ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 

۵ԨԴ뷶Χ

ղķ˹* ǧ

תԱ󹫷

ۡ20052ڣ141-153ҳǧ֯룺ܷۡɳ2006棬2ƪ

Ҫ ˾ºţ䶰19ܷѧƪ¿Բŵ˵еĵһƪҲÿһѧߵıضסƪУ꾡֤˾ݡΧͷȻ˾ĺԣΪ˾Ȩ뱻ϸʺʹķΧڣֻڷͬѰ²ʹͬѰȨܳ19ĩڣ˼۵㡣Ա֮ϸΪ˾ѧһҪɡǾڶѲĺ·(J. Learned Hand)һܳѧҵķڵѧ˵ˣ˵ڽƫºͱص߷Ժһѧɵĵλ

һ ˾ܷ

˾ΪΥܣЧôģȷеķΧʲô

һǣܲûȷȨ跨٣(inferential)ЩļУûвκοóȷ۵ֻܷ֮֡ͨ󣬲ܷ1792Ŀϵ»ܵʮ֡ȨǷڣһʼܵijЩ˵ķϻɣ1825꣬һǿҵķУݵļɭ(J. Gibson)ܸɵķ֮һݵϯ󷨹١ȫκûȷȨܷܹȨˣһȨϺڹܷȨҲǸݵڶ涨ܷԼܷƶķɺԼǡҵ߷ɣÿݵķٶӦԼκݵܷǷִ֮[1]

ͬѰȨ֮ݣֻܷdzķһʵ򷨹֧ܷвҵ൱ʵġʽ򷨹ٵԶδȨԺȡܾʵʩžܷȨɵκΪЩŶȨ֮϶Ҫȷһ㣬ֻҪҵʵ㹻ˣ¹ʿгܷȨЩҲδóϡ(Dicey)Ľġܷѧۡ˵ܷΪ趨ʵϲǷɣΪDzտɱԺʵʩĹǵʵε׼еDZдܷ֮ʵԼɴ˲Ĺ֧֮֡[2]

ôôȡַͬѰҪǶսǰξȻҲӢij³(characters)ͳµֳߡΪܷЩ³еֶͨͬζʵʩͨ³̵ȡ(forfeiture)ֱֳͨᷨͨӳͨ˾ԼԺߡǵЩȻDZȻЩֳʱֻȨͨʹһȨ涨³̵ȨھйἰԼķԺȫ֯׼κΥĽȨȨǻģܵȫϣԼķԺʵʩӢ߷ԺʵʩͬȨʱֻһƽͱҪijЩ³ϸϵijġͺǶֳΪӢԺʵʩһҲֳͨطԺʵʩκεִ³̵ֳЧԡ[3]

ˣʲôܼ򵥣ǸϵǺʹеߵŦⲿȨٴڡڵĹǣռȨλãҲ˵DZݵ˿ԼȨִûбıԣͨӢȨʺͷתΪǵͳߡԼ񡪡ܵ͡ڴ֮³̾ͲΪ֯ⲿֵ֧ⲿ򵥵ʵʩ³̵ƽְܣܷ͸ȻˣdzΪΪͳԼĽ(precepts)ԵͬеÿˣְЩˡڲڸߵȨͨͨǿ֧ЩȨԼֱͨ־֮˾Ӿ⣻κͨĹУûʵʩԸĻܷļеԵЩšЩδְ˴ijܷαʵʩأ

ȷʵǺ͹ȥһģȴûй涨µֻӾɵİ취;ɵĹ1776꣬˵Ͽ(Connecticut)ͨᷨ1662³̼ΪĶһ޶Ȩ֮µĹܷκιӡȻϤɺĻ򱻸Ϊһֱ֡1818꣬һֱⲿܷ档޵µ(Rhode Island)ûиı³һֱڵ1842ꣻΪ֪ǣǸⲿ³̲˾ڰ֮һҪᷨʵʩܷҲ޵µ߷Ժ1786оTrevett v. Weeden[4]

ʾǣ˾ȨòûеõձܴͬļλԱ񶨣18͵ʮбͬķΪδ顣޵µԷԺTrevett v. WeedenΪеƺǵֳصתʹΪӢƵȨ(omnipotence)[5] ڷâݣʱȷƺ˾þܾʵʩᷨɣڿ˵Ͽݣݵϯ󷨹˹(C.J. Swift)ͬļ⡣ڷâǰУ[6] ѧı༭1824д1777âʱָûнܹĹҲ˾κȨᷨĺԣκԭЧЧԵȨûС1785Ļ25ҳ˵ᵽĽ׶ܾ֮ãܷǹ߷˾Ȩִ֮ķ֮Ƿ͵(anti-republican)1814꣬[7] ǵһηָ÷ԺᷨΥڹܷȻЧڴ˿ָǣᷨΥЧ֮Բܵȱڶʱֵ֧һۣҲǷԺԾܾʵʩ͵»ȻִķɡΪӢʱǷģûʵʩΪһƲ⣬ʱڵķҲظۣ֪ûκʵʩۣԴΪΨһͱҪݡҲʵʩΪһָԴʩ[8]

