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Ƿ塢磺ת͵ĹŵԴ-. 43

磺޹ɽĶ˶ͻ֮һ



˼ッ༭һסлĻбСӶ徭˺ҵĶ˶

һ¶źڴȫСѧУ徭߽ãΪһҪѧеı޿γ̡˵Ŀǰ25ѧУչеġһСѧѧУ1998Сȫ100ӼˡСȥı˴ϣдһƽж̡᰸ܸעӡڹҽ2000ƶСѧĽѧУȷƼĹʫıƪĿ140ƪ֮࣬ӡׯӡӡʫѡƪȹȥӡ

Ү³ѧʷϵʿѡѦӿڡϷĩ200478գĻ塪Ķ˶ݽŬǡһԡĻ塯Ϊĵ˶ƺڿʼֱΪһ֡Ļ塱ڡϷĩۺ̳ϣѧ硢ʿĴѧѦӿչ

ȶԽ̺һ򱣳־룬ǶѦӿȻںĻ塱֮Уȴɾ˽ġĻ塱ȻܹҮ˵ӰشͳDzûдС˽ӡûСʱ徭ľζף

Ӧ˵ֻн˽ӣ˽ѧЩѧľϲǿɿġЩѧߣȻеȻعڴͳϸϾ.Ƿ˽ӽġ

ŹҮ˵ĴһӴȥ˶ͳɡ߻ħġҲ޳ɰѴͳ˵ɡһźڡ³ѸڴͳѧǻͳľͲô״ȥ³ѸʱڡʮйʷĻָƣԶ΢۹⣬͸˷⽨ĻΡӲйļ塣³ѸͷϳСѧơIJԪЩDz֪ܲҾļֵֻȨȡᣬòҾ䡣³ѸΪʲôҪԴͳôƫΪֻ֪ƫ̬ܽͳΣɨţ͸вͨΪҴͳһdzֲĺڶúõĶΡս¹˹ڸ̨ûʵжDzμѡ٣Ƕֲ顣

˵Dz˵ҴͳѾˡû˸Щ˵ʹäĿŵĽҲҺƤ˵Ļ弤ѵġҴͳٽǾá֮˵ĻҲֻӵ˵һ˵

ĵƫʱǷ뵽ԼҲƫȻҮ˽дͳ˶ġ򵹴ͳʷѵӦñӣҪСǽʱӦ̧ͷ­۹Խʷֻסáķ⽨ͳ

еʷͳġҳϿԽҴͳһɡǺαطѾǧ࣬һȥһջСвҪ顣Ҳܿ϶˵ܹѶʲ˦øɸɾ޹ɽ飬ȻɼΣǶ˵ҪԵ㡣ʵֻҪ֤ҴͳЩʲνͺˣǾϣܹٽĻӦðĿ궨ĵһЩзԼķ룬ǽ˵ķΡֻҪ֤ҲǻûˣҿˣžˡĻ߻DZԼ˵ɾ

ڽ쳫˹ŵĻһ£֪СһƪϣͽǺѣȥ¹ѧѧԺ߶ǻڸԵʶиԲͬѧȡ򡣽ڡѧУͰ̾ڽѧʣָѧơ

ʷĽǶȿɺ͸˱Ȼ˺ϵ۵ĹϵģǶΪ˼IJҲԶΪÿһ˶ǡ񡱣ƽȵģɵġ˺ϵ۵ĹϵĴɻرܵάȡάѾ˵ķdzûϵ۲㡣

Դݻһ¹ͬ壬ɼֵϵıڽ̿ؽ ѧ̱ȽвѨһΪԵ˼ߵĵλϵ֮£˵ĵλûģûа취ȷɵˡ̵ľȨȨԼγԼĹйĵλǻʵ۷ģ޷ЧԼҡƶȽʯĻϡҪһ˵Ͽգʱ̶ţκƶȡǶڱ棬޷ġģҲȷ˽˵ķҰҽ̻ñе£˵ĺ˽

һ⣬ǽʥۣ˿ɳҢ˴ĻϣҲʥƳͨҡιƽ¡ģʽƹ㵽ϡûʹ˳ΪʥˡйʷҲҲаġƲšԶ ûİʶ϶ĵ塣ʵϣҸе˼ǣڡԶ񡱵ĻƲûнԣ̧ԡ ෴ʷǿ˱α

˻ΪΪһұͬΪŬֻѧΪͬԴ뷨Խ塣ΪŬѾʧܣдСǹ̡ġ̳ܲݡѾʷҳ֮С˹Ϊһǰ͵ͬҴǰ򹲺״̬,弯ݵĺҲȻҪ仯ͬӦΪͬĻֳŽ͹ʶˣԽ׶εɵϸɷ֣һE Pluribus UnumΪһѵĹͬ塣

