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Խԡdz̸άʷѧ

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ؼʣά ŵȻ ʷѧ ʶ Խ ϰ߷

Ҫά19͵¹ΰѧҡѧңʷѧ䣬ڷԴ干ͬʶۣԵ¹ŷķѧӰԶĿΪԹŵȻѧɼԾķͨʷ巨ѧĺIJ編Դıʵȣ֣̽ӶͼһΪȫͿ͹۵С

һŵʱȻ

͵ŷޣһƬѧĺڰ֮У̻ӵߣ䵱Ǻϵ֮乵ͨý飬ңĽͿѧҲɽ̻Ƶģˣ̻ỹǵ֪ʶԴֻ̻ͨἰҪĸԤDzռ[1]״ֱ16͵ʱűԸı䣬ʱڽ½һֿͻķʽ̣ȡϵ֮н飬ֱܹϵ۹ͨ˼Ĺȡ˼ˣǸ˼ɡҵľʹŷ޸ҵľҲ׷̻ҪȨͼѽ̻ӰơͬʱȼƶҲԽԽǵIJŷ޴ϣ̻ľ׷⽨ĵȼʸ֮ġգڴݻٷ⽨ȼƶȵͬʱΡú֪ʶķ棬ǿ׵ġĺ Ρú֪ʶı仯ʽı仯ķ׷ӵı仯˸µϵķͶԷɵµҪӦģڷУ17ͿʼΪ½̸ĸƷͶµΡõĻӦһµȻѧִ֮ǰļռ֧λԸָʽŷʢУǰȻѧΪŵʱȻnatural law of the classical era[2] ŴȻ͵Ȼ𡣹ŵʱȻһΰǵ˷ѧѧķ룬͵ѧҰѾָȻձõĵ׼Ȼ˶ĻϺȻ˶˵һµķɣʵϣѧȫThe Summa Theological of st AquinasаѷΪ㷨Ȼ˶Ϊһ춨˻[3]

һʱķ˼ǿԣΪԵձеˡеʱ͹ңڶԷĻܹһķϵˣڶЩϿɿֱӴ˵ƵľϸĹ΢IJ͡ңǰֽص˵ϵԷͬǸǿ˵ġȻȨ־Ҹ[4]һ˵ǿԽŵʱȻķչΪ׶Σһ׶Σڽ½̵Ͽר𡢾ij֣ո˺ڽ̸ĸԺǹŵȻ͵ѧͷ⽨ѰŵĹ̡˹շҵ򡢻˹һʱڵĴǶΪȻʵʩձӦͳߵǻۺȥѰңˣʵ޳ȨھάרƵġڶ׶ʼӢʲ׼̸ĸý׶Ծеʱ壬μѧеΪ־ˡϵ˹姬˶ΪɡƽȺ츳ȨӵȨŷʲ׼͹ƶȡͼһȨa separation of powersķ츳Ȩnatural rights׶εı־ǶȨpopular soereigntyļŷȻȡġ⡱Ͷľܳ¬ǰ׶Ӣ¡ɵȹΪ׶ȻҪڷ˼ΪشӰ졣[5]

ŵȻѧڷɼƽȼֵ֮䷢ijϵ¬һǡǿȨforce does not creat rights[6]ŵȻѧҵŬΪʷĽṩ˼İ

ǴһЩ˰ĹߡȻڷϳũūƺū˺ܴãڴݻ͵лͶҵ͹ҵҲ棻Եزѷ⽨ظ˺ܴĴٽãǨɺѡְҵɣڽ̺˼ɵʱͨϳ̿ʹͷ˵ķʽ˷̷Ϊصȱ㣻ϳУʹÿ˶õɵıŷǰƽȣ˹ʷһԭ򡣡ȻͬʱͬʱãǣӹɣʵֵķɸĸУŵȻν伫ԵĺƶԵ֮һ[7]

Ȼѧһһǿ˶ȻijΪԵܹһķƶȡˣȻǶͼϵͳع滮Ȼĸֹԭ򣬲ȫһ֮С18ͺ19һģ޴˶ʷĽ̷˾޴Ӱ죬ҲΪʷͷ˼ʷķչͻĹס

ȻҪָǣŵȻķѧڴʱķȴԷʷļ򵥳ʽļΪصġ磬Ǻ޸ݵΪܹƳձЧķƶȵȫϸ[8]19ͣڵ¹˶ԹŵȻѧɵɺͷҪľǵ¹ʷѧɼάᡣ

άᣬ1779221ճڵ¹ķ˸壬1791֮ڣĸ˫Ϊһʾ޴ƲΨһ̳ˣάھͨ¹ҷΪ۹Ժ١ĺն..ŵأHerr von Neurathλ໤˵Ķ£ʼѧϰɡ1795꣬Ͷѧ꣬ת͢ѧʷ˹ƤգspittlerӰ졣1800ѧòʿѧλͬڴѧʸ񡣴꣬ѧ̷γ̣1803꣬һȨһٳ1808꣬άΰͷǵĺأLandshutѧڽڣ1810꣬¹ִѧʱάᱻƼʵ۳ΪѧﱸίԱijԱŬ£ִѧһ뷨ѧйصġоѯίԱᡱȫڱɣԲҵ˾˺󣬱ѡΪִѧУ˹[9]