1795귢˹(Swift)˵ϿݵķϵһУ[9] ϸ֤ǿҷԾܾᷨ˾Ȩᵽ෴Ĺ۵㡰ΪвѳΪָһͬǣ˾ûΥܵķΥܵĿԣͺԽܷȨ޵Ŀ֮ͬߡֵעǣҲᷢ˿µİ編Ȩû֤ݵ¸˶ΪԼְ֤λôǡȻΥܣȻҪ󷨹оԹעƺǴġֱ1807-08꣬ݵķٻоᷨЧܵᵯ[10]

˾Ľ

˾Ȩձȷ䵽dzܷı֮УʶȨأӦñϸΪ˾ʵȨϸȨΪ֣ڽÿȨһŵĹУʱȷʽֹκβʹȨ1780ʡ(Massachusetts)ܷһֵ30涨ԶʹִȨ˾ȨִԶʹȨ˾Ȩ˾ԶʹȨִȨǷζ

Ƶǿ1792Ŀϵ»ܵһ涨ÿŶһȺĹԱҲһȺԱִһȺԱ˾һȺԱ𡣳ȷ׼£Щ֮һκ˻嶼ʹʵŵκȨ

ˣȻйȨ˾ȨȿసжáڴΪɲȨ֮ʹǷΥܷ˾ܸ棻෴DZܲʵʩΪ(J. Cooley)ָ[11]

ͨ˵ӡǣκԽܷȨ޵£˾ȫȨṩʵľȼãȷʵӦЧκιԼ˾ΪЧܾ֮Զʵ

˾ȷʵȨ£ȨȫΧΪ˾ʵύԺ⣬оضȨ֮ʹǷΪֹܷڴ˹УԺְԱŵκʵȨɲȨʵΧڶơˣ˾УЩⲻҪڴвȡرķҪ󷨹ٶӴûȷ޵Ȩѡһ棬ΪֻʵжϲʵǷΧ㷺ءȻ߱ĹΧڣܷϵ߱뱻ɿռ䡣ͷΧڴ˲ƵѡѡijֻʽΪԣٲøԤΪǵһ˾⡣ Σض˾ǣijɼΪҪʵΪܷȷίЩ⣻ǾͲжٴΣܷijίиһյģΪܷûй涨ֻڳϲڴ˹пʱſɷԺ⡣ˣڳֻκ˾֮ǰѾȫȡԶҪĽڹеĵһ͵ڶ³Լ30ǰԺķҷ³̵ĺʹʢٵڸһˡ1791䲼һ³̺20ЧдûڷԺܵս1816ӳֻ3֮󣬺ڹ߷ԺҪӦÿǷͬѰδԤģԤĽȨȨһӰҵܷȨΪҪԵظıشij˿Ϊ˱˽ϵԺ1863꼰ԺĺϷҲˣ뻹бҪÿһԱϵܻش顣еĺܵά֣һʼܵڹ߷Ժķ񶨡طԺһɽҵҲˡҲֻҪأȫ׵ؾij˽ΪԴ⡣

ȻڻҪĽȨڣйؽͻʵʾӦܵӦأⲻֻΪڻͨϵأǻߺͷɵļΪҪԺӦ˼DZΪΥܵҪߣǽֻDZżӳٵĿơǽڷɿʼЧǰͼ޸ģܴһij[12] ȻٿƲΥܷɵĻޣǾͿΪʲôڻֻʱĿƷΧҲǼ޵ġ

ˣѾԤǣкΥܵķɿЧԺȨֹΪǵȫȨ˾ǵĸԤֻʩ֮һ䷶Χ൱խ

˾Ϊϸ̶ʱ׾ܵϣȴһķʽЧ˾ְܣʹ֮Խޡ˵Ժְֻڽļ໥ȽϣͺԼΪͻʱнȽһȻÿһļʵ˼֮໥ͻʵʩΪܷԺʱȥƺѰǫ˾ְֽͺ׵´ǵءǾܾΪоݶֱЧһȫܾЩءѧDzЩأҲΪΪĿݣܷͷıȡ֮ˣͬʱʧȥʦϽμҵĴȣǴܷҪġЩСȴڵDzʤö١ ȻΪ˱Ϳ̰ķֹԺЪ˵ġڲ͵һܷЩй˾ְ֮ʵ׼򻹸زù򣬲ֶ֮ʹڲͬĸԡ