ԷȽϣбʵIJ졣֮УĿǹעĹͨƵȨȨɣǺܵ͵Ŀ꣬Ҳеºάƽ򡣶Ȼнÿһ˶Ҹľ棬Ϳ⣬ڴȻרϡͶá

һйûлĻͳ˽ԶС㣬תơ췢ʻõö˵ͬ⡣СѰлĻѧش⣺ǷԴڻ̵Ĺ㷺ΪȾ

ΪСڻ̺ļ֤Իش⡣СһѧоҲƶȾѧ粼ЩѧСߵ·һ͵ʥ֮·ԼϵΪ㣬Ƴ·ҵ·޶¡Ҳ˵Сʥ֮·Ϊɣ桰ǿܵġζԣȻȻǿȻΪһ֪ʶӣҪԼ˼ƼڣڽܡνµḶ́ҲʥĹ̡Ҳɡ

෴ѧѧѧѧ֮룬ܴ֪ͨкһҵķ࣬һα壬ʥ֮·һͽΪεҪȫɿġ

ܹйѭξðģֻСҲСβּڡΪ˵ǣûбҪΪ̣Ϊ϶߻ħйͽڣռ˿10%ңҾ󲿷֪ʶǻͽ׼ͽҴӷ̽йʱȫܱڽ̵ʷ̴򵹱ȻΪʵϵĹ̡뵽пάڡˡУûˣһȻ̺һյµı
ԪʱĻӦôҫξģֵ֮עԽԽСˡΪһ˽˵ûġǿ֮⽨ʱһùǿеĹѧĻ߱Լ裬Լٶ᲻ùǿеľ档

磺Ϊʲôս֮

˼飬йѧѧԺijĻ֣Ҷıȥͽˣֿʼ
ҪΪ֮ҹȥһʥѾòΣ󺰸ˣм˲븴ԭʥյĻԻͣҳߵĵλ˭ǣ
ҪսΪ˭Ȩṩȥս˭Ϊ׵ġ塱һΪڵĹͬƽ̨ʱҿϲϰһĵλֵûɡʿɵĻĸſ϶ĵˡйѧѧԺУͱɵ˵йĸ˾ҵĸˣҲҪŴһΪԵ塣
ܷӲиȵһ飬ǻָվԵĵλĵġָվԵĵλǵˣΪִԼֵػߣͬҳΪְͼΪְҿ϶Уһʡ
ȻܶҶͬ죬йĸ˾ҵĸˣһġٴγΪйĻҲ˵϶㲻϶Dzȶģǻҵġʹ֤һЩֵûгͻҲ޼¡ΪǽõǻģǶӵġ
ҿйԺʿIJҵģߵģҽĵһֽˮֵֻֽˮ
ܶߣҵĹ棬Ϊڽ̣Уġϸӵġ
ʷûϲϸġ塱ǵƵӦÿԸݴϸʧܣΪڽDzеġֵǣΪʲôЩĻŰսײ˸Ѫ滹ͷҪͣظȥʹǰкܶʧܵĽҲΪԼˡѾ֤DzɿģΪʲôİٱأ
ʵִҵͬĻͬͬĻͬȻĻͬûжĵλΪͬĸɷֲŴڡҲ˵DZͬĿȥĻͬĻͬûбҪˣˣбҪһЩáҪĻͬͬҰ֮УڵĻ壬ͬ£бҪĻͬ塣
һֱҵѧǴͳ벻˼ؽܡǻصȥڽѧΪȨ֤ԴҲ˵ֻ͸ͬĻͬ뿪һģʹ֮СΪΪܲȥѧĵ磬ȡ֪ʶ˵֧֣ⷴ㲻¡ϸҲĻԴֻѧΪͬϡ
˵λе˵ѧǴͳҪ˵˼ǵµĴͳҪ׼ȷˡĩŽ֮ļ䣬ܴ񡣹ڴͳҵͷѾʱѻƬս˶Ѿİæйǻ̵¡ƶȺʶ̬Ǵӻתģ編ƶ̵Ų˼Ҳǡ
ңҷ񶨻̳Ϊִͳ̬ȸDZģdz׸ģdz״򵹵̬Ǿ˵ڽķĻ屾иۣ״򵹻̣ôδԺڣڵĻƶȺʶ̬δ̶ԽӣеĹҪжֳ״򵹵̬Լ϶֡Щⲻ룬͹⺰ں˷ģ
ҵȻųҿΪڽ̵ĿܣС¼Ҳ֧ҳΪ֮еһһdzҪģҾԷ֮òȥһûбҪ顣
Լ˵бҪΪûдͳҵ֧֣DzɿġұָڵʱȥѰҴͳҵ֧֣Ϊ˵ڡѾңҶԴһʱȥҵ֧֣DzԼʲôԽϣԽʥǵһǹŽ֮ѾԽԽʥԽԽãѱҪ
Ҳ˵ִ֮УѾһֿ͹۵ĸݣеѧ˵е壬Ȼ˵ԼֻܴѧҸˡңΪϵӦ֮ĺĻԼΪһѧһֲɴݻٵǰᡣлǰ;в˵֧Ҵͳй˾ûϣˣǸ顣ȻǻƤҴСܻĻɣҲûоԼйˡҵľвĺġ£ͽҲйˣǸõйˡ
һ״̬һַԵ״̬Ҿ͵ڴͳһҲɲá˹ķ˹˵岻ǷΪִս̼γɵģҲִԽһ֡ûбҪԴ󣬰죬е嶼ϵгݶгӪûʲôΪģȥɡ
Ϊִ֮УطûԽת䣺һǰѺݵĩĻײԭʼ䵱죬ϹʲôͳңûԣϸʧܵĶʧܼDzҪˣԴţǼ⣬֪ǾأһǰյʦĹ٣˵ֶɣ
ұǿҵĹ۵㣬Լ֪ǾԻġлĸˣңڹͣеԵĹڽ̣ɲʹ
ȷʵΪڽ̣Ϊҵģһ¹ĻǰɼɷȮΪɴİף޴˺βжԣζڣʷýΪ߻Ϳ֬Ĩۣº޷ṩִҪĶԹҺлУġѧԲݡ
ͬӽѰʷӽӵĽͳѰԡȻϣ֢٣ѡҪһԺпһ澫񣬲пϵԹŽ֮һԼλãһٶϹµļ

