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䣺ѧеġԭּ--벻޳ɡйλĻ˼롱


ӡйѧԴ"ز"ԭͣʱ,ѧѾش۹: Եڿ,ɹ졢,չ˼""Ҫָʱݱ,½ײ,ʱ˼Ҷԭ˼ʶڹ·չ½ѧִ½ѧǿѧѧ"",ѧڻѧѧĽᾧٴڻѧʮΪѧ,"ѧ"ԺΪѧѧͽ޹Ϊ˺ز޳"йλĻ˼"ΪйѧµӶԻļȡ"Ļ֮,˼һ,һĴ,ͷ"˵ʵھĻейʽ"ԭּ"

ѧͶעĹػ,ѧΪԴ,Եظ´ͳ,Ϊ20йѧĻչһص㡣ⷽ,(1902-1992)ںѧ,"ѧ",Ժڸ˹ŵɳ۶"֪кһ"ѧ˵Ӧʱٲ,ɫҪСΨۼ͡(1942)йѧ(1945)˼¿չ(19418·ڡ˼ʱһ,1947ϺӡݳĺļĻ)Ļ(1947)ѧ(,1958档˹ŵɳԭ)

һ޷޳"йλĻ˼"

ѧ,ûнѧΪһɲڽΪҪ,ڱʱ,Ҫд󵨵ĸ졣:"йΣ,һĻΣ:Ļϵʧ,ӦµĻơйξϵĹ,Ҳ˵ԴѻƬս,йѧĻϵĹ,ȴѻƬս֮ǰ" ϴӹܵйĻĸҵǴʶ,ѧۡѧѧ֮"",ָľǶԾѧĸ̬½˵:

ҵ˼,ΪйȥĴͳ˼,Ң˴ܹɵ˼,ִԼ·չ,ڱǨзչиӦµľҪĻл,Ҳ˵µ˼롣˼¿չ,ǿԵõִŴĽ,ɵͳһ

,ԭѧйɵ˼,˵йŴʺ,ִѾ൱롣ڱǨ,,ӦµľҪ,µĻ,ֿתΪ""˼롣ΪҽִŴͬһ,ɵͬһйʵĻȫ,ĻĽ,ŴͳжϡΪ˼ĻķΧ,ִŴѽڡκһִ˼ȥĻȫûйϵ,Դ֮ˮ,ޱ֮ľ,ԴԶ,ٹ̡"һ˱ȻЩмɡһ˼,Ҳǿ˻ɵ˼롣ûԨԴִոµ˼,ֻ꼻һ,ʱһʱ˼롣"

Ȼθйͳ,ȴĻӰ롣Ļ뼰йĻ¿:

Ļѧ֮ģѡ,ʹ˼·չһĻ֮Ǵ,Ʒʹ֮û˶һӡĻ֮,ʷչһ˶,Ļ֮,ɵཫشٽ˼¿չĻ֮,˼һ,һĴ,ͷ˼ܹ,,ڻᡢתĻ,Գʵ,չԼ,˼,,µĿչ粻ܾ˿,ɹ˹ͷ,ͻ,,ܷ"

ǿĻ,йǻ¶Ǻ,ǶйĻһ,Ω"աաڻᡢתʵ"̬,˼ϣ,ܶȹĿµΣ,",ܷ"ΪһҴϵ˼,ʵܿɹġΪﱾĻ,Ļȡ̬,Ȩ˼Ҳ1909ŷι֮,һƲ,ڵȴйΪĶ,ȥˮ𡣺벻ͬ,ȻΪķչľйءĻԽȡ֮,Ļ벻"Ʒʹ֮û˶"