ܷ͵ʵʹ

ǿԺڴһ˼ĹϽȨвȡʵ·

ΪʼǽһϽȨںܼ򵥵ϣҲֻܷί޵ȨҪЧĻͱ뱻ΪɣΪɣǾͱΪԺͺáⱻΪȻ۵㣬Ǽ򵥺ϸġǺܶ1788ġļ78ƪķʱܷΪܷˣ1787꣬߷Ժţκøıܷ[13] پͺԼһܷԼұΪܷκηɶЧġѷ1790-1791ķѳݽ˵ܷߵķɣܷǷٵְȨܷķɱòһ֧Υܷ֧Ҫ֮ɡ1793꣬ݵķΪԺֻͬзɣֻܷڽͷɣIJָЧ[14] 1795꣬߷Ժ󷨹ɭڱѲʱ˵[15] ܷǶίУǵΪܷǾʧȥȨ1796꣬ϿݵķԺԶ׼һǷϻ⡣[16] Ҳ߷Ժ(General Court)1802[17] 1803˸ѷ[18] ۵˼·ͬܡΪ˳ƣЩƿΥܵǷɣ۴ӸϺͳܷϵ˾ְȨʲôͻȨһߣ˾ӦܷͻЧͽʹⲿļءȻ󻹲˵ܷȷȨ

ܱϸˡֳʽDzɱġȻĴ󲿷ֲûע⵽ԣ˳ƽͺܷʦ˽żһԺְܷȨͺκƽһģһ

Щ򵥵׼ΪҪù䣬ʹûᵽڶطá1811꣬ϯ󷨹ٵٶŷԺȨоΥܣضȴܾʹȨ£[19]

Ҫɣ߷ԺԺԼڹõķԺΪܷ͵ԭӦǣᷨӦЧΥȻȷɡûء

ùʼںʱ硣ǿ1811ѾΪȫȷ¼У1782긥ĸ۴˾Ȩ翼ǣ[20] ټŵǿԺһȨԺԺٷ(J. Pendleton)ܾһоԤʾɣ ԺɱΪijַʽ˾Ȩʲô̶ȨȨʽͨķЧԼʹ֧ȨΥܷȷ涨ȷʵһ̡ҪӴ⡣ľǫǫӡĽ

ָðҪ⡣1793꣬߷ԺоݷΥܣ̩մ󷨹ָ[21] ΥܱȻģԺΣֹܲ๫ķɻʵʩ

1787ܴȻΥܵȨʶҲȨĽޡΪ÷ЧǰᷨѷָɿΣպʹƻԵģδˡΥΪپܾЧṩɡ[22] 1796꣬߷Ժ˹󷨹ָڲԺǷȨЧ£ֻڷdz²ŻʹȨ[23] 1800꣬ڹݵϣѾ1795ѲоЧ߷Ժ󷨹ɭΪֻСͺΥΪʺİʾ[24] ΪԺκηΥṩɡ 1808꣬ڴǿҵоһαԺΪ϶áоɺܵĹУԺIJٷȨǺ˾ŵ֯ɷġӦʲôʽʹȨָ[25]

иоݵʡֵϸ͡Ľ͹ڽ֮ǺʵģӦھܷЧܷȨַÿ˵˵ĹԣƩ񲿷֮͵ԴΪܷڶһְӦݳȨԺijίԱᣬôÿ˶̻ῴΥԡ˾ȨԥΥܡǷԽܷʣԺӦñͻΪпֵܷ֧ Ͽݷߵ(J. Waties)˾ȨΥĹ۵ƣ1812갸ǿҿ϶һ㣺

ҶθʮǿңҲΥȻģӦЧΪΪҵĹṩ˱ҶְΪҪķ񡣡ȨԹҵҪֵҲDz֪Ȩļءܷδ涨Լ£ȨҾߺͷٶDzʹǵΪܷһļΪܷȻΥܡζڱ֤ȨӶDZزٵġһ㾭ܵɣǾͽԷɵأȴǶԹȫҸҪˣҲϸ鷨ɵЧԣͲˡ˾ᷨĸԤɾڲɿݣܻᵼ¶˾ȨǿҵձķУսȫɥʧٵĶԼܷѱˣɵЧԲӦܵɣ˺ִָܷʱо˼ά˶ʶִֵ˾˽ʹȨôͲ죬ܴٽڶԷٵΣЧȫֳ[26]

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* James B. Thayer, The Origin and Scope of the American Doctrine of Constitutional Law, 7 Harvard Law Review 129-156 (1893)189389գ֥Ӹٿġѧͷɸĸᡱġ

Ҫ˵ǣĸԭûб⣬ߺݸּԱĶ

[1] ֣ûע⡣⣬ҴûпۣʹЪѷоҲ⣬ҶΪ߱ˡɭһϵۡNorris v. Clymer, 2 Pa. St. 281 (1845)жʦ˵Ѿɶı⡣ƺ1838ܷ֮ͨǰܴͨĬ֧˶ԷԺɴľٶҲ[˾]Ҫԡ

[2] ڶ£127ҳڡķչڹʷһмֵļǰУ2ҳ޽˹(Rogers)ԺָŷޣΪֹûзԺȨҷɵĺԡڵ¹ʿԺܳɣǿִĵطݵķЧڴ˵ĿƣȽϴǰ飬Լʿ(James Bryce)(American Commonwealth)һһ£430ҳ

[3] Lechmere v. Winthrop (1727-28)Phillips v. Savage (1734)ԼClark v. Tousey (1745)μ(Talcott)ļؿ˵ϿʷЭļµ94ҳⱾãҸлʿٵŲ(Mellen Chamberlain)Lechmere v. WinthropԺоһ˽30ĵطЧ(null and void)ʡʷЭļ߼µ496ҳ

[4] ıVarnums Report (Providence, 1787)s.c. 2 Chandlers Crim. Trials, 269.

