼпάƵһѧ˵ġ̷ɡ֮ʱָһԷɹ淶Ϊʶ˼ԪĿᡱҳ61ǽȫΪӽˡпάȻѧߵ˼һ仰ʹ仰ȻΪֵȶ֮ڱ߿һԸΪֵȨȨı֤ΪݡΪ˹ͬ壬֮ͬУҡ͸ߵȨ޵Էʽȷ綨µάϵڽεġ͸ʽʵ֣ڽճΪĵ¾϶ǹҵȨϵĶ󡣱߻Ϊ˵ijֱǷḻʵģûһߡɹ۵׼ȷظΪ塱ۼĽжˡпάľжľѧߵԷʽᡱеġߡһ滻ɡ塱ΪҪǣۿ˼Ԫ桱ڡᡱվǹ飬վᣬվǹᣬ߾Բܼ򵥵ػϵȺš

пάۣ߼ҪΪнõĿᡱνᡱһʣϵÿ•նἰˡһпάᣬǼ򵥵ġᡱǼ򵥵ġᡱȴҲһȱڽμֵԪġᡱ෴һ˾ƣԻάϵŹǻۣͬɻṩij׵׻徫ΪԷչṩĻϵľ֧֣ij˵Ƿһס塱Ĺǹǵĵ¹淶

ڡ֮У񽫻ļֵĵתΪ˾Ĺԡ֮ͨ·֮ϣԷϵΪȼ̳ϵĵ¾Ͼ񣬽ںû˻̵IJʡϵͬʱּǿȨϵص㣬ϵȨתΪϵȨԣٽ˳ŵ߹ִγɡӹϾΪŦͨ˾塱롰塱ı֤𹲺ĹʶγɰĵУշչһĴѧ۹Ȼңȴǽ˻ԭָġĿԲޱ߼ʵģһɣ˵ĻǡнõĿᡱ

Ļпάѧصľ⡣пάϲؿΪֵƶȵҪãȴ۵Գĵжϴ˼սһ˼пάδṩΪ˶ܽĸ⡣սпܾս᱾Ωˣ硰ɽ¡֮ɰͼἰ˲йעŻһ̵̬ҰʱѧҪλڽѧͽѧˣһ׳֮άչֵۺϵľꡣ

ͼĸı֪ʶͼĸı䣬֪ʶͼĸı֪ʶʽIJ˼άʽIJ֮ϣεڱ﷽ʽϰߵIJ֮ϡҲճѧĴʼάظ˼̹ξ԰γһЩ̵ʶ͸ʶļǼѵģΪֻǰһı㣬ͻάԭ״Ȼòˣ𡯣ʹ׵ر¶Ҫǿʼһµķʽ˼һ仯ž壬ȷµ˼άʽһµ˼άʽȷɵͻʧʵǺʶЩɵ⡣ΪЩǵı﷽ʽģһһµʽԼĹ۵㣬ɵͻͬɵһ16άظ˹̹һжգDZ㲻ԵνпάѧĽ֮ԭⱳģǡǡԴ˼άģʽʽIJ죬߸Ϊ̵˵ڽ̵Ļƫ

ĵķͬ׷ǷԲɽֱƻ̵IJʡͳ׵ijѧ۶ֱӴ֤ʲôij龫Էḻҵ˼ҷ֤ܹҽ֪ʶѧϵıȽϣΪʥ˼롰İʶȻڣȴδгֵķӡΪйͳ֮ԿһҪ˼֢ᡱ17Ҳע⵽Ϊ֤Ҫ⻯۶ϣرпάͽݡһ˼ȴҲɹСС߲ɣȻӦ⻯Ϊʲôѱī̸һйң츴ۣŬΪʲôȥעһӡȡĶҵҽ裬ڡ·һܹʮµĿ¼Уֻڵʮ²ᵽ緢չѧ塱ʹ硱ҲصذձҲȥˡĪǽѾʶпάڵڽ֤֮ijɹ֮ͬҲʶҵŬdzɹһʵ