磺ҺͻΪʲôս֮
ɣζ壻̺һûоɡƺһ˦Ȧףֻһ˻еһˣ޷ƽϢһ£
һܵʱָ壬ľ棬һô˵顣һӼ߰ߣװаָ壬뵽п˼ѹƺֻ˲෴ڽɺɵ׻ָ𣬶һ̺߳һȦ÷dzõΪģůԾſ˫ֻ
һʱҺͻսһ־ıݣΪȡ֪ʶдɵ֧֣ȡжҡӵĵ꣬о֪ʶ˵ꡣҪиĿ꣬Ҫռڵ꣬ûкν̺һDZ޳Īġһ㣬Զû֪ʶ˾˵֪ʶDZܡҴ쵼ȨĵIJ˭ͳΣòͳΡռڵ꣬̿磬ȻǴ̵԰

֪ʶ˺

Ҳ˵ңٶԽûѧ۹⣬ûߵΰػΪһѧ󼪣ڵĶƤǺڰǣ˿ģϣѧҿԲÿū
˭壿֪ʶ˵壬޹ءΪͳʶ̬ѧҲ֪ʶӵѧײڣǷ̺ڽ̡̺ΪһڽʵԶңҲԸģҲǹ⡰ˡѷνйҲǵĶʲôййǡ֪ʶԼ֪ʶȨԼ϶ƽ
ڹŵʱΪ֪ʶ˵ľǵʱӦôڵľ塣ӷ̡ڽ̵ٵ̣ҪǨˣ壿֪ʶ˲ҪΪԼ޾ȫޣ֪ʶ˵겻ܺģʹҲʹ࣬ҷʹʹࡣֿòãһЩѧ۹⣬ҪѧСС˺;ӡѧ嶪˺òã
ҵһɩø˻̣˵ȼĶܽ⣬˻̡޷ķ֪ʶ˺䣬ñڽһϢġڽ̲Ծܣܽ⣬̾ˮһйƳ˹̡ŻҲһڲԶĽҲΪ̻ʵϵĹ̡
һʱ֪ʶ˵Ҳ˸㣬һеΪˣڲͬһȲ֧ļҲǹŵʱΪʲô޷ϵײڵԭ
ʱҪγһ̻׼̣ǶڵģΪռھȶҲľò˵֪ʶûDzû⣬֪ʶӵ岻ģȾײڡ壬ײǴ˵Ӱ첢Լ֪ʶӣȶġܹȦǷͷ
Ѿ֡µʶ̬սҺͻ̵սǻ̡̺ڽ̵սҷȻбҪ𣿾벻ʹʧˣҲΪ£ұ̺һϡִᣬǹңǺģǴᣬҵĽֻܱԵɲеղأǿνеʲ
֪ܶʶ˰ҵлģѻ̵ֳߣһİϷ֪ʶ˵ϷΪ֪ʶ˵ϷڵġѻΪĵһûзĴ һһģһֵձԻϵڽ̣ĵˡ෴ʷߡ
ѧһС֪ʶ˵ԣĩˡһҡ黹Щκᵣ֮⣬Ѿ˵ĻˡܹĻʼոʧأٴν򣿡һҡˣɿУΪٴνοڿѧ