[5] ŦԼ1784Rutgers v. WaddingtonųᷨͬҲ˼ҷ졣ðĵɭ(Dawson)汾ʷۡ(Morrisania, 1866), pp. xxiv et seqԸͽĹίԱġԱĽΪ۶ǻģҲ˾ԺӦȨϵȨԺȨݻɣȡƲİȫϡڱãҸлѳʦЭԱ÷˹(William M. Meigs)IJѧġ˾ܷĹϵThe Relation of the Judiciary to the Constitution (19 American Law Review 175)еڰ÷˹۵ģŦԼݵİƺûоɡΥܡ [6] 1 D. Chipmans Reports, 22 et seq.

[7] Dupuy v. Wickwire, 1 D. Chipman 237.

[8] ڶ1761PaxtonԮ(Writ of Assistance)עеõ̽(Quincys Report 51)һΪǸ(Horace Gray)ʦ߷Ժĵĸ״󷨹١ע520-530ҳJames Otis۵šΥܵᷨЧġ(Quincy 56, n. 474)һЩʱΪоᷨΥ»ĵһԭЧQuincy 529õBowman v. Middleton, 1 Bay 252Լʿġһ431ҳõGardner v. Newburgh, Johns Ch. Rep. 162ϸļ֣ʵҪֽ͡

[9] һ50ҳ¡

[10] Ȩܷơ棬193ҳ1 Chases Statutes of OhioǰԵ38-40ҳںߵãҪлҵͬ(Wambaugh)ڡ

[11] Journal of the Michigan Political Science Association, vol. 1, p. 47.

[12] 1866ĸױܷ84涨߷ԺķٿԲ롰йº˾ķ顣᰸ڸΪΥܵ£ڸͨô÷ύ߷Ժһ90150ܷ뱾ѧԺ꿯18931¡

һ̫Ϊ˾ŵȨѹƺ˥ܵΨһֵעǣ˾Ȩճзӵ֮СҪıڹ㷺ѡȨְλĶڡԺԼνһأǼԸ˾κȨŦԼ1777ܷ涨ίԱ(Council of Revision)ijЩԱǷ٣ᷨЧǰ뱻ύίԱᣬԻ׼ַʽ40꣬1821ܷΪͨķҲֻҪ׼䲻׼£֧ͨijͨ1776ܷ471777âܷ44涨ίԱ(Council of Censors)ÿ7ѡһΣйĽչָκβŵΥΪְڱݽڵ1790꣬ڷâڵ1870ꡣƶڹܷڼ䣬һȱţЩòɣŦԼݡڲͬʱȫӦݷзȨݳӦڹݷзȨͳԺӦаַ٣ͳ͹ԺԴ߷ԺܴЩȷԺ໥ƺͨ¿Dz2/3ٴܷͨܵķɺԼǹҵ߷ɣԼŸݷ١ģļΪ˱֤ԸݵĿȨԱΪЧϵͳĻûֱᵽڹűһʼʽǡڹķɺԼڸ߷ɣԸԼķԼ䷨١ [13] Den d. Bayard v. Singleton, 1 Martin 42.

[14] Kemper v. Hawkins, Va. Cas. 20.

[15] Vanhornes Lessee v. Dorrance, 2 Dall. 304.

[16] Lindsay v. Comrs, 2 Bay 38.

[17] Whittington v. Polk, 1 H. & J. 236.

[18] Marbury v. Madison, 1 Cranch 137.

[19] Com. V. Smith, 4 Bin. 117.

[20] Com. V. Call, 4 Call 5.

[21] Kemper v. Hawkins, Va. Cases, p. 60.

[22] 5 Ell. Deb. 344.

[23] Ware v. Hylton, 3 Dall. 171.

[24] Cooper v. Telfair, 4 Dall. 14.

[25] Grimball v. Ross, Charlton 175.