˵ʱһ롱ԡ񵳵ȨȨĻѹҪΪߣо壬ʵ塱½򣩡ʵֹ⼸й־ʿһٶꡣ羿Ѱһ֮ͨ·ͨ;֮УҪҪȫ߻ĵ·߻»صΪЩڵ߹ĵ·ĵ·ѹͲͨѧõ⣬й˼ûгɹشеһҲȫûγԵͬҲͲҪγԵͬҲ׷ʱûжٵѧԡ٣й˼Ļ˼ַս֮ʱʱһһعȥй˵ۺûҲվڼһ޿ɸıʵǣΪһж۶ƶȵչ˾޴ãпάͽҲȷûұΪһߣпάʢ޵ȷһнõĿᡱɫġнõĿᡱҲȷȵһںżӦ˼ֵҪܻӦȺȶ˼ڵ


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1룬·dz磬20063µһ棬ڱĽá·һIJֶ䣬²ֱֱֽעҳ롣
2ڱУߵصλȻпάϵԣǿ뽨һ׹ǹǵĵ±׼ֹ֧淶Ի᲻ԼĵġרơЧأìȻпά˼һ⣬ƺûʶһͻҲûìܵԭ򡱣ҳ132ҳעԴˣ125ҳĵڶΣǿһ飬ɼԴʵӡ
3ʩ˹ָǽ֮Ϊһѧ˵ȻбȨΪʵΪҵְڱάЩȨôDZ˵Ĵǻ˹Strauss,L.,natural Right and History,The University of Press,1953.İ桶ȻȨʷ••֪20031£գҳ170˼塣޶˹塷ĿǺϡȻ޳ʩ˹еһЩ۵㣬ȴȽ޳ҪĶ塣
4οOakeshott, M.J., Introduction to Leviathan, in Rationalism in Politics and Other Essays. Indianapolis : Liberty Press,1946(news and expend edn.1991)İά̹¿ФӦ룬ءִȻϺ2003棬230ҳ
5Ӣˣۡƪӡݣ56ҳ
6֪ԼۡơִѡƵĺϷ֤ߡͬˡԼۡĻĻ龰ʥΪαΪԼ͡ԼΪϵۺԼΪʥԼϵԼµģûΥԼҲӦΥԼϵۡԼԼڻ壬Ͳû̡û̾ͬѶԼʶڷξеҪãҲ屳Ȩ塣
7 ̹•Ʒ򣺡Ϊɣ˵Ľ˼롷룬••֪20015°棻ӢԼ•ˣ룬Ϻ2001档
8 пά룬ӡ1988棬289ҳ鷲ֱãĶдʽþ֮עҳ룬ʽΪDAҳXX
9ijִָ֮·һԡйɵʷͼķ˼뵱йʶ̬֮ĺǣţѧ磬1992棬226ҳڴУ꿷20й˶ʶֲָ̬ͣʹصĺڸʽı˼򡣿˵йĽ廯ǰĻ˶ܵĹ̶𲽼ġ
10ԵܷȨɵһӡڡйࣩ弭Ϻ200610°棬125-136ҳ
11תԣӢԼ•˼ʷϳ20036°棬2ҳ
12 Ǯ飺˹𣿣̸һҪɷ֮֡ϡִ龳••֪2002棬297ҳ
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14пάƶ룬ӡ1997棬174-183ҳ
15Ӣ˶•ŷФأе塷룬Ϻij2004棬5ҳ˳ָMichael Oakeshottڱַ룬ϵOakeshottΪͬķҷµ벻ͬ
16Ӣ·άϣ•άظ˼̹ǡתPierre Bourdieu L. J. Wacquant, Invitation to Reflexive Sociology, p.1.
17尵ġİʶ˼пάĻ˼ҵԶ뻳ɾ档νİʶǡԶеĻʼӻʡΪЩڰʶٹ̣ȱݣŲԲ˵ֵij񡱡ָİʶǽһɻȱ˼档Щ尵ġİʶͳdz磬20061µһ棬ҳ24ҳ42

ڡʱ20074 http://www.opentimes.cn/to/200704/135.htm