ƶȺͼֵ

ԷֳɼֵƶȺ棬ֵǺģƶǼֵġԶ Ļһײʱûײ͡ͶˣƶȲ棬ڵĵļֵ档
ʧܱΪˮҲƶȺͼֵijͻĩұΪӦðֵ̼棬ƶ任ʧˡ֮˸ͨãϮ졣Ϊʧˮûݣһûȥ֤ţһԵŦҲûҵ
ƶȺͼֵĹϵǽճһ岻ȥĩƶȻ̻οܵģƶѾ̻˳ռ죬dzʤ׷ģѼֵҲûΪˣѾΪ󲿷֪ʶӵҲڻ̡ʱij;Ǵģֻ˼ʱ֪ʶ˲쵼˼IJ˼䲻ʱȥ
лļֵǴͳǵļֵѵͳֵһ־ԵĶһζܺ㲻ĶҿлļֵǴ˵ĹͬʶĬϵĶDzɸıģɸģйԼͥĸdzɹġ
Ȼ漰αл⣬Ҳ˵˴ͳļֵʲôʲô԰粻һҪôͳΪƶϵ֣Ҫ𣬿ǻƤͬУƤ˳ΪйˣǰǼɼĻǹͬݡ
Ϊʲôһǹȥļ䣬žлʺͽṹǹȥij裬ǹȥĹپлļ䣬ôٲ٣ֻнٵʱ̣žΪʲôһҪݹȥ
ҲΪֵܲܵĻϣ½лԵĶѨ֮С½ͶڵϵЭͱͨµģЭӦø߾ٴУִϡ֪ʶʼûа취Ŀ½лԾͳԽߡʵִԳͻģֵܵļͥ統ձִʱ򣬾÷̷ȫհǻͱŨġ⽨ҲƫΪ½ĵط޷̺;ܾܵģϣ֪ʶ˿óȷе֤ƷҵĿ
ܵʧܣһǶҲòԣûֲڴͳǴͳĶûŪɾ˷ܵij죬Ӧóֿ

ͳжĿ

еԣܹӦŵʱı仯ѧܷѶѵִᣬͨ俪ԣҲɽ֪ʶ˺߶ûиġ
ӷ̽йѧڵʷѧס˷̣ѧǺ˷ԺĸˣиĿΪδĸҲˡд۹⣬Ӧóọ̈̄ضȻDZһڡȻ١㡱һѧ͡ұִǰΪԼ绤˵ǰʯԼȥһάһѪ¸ˡ
Ž֮ʤһʷͳĶԼûˣ˵ĻײˣĻǽֲ˿ȱͳܹŲѪҺеģǶʱֵļͥԼͥԵģҰѼͥޡˣҵġDzִԵģ峣ԽѣԷϵģ϶dzԽŵִĶûңЩԵĶûˣ˵Ҫͥһϵ֤ѵֻңͻ̾Ͳ֤ˣΪȳ
ѧҿġĻı֡˻Ϊͳļֵйı֣ôֻҪصأ߸ӹϵʱͿԸˡԽϵȻԽ˵ǻصǰʱСϵۡѾûʣڶ֮ûиоûѧߵĽǶǣȥһ޹ɽ飿
֪ʶνĴͳΪΪǡ֡on-handģʵϲǣ֪ʶ˺ıڣǺνˣǧ˵ͷ­Ѫüʮ򼸰ʱɣαأ