[26] ĹǿȷģȨܷơ棬216ҳΪܵǿ˾оȫصһ֧֡1827Ogden v. Saunders (12 Wheat. 213)ʢٷΪָ֮ܽڷɺԵձϺ͸о֮ϣΪ䱾һı绤ƶЧΥԵõȷɵֻ֤ǶͨɵءھĹУԺDzȡ̬ȣ֪˱ͥÿٵʵܡ1878ġծϵа(Sinking Fund Cases, 99 U.S. 700)Τϯ󷨹ٴԺָΥܵľֻİвÿһܵƶ(presumption)ЧԵģҳΥܵõȷɵ֤⽫սۡһ֧Խһ֧Σաƶȵİȫں̶ܴϸء1834Wellington et al., Petitioners (16 Pick. 87)ܶϯ󷨹ٴԺָбҪظΪ󷨹Ǿн飬ҪЧֻЧԸǵжϻȷɵ֤ʱô1862Com. v. Five Cents Sav. Bk. (5 Allen 428)ϯ󷨹ٱ޴ԺָбҪظԺĽ͹Ҳһھ߱Ҫ÷ЧҪʽµõͨôƶںԵģҷԺӦ䡭ЧЧԻȷɵ֤ȷ򡱵ۡ1823Ex parte MCollum (1 Cow. P. 564)ķٴԺָڷԺΪΥ֮ǰ벻κԵʡ1858People v. The Supervisors of Orange (17 N.Y. 235)˹ٴԺָᷨӦΪ˾͵ijͻͱЧ˾Ȩƶķ֮ǰ뱣֤ȻΪκκƶ֧֡1876Perry v. Keene (56 N.H. 514, 534)·ָԺͬԺȻܷͬʱҲӦһԽȨ塣ֻĿǰΪĹķΥ֮ǰDZȫȷɵ֤Ȩ˰dz˽˶ǹĿġ1852The Cincinnati, etc., Railroad Company (1 Oh. St. 77)RanneyٴԺָʵ˾ԤȨDzɷϵָͬԺеԭ򡣡ֻڳȻȨܷ뷨֮Գͻ£˾ȨſԾִܾзɡʵ£ָԤ漰֮ʡоİһһµġݷԺоҲһˡ1813Syndics of Brooks v. Weyman (3 Martin (La.) 9, 12)ԺλΪJohnson v. Duncan (Ib. 539)Կ϶ķʽãΪԼκΥᷨЧȨΥܱԵģκλɡ1856Cotton v. The County Commissioners (6 Fla. 610)ŰٴԺָһҪȨӦ±çʹҲӦδ֤ԽȨ޵İʹԺ˼άϴںʣôӦñַ֧ɵĺԡøݷԺĴΪһĽһ֧֡ǵ̽ûзһձ۵κ⡣ ġ ׼ȡζԴо

һЩͷ渵Ŀdzйع򲢲ֻһʽһں𾴵ıζԶЩࡣԺٵʶʹ˾ְȷʵԶԽʱּ񡣼ǵֻȷܷıܵսᷨ壬ǷݷԺжϷͻôһѧ⣬ôԺȻһλߵҪţžйӰҪ񣬵ʵְȴԶ⸴ӡȷЩԺ󣬻һҪ⣺ԺǷȨ÷ɡȻôֻΪóۣݹȷͣȷʵΥܡǷԺ涨ù塣ֻеȨĻ˴󣬶ҷ˼ΪԵĴ󡪡ԣܵɣԺܾܾ÷ǷԺᷨõԱ׼ԼԺԵжϣҶǶһܷȨIJſʲôжϵĽҲˡϣǵĺ󡢸ӺͲϷҪһ˻һȺ˿Υܵܶ˵ˣܷͬĽͣҾŷΧ㷺ѡжϣ£ܷκһ־ǿ֮ϣڴ˷ΧѡκԵѡǺܵġҲĹ϶ֵ֧ԭ򡣿ټҪЧ[1] һλԱܶΥܵķͶ˷ƱԣΪͨߵԺǷ٣Ȼ˿δıԼʱȫпܷԼɺܵ

Ƿ˻˵ǿ飬ʹ̫ණȡڴǵķʽҲΪ֪ôΣա۶Բûоض˾ʲôۣΪܻκ΢ͺͿʼĶIJǿϣڷԺϤȷɵһ²ǿҲǽֻΪڻഫ̸ڷάԼ1825꣬ɭ񶨷ԺȫȨΥܵУ[2] κȨ352ҳ˵ȨȡܷIJǷ̫󣬶ǷκֲࡱԺ¿϶ǵȨͬǿķʽ϶ơ1817꣬ҲΪӢʦ÷ɭ(Jeremiah Mason)񶨣ºΪĦ˹ѧԺڽ׶εı绤ʦָΪԺӦñͨľΪԺӦΥܣǵĽǾȷģȻ޿ɻɣôһں̶ܴγ[3] ϣԺӦ輫أľһΪƫ֧䡣ΪҪͨЧԵͨȻκʽʡˣʵҪԺϽȨͨϰǽȨŵ̶ȡԺڴɵĵط˳ͽȫȨ۵㡣Σº߷ԺDzûСǿҵΥܡʱȡж1819ߺЪԺڻʢٵʵİУԺִܷᷨ

1829꣬ʡԺġ˹źӰʱ[4] ܶһΪԭ绤Τ˹(Daniel Webster)ĴڻʵԡΪస漰ijʣͨΥܵķɡȷǣһȥʵİôԺͿԸԤ⣬˵ԱʱͶƱͨһǻɵķɣǵԻ÷ٵľðķԺ5-6ƱĶƻͨ