1814꣬¹մӷͳ½ųʶʼԣǰǣǷ׷Ҫҵͳһǿ󡣶ܡ񷨵䡷Ӱ죬˱ŵ¹Ҳƶһ¹񷨵䡷ϵͳһϵͳһ͵ϵͳһڴ龰֮£ʱ¹ķѧңѧѧɵ䡢ѧҺоߣ.ϣ.˹ͼ˹.ٲAnton Friedrich Justus ThibautΪһԼһijֿ֮ѣܱʼ飬ˡƶһͳһĵ¹񷨵ıҪԡһģԷշ񷨵䣬ʱȫһµŬΪ¹ƶһۺԵĴ󷨵䣬ɷƵͳһմɵ¹ͳһǵ͵Ȼ۵㣬ΪܹƾŬƳΪ̽ɵĻԭͻ㣬Ϊƶһʵķ䡣ٲɷѧʵʿɵίԱ[10]һʱһλѧҵ»ξ޴Ӱ졣˻ڳޣҲǿҷԣľʱ36άᡣΪӦά귢ġ뷨ѧĵʹһ飬ҲⱾάʷѧ˼[11]

ڡ뷨ѧĵʹһУάͨIJԨԴԴʵʺͷԴڼĻƶƶȼͨͶѾ䡶񷨵䡷³ʿ䡷͡µ񷨵䡷ķʷѧɵľۡڷIJԨԴάῴһзɾԴΪʽΪʽСϰ߷γɣ˵ɲϰ׺ǵpopular faith,˼ڷѧְ֮ʣȫɳDZڡĬγLLΰǷƶߣa law_giverר־о͵ġ[12]ˣֻIJͨԵֶһķƶȣһĻȻ֣ܴⲿǿӸǡңַĴںԸbeing and character of the peopleлϵͬչʱĽСɿȣ޶ѵʱ̣֮ͬںԸеһȡһͬڴ˶ͷչҲDzϵر仯ͷչġһά˵ijɳɳ׳׳ԣnationalityɥʧ[13]ɴˣάὨķԴۣɲǹزģҲżȻĻijһߵר־IJңԶĹŴȻԣΪһУͬԡΪʽͻ֯ƣconstitution[14]Ĺͬʶthe common consciousness of the peopleǷɵض[15]ԣά˵ֻ徫ƾ졣徫ָǴضԱ֮УΪͬĻ̬䷢չĹͬ[16]

ڷķչάΪô׶Σһ׶ΣֱӴĹͬʶconsciousness of the people֮Уʽϰ߷ڶ׶ΣΪѧʶеѧڷѧеĶ֪ʶ֧׶ξDZ뷨Ľ׶ΣάȻͬ뷨䣬Ϊ˵ֻ˥֮ʱŻֱЩͷ[17]ңӰ죬Ӧƶһʱصǻϳǰһʱ[18]

ڷıʣķԨԴһУάΪߵרϴ죬ഫġĹͬʶ֣߲Ƿߡ߲ܹ޸ķɣDz޸Ժķһߵֻǰǽʾˡ徫񡱣ˡʶѾڵĶ[19]ԴͷķչͬʱҲͬʱĹƶĹ۵㡣ǷƶģʹƶҲҪǻ۳ǰңĿҲǼ¼ϵϰףĿĿжþף¼ϰס[20]嵽־˵Ȼ߱Щȱ㹻ǻ۵ķѧҡ

ǿԿԨԴάڡڷѧĵʹⱾ֮ѧ˼ĺĺͻڷԴϰߺ͵Ĺͬʶ֮УžıʣάҲŵԷȥƶ䡣㣬̬ҲԿάῴĸֵеĴʽ̺ԭȻıԣеʵʳͷܣʹ߱ʵڷĹܡ[21]֮ˣȫڡͬϰ߷ȫȻǴڲԲǢķչġӰǶô΢΢.[22] 6ͷƶ,ֻڡе֪ʶԽϤš¶ϺʱӰ챻ռʱҪ[23]ѡȻ֮ͬϰ߷ôõķֻһ巢չвϰߺ͹򡪡徫ˡ