ӡĻйʷ˵,̶,ʹйĻ»,¸,չ,ĻҲٽйĻչľµľĻǺˮҰޡԻ̬ӭŷ,ӭѧ,ȴľ,෴,йĻѧĽ,ԶΣͬ,ҲͬΪĻҲӦѧϰ,ȡ侫

ջ֮Գʵ̡̱֮֮ڽ֮ʽ뾫,׵ΪġڽΪ֮ע,ߡڽо,겻֮ڽвȱ,֮ڽн󻳿,֮񡣻ʵΪ֮Ǹ,֧֮ʵ̶,ÿΪdzӡڽ֪֮''ѧ֪֮"",ڽ̾Ϊ,Ϊ,ΰ֮Ļ

ʵ,ĻͬĻں,һǽɡѧһԻΪľ񡣽йƫضǰߵѧϰ,Ӻߡ֪νĻ乤Եһ,龫һ,й塢ѧ̬ȵȡ϶,ʾ龫Ĺע,ӶʹڽʯԿйѧʱ,иԴѡռ䡣

"йĻλ"м:"޷޳'йλĻ'˵ΪĻĹ,Ϊȡ֮֮ߵı,Ĺλ,ӦԵ,Ծ,λ֮,ӦĻ֮ΪĻıλ,ʱ֮Ż,֮ܵл,ֻҪһĻܹǵ,ǵ˸,徫,ҪĻ" ںĿ,Ļ,ĹйĻ֮,ֻڻᵽȽĻĵĴȥ,нȡµϣĹ۵㼴ʹڽȻ塣

"֪"

ѧͳʮ,Ҳע⵽һ㡣ڡйѧ,ۿΪ̷̫ͬסŷޡ顢ʮһͮ˼ԨԴ,ΪΪ˼,һ½֮ѧ̷ͬҲ½Ϊ顣˽δ½ľ΢۵ĹҲ½Ϊ˼塣̫ᳫ֮ѧ,˼̶΢,ʵĻ˶˼ŷڻ,½,Ϊһʦһ汸ʫ̡̡ѧѧ,Ϊйͳѧ˵Ľ˶ͮѧ,ͨġ,ʷѧж֮ ʵϺԼҲͬ½֮ѧ,"֪кһ"˵¾⡣뽨ѧ,Ӻܴ˵,Զ֪кһ˵˵뾫 ֪кһ˵ֿ˵Ƿֲġ֪֮кһ˵,ĿΪ֪Ĺ,۵Ļ֪кһ˵֮,ĵĵһ,Ԩ,찮д衣찮,̸֪кһ⡣רҳ֪֮,ԴȽдζ֪кһ˵Ժͽӵ,ȫ֪̼֮Ȫ֤ľּĸͽ,֪кһ˵,Ψûµķ,Ҳᵽ˺ٶ,޳ɷѧ˵,֪кһ˵,ѧķ,͸򿼲,һҲ

֪кһ˵һѧҪ⡣ȸ̾찮,δ֪ܽкһ˵һ뷢,Ҳ̾ѧ߶Ҫעⲻ:˺ٶ,Ȼûһ˶֪кһ˵͸뿼,ȻҲһⷽ,ʵڿϧгм̴ͳʹ,־֪кһĺ""

֪кһ,ᵽҪһ֪вɷ֣

ʱ,֪вܷȺ󡣲˵֪к,಻˵֪ȡ""֪кһָ֪Ϊͬһԡ֪мͬһ,ȻߺһġȱһǸĻ,ʧȥΪĻ

֪ԭDzɷֵġڸҲɷ,֪ͬ塣,ֱָ⡣ʡ,"֪ԭ˵һ,һ,Ŵ,˵ȫޱײ"˵:"ν֮,ֻʵȥ¡ʵѧ˼繤,ѧ˼ӡ"

˵Ҳзӣһʱ,֪вȺһǶȿ,֪Ҳֵͬһ档,ֱ֪֮,붯,ֹֹ,϶Ϊһ,롣"֮,˵,κһΪԺʶ,κһ֪ʶԺá֪Զһ,Զƽ,Զͬʱ,Զһ档͵֪Զ͵ƽС'֪''Ϊ','äĿ''ڤ'ԶǺ϶Ϊһ,Ϊ"