ʵĻǿ֤֮ԳλԱͶ޳ƱΪΥʵģⱻԺΪΥʶͨ˷ɣԺΪΥʶоЧô񽫴һʲôԺϷʽ֮ͨⲻԭõôξͲκεطܷٵȨ˾йΨһʺϵ˽Ȩ֮

ijҪѷԺɻشĻԺûжԴòûƫԼְ;ǽԼ·(J. Wilde)ָֻڰһǵȻʱ򣬲ſΥܡDZǵְDZǵܷȨȨΤ˹ϰһͬ绤ܶ(C.J. Shaw)ʡϯ󷨹٣֮÷ɭ(Jeremiah Mason)Ϊʦһǿ꣺پᵽԺֻЧȷɵ²ſЧ[5]

ܵĹܵȷά֣ʵʺʽԶΪЧġʽԣ֮עĿΪЭͬšԱ͸˵ȨΪȨǷԺճְܣȴ־ǷԺճְϤҪڲͬԲ˵һˮͱ׼ǵķѧ۳ɳԽԽӺ;ϸʱԽԽ׿Ƕ֪Ϊõһ̷֣ҷȨϾãԽһضȨΪ˿ܺΪʲôȷġΪƶĹҲһսʿϼľжʱԹҵͨʲô񣿴ڡܷѧָָۡܱ·Ժǹֿܱٺд̡[6] Կ϶ķʽ˹ٷҷ(J. Stephen)ʱָΪϼΪ¼ִκṩɣֻҪǿԺΪϼɸЩܿΨһǣսʿܺ˾ݵԣսʿӦܵ[7] ڷִ̰ҪУ˱(Lord Blackburn)ҲᵽָͬڷԺضһĴǷ񹹳ɷ̰ĹУǺȫͬ⣬ҲһͥǷܺΪﹹɷ̰[8] ͬ𣬷Ժÿ춼ŵоڼǰһУ(Lord Esher)ܾоָֻǵ˲ܵó϶ԺſԳоͷǷ֮ͬߵϸ΢ģĽȡڷٵ۵ǶԵģģʽྶͥǷóͬо⣬ȻǷ֮ͬصⲻһ¡Ϊ߷ԺļΪҪͬʽ⣬ҲǹʹܻɵȨԼЩȨĺϷ֮⡣[9] ʹ˰ȨȨ򱻳ΪȨ(police power)Ĺ㷺Ȩеκһ֣ôΪӦñΪʧȥԵԽȨʵϳΪijֹܵIJͬȨûз°IJƲǷԽȨɷپ[10] ±Զסǣ˾ǵڶλġھӦʲôʲôǺʱ򣬲ûкͷٷְҲҪӷٶʲôǽ֮˾ְֻȷΪӡԽޣ˰ȨȨȨԼһȨΥܷĽֹԽܷȨ[11]

μǵǣ˾Ժ涨ʲôı׼ʱӦԶ߱¡ʶʵ֪ʶб뽨ϰߺͼ֮ϡɭ(J. Gibson)ָ۵ļٶǣǵģ߱²Լ񡣡[12] Ъϯ󷨹ָ˵˽˺ͬһȨĸܣǽǼ˲ʵġ[13] ˣڷԺΪĹУͺ;ŵΪһǼٶйػܵʵָʾⲢг˿ʵϻԵʲôûнȱ˼롢ִ±ç㣬ЩܹǡһʵֹĿˡҲʺڴεǵбٶΪִйЩˡܻԵʲôһ׷ݼͽԺôԺüھͨдκ֪Ρйһ¶෣֤ָջ涨ҲͬˡˣǷ˵ĺ(reasonable doubt)ָһľ߱ʵ֪ʶϸоʱĺʡ˵ʵ(rationally permissible)ļ⣬ָ˿ܺеļ⡣

Ժ֮Թ涨ŵĺ֮׼ΪоԷ˵ľ޴Ӱ졣ŵоҲ涨򣬵˲ͬҲΪоһְIJţţԺԼûȨиְ𡪡˱֤ŴںͺʹȨĽ֮ڣԺûκȨԺŰʵʹʽҲСͬĹҲھΪɲ֮һ߼֮ԺDz(coordinate)ŵΪҲôΪʹķʽҲСֻڼΪİвΪΪĽܼΪء

Ҫ˵ЧͬΪǶıĽͣһֱǷԺ⣬ҲͬһļַɽͣȷķʹķֻһȷķҪɷԺʲôȷķЩ۵൱˵ʵֻѭ֤˱(Lord Blackburn)Է̰ıйء[14] ǵǣڴвŵΪĹУԺһᲢ͵ֻһֽܷȷʽˣڷԺֻΪȷȷıʱôȷʵֻһֿ壬ҲǷԺоȷ塣ⲢڴˣһšԱ˵ضΪǷϷɱôͲˡǵһసУⲢʲôܷȷ壬ɷ Ҳ˻˵ⲢǷʵϵĽͣƩڡаУ[15] ЪͼԽڹеȷԺԼʹȷʵˣҲסڷԺάԼ϶ܵʱô˵ǺʵģҷԺоǰҪġҲˣΪసУ֮άַΪǶԴ˴ɣûжԸԼֻǽԭⲻһλʡָͬйطȨͨģҲΥܣоΨһǷΥܣЧԲ˲ܺɣʹЧӰ˾޴³Ϊ˾ŵְ𡱡[16] DzǵⲢֻ֧򷴶ɵļ򵥶ǷΪԣǷȷɣʵڼᶨƵ֧ԵľȻԼܷıȷ֮⣬оܵϸֻȷɵΥܡԲǣijЩо˵ıԹͺǷԺÿסƵģ[17] ڴ˿ҵֵĽ͡Ժ󻹻ָΪᾭãʱҲԼȨĽޡ