Խ

άǷԷģġ뷨ѧĵʹһԷ΢ʡзáʷ׷ԴȣΪ뷨սλΰᣬΪһ顰ߡfrancophobe[24]Ե¹ƶһҲԷ񷨵̬ȿԿȣ񷨵䡷άʹͰؿ˶ԷľһάͬΪָε¬ĻԻĸڰؿ˿ĴͳȻĵȻۡ[25]ѺάˣάΪԳõĿΪصشݲͷƣ̤ȨҡеܷеҪ֣ϤֹӴdzԶκȷȻĸƵϣ˻ڷһеäĿ嶯һһжھרͳ֮£㼴̽ĿġܷٵIJ֣ԦУµоζĺ֤ʯһУͳͳ[26]ܻӭ񷨵䣬ά価ܳר塣[27]񷨵䡷ıǣһdzİӣdilettanti[28]Ϊˣ˶ԣ÷̺ݵھ⣬ȴΪֲ֮ʹ[29]ֻΪṩһļѡԿά֮ԡ񷨵䡷dzĸ飬ҲͬڶȻΪķУ񷨹һʵ֤ԽԣֻǷѡij˵ά֮ʷѧɣǶԷڷѧڵĴϽеķ ΪάһΪǡġġ񷨵䡷ʹ̬ȣҲΪɴ˶1718͵ԵķУԼھ巽淴Ե¹ƶһͳһ񷨵䣬һֱ˱ءͳν׼ĴΪ֪ʷ׷ѰĿΪأԷĿΪԵ¹ƶһͳһ񷨵䣬ĿΪӵ¹ͳһйʶ̬ͬĹңѧٳٲ׽άᣬֱϸ90˫ԶЯӷάġִϵ8ͳⱾӰġͷѧĵʹ֮ǰѸһףǺĬķѧңҲĿΪغ֮ʿ[30]ʵϣ۶ά᲻˵ǹĺȫġάἰʷѧɣ෽Ϊ¹񷨵˹ףǼٽ¹ͳһġ

ά᱾ȻбصһģǣǶҪϡһı仯աѧϽάڷѧŷ徫IJڹ˽ȴŹձ壬Ȼѧϳֵı仯뷨ѧĵʹһʱ36ִ꣬ϵ8ʱѾ70[31]ڹ˽ϵձ͹壬ʹڽ쿴Ҳǽĺģֻά۵ǰ߶ԺӶȻDzƽġжά֮1842³ʿ˾󳼺רڸĸƶȣӵΣеڽɫʣȷɣƶ˵־ͨƱ͵־̷ͨȣЩȻһλθĸҺһλķѧΪ˵1940άһʲ׼θĸҺͷѧҲ֡[32]䷴ƶһͳһĵ¹񷨵䣬ΪһλԵ¹ͳһıطӣ಻ȷСʵϣάʮֿ¹ͳһģʮȷ˵ǣٲȣ׷ĿһµģǶӵһʵķƶȣԵרαǵ˺ߣǶѰͳһŽᣬר־ͬһĿĿѧо[33]ֻǣǾòڷԨԴżһ伴ɿ֮һ棬ֲ֮ʣƶһ䡣[34]ңΪƶնķѧͳάñ˵Ļ˵նɥʧ̺ḻ߶ȳķѧ뷨ͥƶȣǼ΢Сı׶ˣཫȫı⡣[35]οʷѧɱ˵άƶͳһĵ¹񷨵䣬ʵϣ1900¹񷨵ƶﵽǰδеĸˮƽѧҲνûݺڻһ񷨵䵮ڷڵʱѧԴ񷨵ĹƳ磬ϰ߷ԷΪоעѧɵĵѧͳηһͣ谭ѧƵķչԣڵ¹ѧͷ˽ն˽оһӴϵγ˽ѧѧơΪ׵ķѧҼһʷѧɵijԱάᡢպϣҮֵȡ˵ûʷѧɣѧͲﵽ֮߶ȡңʷѧɻھָ෨ĻŲȷ˹ףִƶȺͷѧѧƵʷնǰߣѧɶǰ˵ĹܽᣬӶʹŴľΪѧ񣻶ںߣֻʷѧеնϵŽ˴ģоڱ桢ָͲն棬ȡ˷˶ijɹ[36]