Ҫ֪˵,һҪ,ȥ"֪"뽫""˵"","֪"˵"","֪"ںʶͬʡһ,dz"֪",Ϊ֪,˵ġ"֪"˵,ȵʶ,Ȼȷж"֪",ȻäϹı"֪"Ϊ֪Ľ,"ʶ"⡣Ϊ֮˱ʶ,ʱʶʶǧְ,֮ʶ,ж֮ʶ,֪֮,dz¶֪֮һ֪,֪Ϊ,͵֪͵н,äĿڤ档˵:

ʡѧָ֪˿,˵úɫ,ɫ֪,úɫ,ֻɫʱԺˡǼȥáŶ֪,;ֻŶʱԶ,źȥ

ɫŶΪ"֪"֪ΪʶıȻ,ֶཫ֪"֪"""ϵ:

֪֮,Ȼ֪Ȼ֪Т,Ȼ֪,뾮Ȼ֪,˱֪,󡣡

˵֪ͣ廥(Ҫָ"֪"),ô,ȡһ婤֪ʶ,ճ˼ƽʶ뽫"֪"е,"֪""֪"֮,Ԥһ롣:˵,һ׷֪·ڱҪ֮,֪ȻʾԴ֪,ָճΪ,չʾ

֪˵ʱ,ֽ˼˼бȽϡ˼:

һΪ֪,ļ,Ωڤ,ֱäȻ,֪ȥС˵:½,,,μģҲֻգ˵,μģ·У

ڶΪ֮,֪,֪ʱ,ж,òСۼõ,ҽΪ,ɼ׿ε˸һ,˵:֮,ֻԵ˵͸,һ޲õ,סݸʱҮ

ɴ,ܿ:ֻ֪'֪кӦһ''ʹ֪кһ'û漰Ȼ֪кһ,û"֪"˵ѧ˼Ϊ֪, Ϊ,ݻ,֪п෢,ศ,֪ɴٽ,пɴٽ֪,֪֪,֪,޷֮,ĸ佫֪зΪ˼ȥ,ǿ֪ʶԭûзֱΪ,֪кһ֪޽,"֪"

ǰ˵,ΪһԼ˼ص,йѧѧ˼,˼йѧٲ˵:"ƽۻһ,˹ŵɳĿ:˹֮,Ϊ֪ʶ,ΪΪū֪ķ,ֻЩͿľ,ĸ,еķDZ,ū֪ķ,Ϊ֪֪Ȼ,˵ıԻ,ȷĿѧ֪ʶ,еķ,Ȼ,,˵Ϊ,֪ķΪ֪,еķΪ,а֪,֪İ " ֽѧڸ˼˼϶ºڸ˼˼볣֮ͬ:

Ӣºڸɵֶ֪кһƽеĿ,Ҫ:ȴ֪ʶоѧĽ,֪еĹϵ,ƽвġ֪ķΪӡ,еķеֱӵij嶯й֪ʶжΪƽС֪ķ˼,еķɵ־˼չΪԵϵͳ,־չΪᶨɵ˸Ʒɴ˵˵,ʵΪʾ֪ƽвӡ

Ϊ,ֵ˼صǿ"֪ƽ",ν"֪ķΪӡ,еķеֱӵij嶯"һϡչĻȽ,ΪйߡڹѧרǺڸ˹ŵɳ,ʻعѧ˼˵ѧ,ʹִйѧʷΪ֮Ĺۡʵ,ѧ˵˼,Ҫ߱Ƿ˼붫йѧԷ,ʹѧûз˼Ľ,Ҳʷϻһѧ,һйѧ߽"ע",÷,Ӳһʵйѧʷ,ѧһص㡣벻һ,ѧѧ,ֱָѧԭ䡣

ѧΪ

һ˼뾫ִִвȱٵҪһһҪ֮,ȵ徫,һȳмӦͳӦʱո""뷨ȷġDZѧо,ѧ˵оҪȷ""ʲô뿴µһλ:

ڻ֪ͨĶѧ֪׵ѧ˵,Գһµ徫,ʤֻһƬѧ,һֵʿͻꡣԽǴѧ֮ᳫ,֮ʵ,徫֮,Ϊտս춨ʤĻ,ָʾ帴˵;,ǸݾĻν֪֪,ټϾϵ֪֪,,տսָԭ

ᵽ˽ʯʵϽȷʵѧ˵Ļߡ˵:"֪ıԴı,""֪ʶ'޵ڼ',㲻֪,Ψ'еڼ'֪,֪,֪,С" ˵,"֪Ǵе,ʲȥ֪""֪֪֮Ϊڵ֪֪֮,ָ'֪'֪֪֮" Ϊ֪йϵ,""ǵһҪ,ʷǿ''ֽ֧˼ijм,ѧΪйǰ˼˼Ϊѧľ,Դ˺ʾͬ:

''''˼,ʵԷѧ澫񡣸֪֮,,ʵԷ֧¾֮ѧ,,֪ʹԼҹе֪,ΪΪ,ʹIJϱ,ʵֳ֪ʹ֪кһĹ,мʹ֪кһŬ޷ѧּ:'֪֪֮,֪ż;֪Ϊ,вڷ硣''ּ֡''ʥ˽ֻһ,粩ѧ˼Ҳ'(ѧסʦ˵ʮҦѧ)֪֮,޼һ֡ʽ֮еѧ,ԨԴ,Ȼɡ

ɽȽϡ˵:˼ȡ,Ҫѧ,"Ҫ̳Ž",ܿ˼"֪˵"Ĺͨһ´˵,Ѷɽ"֪"֪"֪кһ"֪,вͬ,,"Ҫȥеһ,עеѧ֮ͬ "

˼,ɽ۵:"֮ܶ,дʮ֤Ϊ'֪'֮,'֪֮Ǽ,֮Ω'֮˵,'֪һӡ'֮,ԿɴӸ϶Ʒ֮ӡ""ӡ''Ի:'֮,ϰӶ;֪֮,Ҳ'ָԶҲǶ֪'֪',ʵΪ֮,ʩ֮¹,ʩ֮,ĪȻҲ'֪кһ'֮˵,ΪҲ,Ϊ'֪֮Ǽ','֮Ω'Ҳ;Ω֮Ͻ,صŬʵ,η,֪֮֮,Ϊѡ쳫Ϊ'֪кһ'֮˵Ի:'֪,֪,Ϊ֪'Ϊ֮,Ϊࡣ˵,Ϊ,Ϊ;,ʵ෴ǰ֮'֮,ϰӶ;֪֮',Ϊ˵,η֮,ӡ֮˵,Ϊѧߴһʱ,޲Ҳ" Ͽ,ɽ"֪",ڷ"֪кһ"ۡ

ɽ"֪":ɽΪԵʱ˳"֪֮Ǽ,֮Ω"˵,Ҳ""ʵΪġĿΪ˵Ӧ""֮,"",ŬӱϿ,ƺڷѧ˵,һ,ѧ˵ϡΪ,ɽѧ˵,罫"֪""֪кһ"ڻͨ,ͬһ,�""ҪǽȻɽеľ,ҲŴ˾,ôɳ,˼뵱ййǰ;֡˼ "ѧ֪,ļ,ӦЧѧ˵" й˼Ϊ,ͻ""Խй¾ѳΪ֮ˡǺ"֪кһ"۵õĽ

ӡйѧԴ"ز"ԭͣʱ,ѧѾش۹: Եڿ,ɹ졢,չ˼""Ҫָʱݱ,½ײ,ʱ˼Ҷԭ˼ʶڹ·չ½ѧִ½ѧǿѧѧ"",ѧڻѧѧĽᾧٴڻѧʮΪѧ,"ѧ"ԺΪѧѧͽ޹Ϊ˺ز޳"йλĻ˼"ΪйѧµӶԻļȡ"Ļ֮,˼һ,һĴ,ͷ"˵ʵھĻейʽ"ԭּ"


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