磺ΪҪ֮ά֮

ƶȾѧɸǣ׷˽ΪȺϵĹƶȵIJͷչһγơṩ˼ᶨͼЩԴǵĺ¥ʵУǴڸֿµķ֮СΤķɿԤԿԷij֮¡
ڡ˼Դۡʲ׼ϵľøԴ˵в߱һ֪ġ֮Сʲ׼ȻҵóпƸIJպͲɿأںͬУɿĹĴĹ˲ϵۣ˵־ӦеӦϵ۳еΣɿdz˵ġӢͨһʱΥԼʵоΣɿҲ𣬰ΪϵۣĴڣʹ俴ڡֻ֪˵ʢ˥仯˳żȻʲ׼ͷʱʱΪԼ˵ľȶǣ䷨Ȩʽһ»Ԥе档ͶʻҲһʱ徭ûijпӮôҲܿЩܿƣһж֮¼ˣ˵Ե£佨𾡿ܼµԷ䡣ͬںͬнɿų˵־е֮⣬־Է䣬ܶеʵзաȫ룬Կơ⡣ˣԷ䣬ϵۻDZģۻDZġӢ˼һ˹˵ȵУϵ˲¡
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ˣ뽫ʥĻϣȻȻѰҸԴʹ˵ʥ֮άġѻƬĻ⡰ѻƬҲDZ֮ҩ
һijԽ֮άּΪѰҸȷʵ޷Ϊ佨ζ¡εƶȹйܷ貢ûй򣬶Ч΢һ˵һƿԣ̽ȷʵûаɶյԴš

磺ķ壺ۺ;ϡ֮

80Ӱ˼ֵΪΣһ||һС㡣ָǣǶѧѧġǾ˵йĸ↑Ժ־γɣǴӿµĵпʼȻҲ֮ͨ·ǻɣΪθѹתĵġ
ڴѧҽӴСĵһǡʫѧȿʼ˽¹Ķ¹ӡǣҾҵߣȻٶң˽ⶫ֮һȽϺõĽǻԡѧѧϵģǰǺߵĸڴѧУҲϿЩ⣬̳ĹϵĹϵһͻȻ뵽ѧȻκͷѧҲǴ80µʷȻ˵϶ѧܺʮꡣ
¹Ժѧ˵쳣ҪģԭʷıȻûܹ⡣

ϿۣⶼСDz޷ڹͬ棬һ˭ûа취⡣˽Ȼ빫ļֵ޹أDzȫ뿪򡣹Ǹ˵ĹڷʽǸҪǷڹҮ˿ǸʱǿǸڹ֮еĸ塣
˽򣬵ȻԡⶼСԸһӣûܹ˵˵ʽȦյ⻹Ҫ䵽ôܿ˷ԺɱҪ壬νĩ˵ᡱ˵һԸִУĩDzһȻʽжϣѾ췭ظˡƾʲô˵ѧҵͺĩˣ Dz˵·ڹŵ䡰ûжϣûӶ겻̨ԸһоһУһֱΪ˵ѧҵĩˣһҪļ裬Ϊ˹ͬò˵ػԡ һֹŵ䡰ûı׼Ǿ뿪жԶºǶĿƣԽ£ԽԵԽԶ붯ܹ붯ԽԶĶ֪ʶȵȣǡáġΪģǡġŵʱԵ¸ڼ鵽ִ͵ˣסô棬ԽžͿܱ䡰áµ棬ͻñ˳Ц˵⽨ȵȡԺ͵µڼڹͬԣDzһܽôΪ˹ͬDzҪعŵġԸڼ顱Ѱһسڽ̵İʩ˹˵ľҪ̡Ϊ˹ͬһֵºԸеĴɷԵIJµģΪ뼤Ϊ飿
ǽ˽˿ռ䡣ڹռȥԻ߲޳ģΪȻʽķпܵ߸ͬ塣ȻʽҪΪɡԹͬ˼رпᣬеͷҪɵ
Ȼȥ˵ǿ־壬ԡֻԼĵŻȥжϡ޳Ĵм԰ݣһЦû¡ԵģԼͦιвˣҲһ£ɴɡԼԲסͻῦһˣʩһʼҪɴеս¹ҲǽֹɴġǷȡأһǷǿһΪԼ˸ҪΪϵġ
Ϊ壬ǷӦ͵͵·ڹŵʱȻͷִԵҪ ¹շѧߵء1969ġ֪ʶˡһ˵ڹҷѧʩؿ˹ƺǵ䷶ԵľȨۼңΪѾȨȨʩؿΨѧ˵뵽ѧڵġĸ𡷣¬˼䣬Dz˹һĿģǰϦ壿ĸԱĽ·¬󣬵бӦÿǵ򷢵ѧᵽ¬Ҷʱ쳣Ŭѧڿʼֱѧͼʧ
ΣһһᴦƶȷֻṹٱʱʱѧҾͻ˼ҵˮճϣǿνΣʵͨӻѻƬϾܵҲһ¸ڹûǰ;ʱھƣ˹۹ں֪ܶʶӾᳫȨóѹƵײ㻯Թ˹Ժĵ¹ΤȾᳫңһ׼Ȩң
Ҳʫҡķڡаʶ̬˵Σ٣²ڲþܵѧ˵գֻڽգôӹͼ̻ͥDzأڽ90ڽĻҲΣ뿪ȥңڴһаҲҵ