ά᱾˹ڷԴԡ徫񡱵ۣΪȻķҲشġȣΪڷ֮Դ۵һ֣ŵȻѧΪԴһҲʹʶγɷŬ֮һؿǵҰʹ޵ġԡ֮⣬ȥѰԴ;[37]ΣŵȻ˵ġԡʱ˼ΪֻҪ֮ԣǾַܷɹ򣬲ƶ䡣[38]ͬʱΪɵԭʱУʱڵģʷ϶ڷԾרƣ˵ĸԣȻ壬Ȼֶ֮ԵţﵽƺҮ˵ġԸij̶ȣΪոּɵǴвģ֮һߵļߵλ֮[39]Գȫ˼ԤĻԽԼĵλֻܻʹԼɵķ棬¾޴ѣеѪȺҰԼࡱսйȹѪɱᶯѣΪһṩõעšؿ˶Է׼ȷԤһάȻѧɵɺͷҲνij֪ߵʡңάʻʾġʷִ͡ϵʷѧɵĵ䷶֮ԽѧĵҲDzɹġһ˵άʷġѧķѧоʾ˺˽һѧĻѧѧѧķ뷨ѧ֮УӶ˷ѧĻѧѧͽѧɹ뷨Դоȣḻʶֶ[40]ʹʷѧڲάҲһѧʷѧҲǴʹ¹עʷҪأΪֹעʷȡ19ͷѧص㡣ڵʱǵ¹ԭʼķʷϸ̽[41]ңάʷѧ˼Ӣ˺ܴӰ죬Ӣĺ.÷Henry Maine,18221888ղķ˹..أJames Coolidge Carter,18271903˼մ÷ڶԭʼͽᷨƶȵķչй㷺ıȽо棬ֳԽάᣬŴжάΪǾ䡰н˶˴ΪֹһݵԼ˶Ļ[42]Կƾ֮

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*֧棨1978 ² ѧϵҵ 廪ѧ˼Ļоо ļɷרһʦ

* »1979 Ů ѧϵҵ Ҫ̷о

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[1] E.ǺĬ ѧ ѧ뷨ɷ йѧ 1999 ҳ38

[2] μ ͬ1ҳ3839

[3] Ȼѧ֮Ƚϡ ѧо 19983 Լͬ1ҳ39

[4] ͬ1ҳ39

[5] ͬ1ҳ41 Ҳɲμ źࡶ˼ʷ ѧ1990棬ҳ86

[6] The Social Contract ,Transl.G..D.H.Cole,Bk.I,ch.iii. ת ͬ1ҳ63ע117

[7] ͬ1ҳ6465 һϸοʮĽ

[8] ͬ1ҳ63

[9] άᡶ뷨ѧĵʹ йƳ 2001 뱾

ɲμ άᷨѧѧʵһì֮͸ӡ ˫Ԫ 㽭ѧ 20002

[10]άᡶ뷨ѧĵʹ йƳ 2001 뱾 [11] ʷѧɵ18ĩ19ͳĵ¹ǻأHauboldtͱBeckmann,䴴ʼΪGustav Hugo,1764-1844.ҪǡΪʵѧȻ1798꣩ȽʷԵʵ뷨ѧڶԡʷԡȻʾͬͬʱԴ۵Ȼѧͷ仯˵Ȼ˼롣άᣬһѧɵĺĺʹ

[12]άᡶ뷨ѧĵʹ йƳ 2001 ҳ11

[13] ͬ12ҳ9

[14] ͬ12ҳ7

[15] ͬ12ҳ9

[16] ǶɲѧԺѧ19996

[17] ͬ12ҳ27

[18]ͬ12ҳ35

[19] ڻ ʷѧ ᷢչ 19962

[20] ͬ12ҳ97

[21] ͬ12ҳ22

[22]ͬ12ҳ26

[23]ͬ12ҳ26

24ͬ9

[25] ؿ˵ġۡ

[26] ͬ12ҳ42

[27] ͬ12ҳ43

[28] ͬ12ҳ53

[29]ͬ12ҳ44

[30] ͬ1ҳ90

[31]˫Ԫ άᷨѧѧʵһì֮͸ӡ㽭ѧ 20002

[32]ڻ ʷѧ ᷢչ 19962

[33] ͬ12ҳ121

[34]ͬ12ҳ121

[35]ͬ12ҳ121

[36]ڻ ʷѧ ᷢչ 19962

[37]ڻ ʷѧ ᷢչ 19962

[38] ͬ1ҳ90

[39] ӢF.A.ҮˡԸ йѧ2000 ҳ19

[40]ڻ ʷѧ ᷢչ 19962

[41]ͬ1ҳ90

[42] Ӣ.÷ Ŵ һ ӡ1959 ҳ97

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