ΪЩΪˡ۵Ĺسϣй˾ְ𴥼ΪҪʵơǵܷ۽ϸʵԭ򣬶ùչ˹Ƶʵ򣬴ӶϸΪͼ򵥵ĹôǷɷչļΪϤ֮ڲǵܷ۹Уǵһ߲ͨŵΪΪЩ֮һ˾Ͽ(sanction)˾ְܲȫģֻDzֵġij̶ֳϣٻ˾ΪЧļȨֻ֮˾ְܣΪáһִҪáôپͱʺķԭ๤УÿŶ뱻֤ŵȫֻҪԼΪ϶ܷȨκκʵ֮⣬֮ͬͲܴʺϵĻʽ(modus vivendi)ʲôԺͿģյIJȷʵǷԺΪϰὫǰǵķԺһͳߵĹϽȨͼõֻ࣬Ȩ塣Dzýߵ򣬻ȴһλӢ̽ǰۣΪķ˹ã[18]

оȨκγķϰ߷ģֻߣ̸Щɵˡ[19]

ҼҪἰԵһǶڳҪġʱлԷɵĺԱǵĹ򲢲ãõĹͨͬӦ1鲢вŵΪ֮Чԣ2Ϊŵѯߣ3ΪȨ֮ڴDzвŵΪ

1 ԺԲвΪЧ֮ͨҪǰ۵㡣ҲҪԴ˵ࡣ 2 ڵڶṩѯ(advisory opinion)ʵϲ˾ְܵʹ˸Ҳû˾Ȩʡ[20] Ψһδ˵ɵһڸ߳ʱڳݣ[21] Ҳ˽⿼ǵۣ[22] ЩⲢҪһۼκƣǷṩЩֻǽԵģκϹȨжϣӢڽԺʱṩһһ[23] ǵܣһ㲻Ӧṩܷ涨߸ڣϰǺоһ𱨵ЩͺͱӢڿŮ(Queen Carolines Case)ɶٰ(MacNaghtens Case)еĻӦһʱܵã·ǺоͬλЩ̸۵ǡѡԼԺ˾ɺǿĹ򶼲áҪǷԼ

3 ǵ˫⣬ҲܷÿһԼڱһиߵȨߣ͸֮ĹϵԼ漰һȨԸάȫȨƺҲȷÿŵҲԼʵάȨһͨķ͹ҵ߷ͻԺܵսЩԺܱһڲвŵĹ涨ͬ⡣ⲻȨأôܵĽߡݻԺԽ͵ȫռ䡣ݵΪǷܷҵ߷ɣDzͬ顣Ӹ˵漰֮ȨҲʲôطߡԺȻڶǷԽ޶бۣIJŲDzеģ޵ҲһԺܷĴˣְʹⲿܷǡֵĽͣȷһ֮󣬱κⲿʴ ѾԺݷԺӦδΪǷܷҲӦΪԺͬԼȻԺߣΪ׷ԺӦΪһϵͳIJͬѭͬĹ򡣵ݡ˾ÿһߣֻݷݷԺάֵʱ򣬲ߡΪһԭ򣬼ʹаߣҲӦѭһҲǷӦزɵκοĹ۵㡣ΣݷԺƺʵԭôʵģΪάȨDZҪġ[24]

۵ҿǼΪҪġҲûгһֻۣͼԸ׼ȷȷķʽһܵϵۡ˵ǶԵģôǿǵķԺӦǿȫ塣˵ijЩûгܷĹ˽Ȩıҹࡣǵܷڽų⣬ֻߵ˼˹ںϷԡʲôΪܷ֮˼άҼʹںϷ⣬ҲеʲôΣ˵Ǵ˵ĻԺ֮[25] ˵Ķԣôξðĸĸ֮·мɱǿҵöʶʹܻعλãҲǵϵͳȨҲ뱣ľ޴ռ䡪ʹܲ𺦺а񡪡Լ˾Ȩ涨ơֹܷȨԼͼһʵ־ͱȻʹͽΪijЩݣѾߵ̫ԶˡûĸƵķԺȨ֮ڶ䣻ǵҪڱ𴦡ȷģôڹڶҪľʹָ֮Ŀ

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[1] Ȩܷơ棬68ҳʿڡһ431ҳԿ϶ʽá

[2] Eakin v. Raub, 12 S. & R. 330.

[3] Farrars Rep. Dart. Coll. Case, 36.

[4] Charles River Bridge Case, 7 Pick. 344.

[5] Wellington, Petr., 16 Pick. 87.

[6] 棬279-281ҳ

[7] аôоģRiggs v. State, 3 Cold. 85 (Tenn., 1866); United States v. Clark, 31 Fed. Rep. 710 (U.S. Circ. Ct., E. Dist. Michigan, 1887, J. Brown)(J. Hare)Ҳۣͬ䡶ܷڶ920ҳ

[8] Cap. & Counties Bank v. Henty, 7 App. Cas., p. 776.

[9] Chic. &c. Ry. Co. v. Minnesota, 134 U.S. 418ǹ涨ίԱ·˷ѵǷܣų˵ڷԺҪ˾վίԱΪĻᡣ

[10] ȽLaw and Fact in Jury Trials, 4 Harvard Law Review 167, 168.

[11] ˾ȱʵ֣ͺΪںͬϷӷٶԺԵһ䡶ܷѧԭڶ57ҳ̸һʱȷ۵㣺ʲôǹĿ֮ҪְȨֻҪǶǣΪӦܵơеʶԶΪЧķʽõȻΪʵģֻгȨԽȨʱųΪ˾ʵġԺҪշЧôշȱĿı¶ǣκǵ˶һۿһϣ߷ԺΤط(C.J. Waite)ٴָస漰⣬ֻҪǸʱЧ涨ʱǷº⣬Ҫй٣Dzܳŵľ䷸Դ󡣡Terry v. Anderson, 95 U.S. 633Pickering Phipps v. Ry. Co., 66 Law Times Rep. 721 (1892)Լ·Perry v. Keene, 56 N.H. 514 (1876)мֵ

[12] Eakin v. Raub, 12 S. & R., p. 355.

[13] Fletcher v. Peck, 6 Cr., p. 131.

[14] Cap. & Count. Bank v. Henty, 7 App. Cas. 741.

[15] McCulloch v. Maryland, 4 Wheat. 316.

עһε˼˵ԺʱάԵijһΪʲôܵɣ˵ӡƺǷٿԶжϣҲԸʽоһΥܵģֻҪԺиΪˣʵϣసУʹٶԷɵĺԴڻɣΪڴ˻طɣȻԺжϣжϣÿɵ׼άĺԡ [16] J. ThomasķԺ8 Gray 21.

[17] һλɥ˼1885߷ԺķҾʱдԺѾˣ̫ٳΪ־ЧԼʹͼôҲɹBrooks Adams, Consolidation of the Colonies, 55 Atlantic Monthly 307.

[18] Professor Gray, 6 Harvard Law Review 33nʵ۵Աǣע۵Ƿ٣Իԭİʱʦ׼ȷ

[19] 1717331գ(Hoadly)ڹǰIJ̻ıʡLondon: James Knapton, 1717Ӧָǣ̸۵Σһ䲼ʹӲٲָԤⲢȫȻǿԻܷۣ90УȨֻһαȡشжҪϱս侲ףҿԻɵǣֻм̷ĸܻжһ˯ĹͬһӲڵĹܷԸı䣬Щԭܷڲ䡣

[20] Com. v. Green, 12 Allen 163; Taylor v. Place, 4 R.I. 362Thayers Memorandum on Advisory Opinions (Boston, 1885), Jameson, Constitutional. Convention, 4th. Ed., Appendix, note 3, p. 667Լмֵ£H.A. Dubuque, The Duty of Judges as Constitutional Advisers, 24 American Law Review 369.

[21] Opinion of Justices, 70 Me 583 (1880)ȽϿط(J. Kent)ʣṩ˾ЧҲԼκβŵκιԱ֮ΪǴΪĻԼ58 Me. 573 (1870)ָͬγɵΪǾԵģǿʵܵ顣(J. Tapley, ibid. 615)ͨʵ⽻ԺڸκûκЧֻΪܾشܷ֮Уҽύ⼫ΪԵرҵ(J. Libby, 72 Me. 562-3)

[22] In re Senate Bill, 12 Colo. 466ҿijЩûеõʵǡ

[23] Macqueens Pract. Ho. Of Lords, pp. 49-50.

[24] J. Gibson in Eakin v. Raub, 12 S. & R. 357Ƚϰ352ҳԺҲһԭõͬһڼʵİӦԶݷķʽþ󡪡ڵĻԺȥз֧ƶݷԺ֮ĹϵԼάϵͳıҪԡݵĸΪؼҪģڱҪóһ(J. Agnew, Tonnage Tax Cases, 62 Pa. St. 286)

[25] ܷͶԣҪнں̶ܴϽڴķۡʹʵϸҪԭμ空ģ壬Ӷʹȫע͹۵ļɶƫЩ⡣ʿһ棬377ҳܷѧҹ(J. Hare)ʱ˵еľϸ΢УȨʧȥע⣬ΪͬʡһٶǣܷҲģϷĴʩҲܲϵ¡ͬϣ378ҳɼ410ҳ