жˣǰо޻޳ɼȨʱڵľͳΣǶԼȨıDzһ֮УȻٴκȨ׼ȨһμȨ塣ֻǷɽ⣿
ֻزҰĺʨӺԶûõġʷĽ̲ȡιӭͷȣṹιĹιṹšˡᡱҪû飬ʲô߹ʲô̳
Ż̺ңȷʵų뼫Ȩͬdzħһ֮䡣뻢Ѩɵûӡ¡У綾黨ͽҩһΣвᣬϣδԷ˹ԼȨ壬DzӦ̺ľΣΣˡѧŮӣණͣȻԶ
ǼȨ壬ôǷӦɼȨ壬ҲҪ壬ȷʵ˶ӽڶ ˭Ҳ˵׼ۺỹDzɹͬɥԶμ˵˹ʹʽ̺һҲҪ۶Ϊͱסһ£һۺΪͱסΪͱǸ߸¼˵ģȺڽγֵάϵͬdzɹģijϣҲһЩĩ˵ij֣һЩ塣Ĺҿ϶Ⱥڽֻ̣ǿĹǿ

һʹӽһġȨ塱ʵһرȨǵĿ꣬ǴﵽĿ֮ǰοݵ̬ȣƺԼȨʱַԵġȨ塱һҪԵļȨͬʵĵУһ־ġȨ塱еԣйͬе
ҲDZҪĶ񡣱뿴ɺ۽һְɫĻԡɵı߽粻ɷϵҪʵרƣΪūۻɡټ棬һԵĹеӶԭԸԼ
Ҫ˵ǶԸԼϿ˵־ʱǩij⣩ԷϳôǶԸ˸ūۺѹƣΪDzɶģǵޣ϶ÿһԼĸɵģĸDzɵģijɱ̫ƶһķɣɵ˺Ͳɵ˶ձõķʱֻܰ˵ĸԭͳͳķϳԼɼֻڰǿƻDZģ˵ġ
Ըūһֻɣ޿ɺǡųھ⣬ϲڵΪãаȫУʱѾоˣҪǿȳɡⲿۣ˽˿ռ飬һԸһԸƾʲôһҪ棿Ǿ˵ŵ߼ԸԵܵūʣҪɨ
˽˿ռ䣬ۣⶼСǹռŽԼֵҹռ˽˿ռķֽȡڹռ䣬˽˿ռ䡣 ûⲿԵ˽¼пܱΣͨ顣Ȼʽг飬ԽӽµߵģԽܱ빫ռ䣬Ϊ¼жǷӦô빫ռı׼ڴͳϰ߻Ȼʽһֳֻ˽˿ռ˵㡣dzϵΡ
ͳϰ߻ϰȻʽһԵģʹĻ£ҪԺУΪͳж沨紫ͳϰΪһŮŷɷҪչһֵ룬ҲԲ룬ΪDzԵģȨǰֵǷԣҪԼֵС
ŵ׷ĿʶDzܵģܹҸҲ˵жϣԼֵԾ͵˵ҸҲжʲôȻģڹ˽֮ĽޣӦɴ˵㣬˵ѽʯԭڡеĸסѾα׼ΪӦڴ˵Ҹ֮ϣʷԡȻԼֵԼЩִĸʶ ʷԡȻԼֵİգԾԵжϾ벻һʥҲ˵ڷεĿ£һصʥ Ҳǵ˹ռУоϵĿǣҪʥ
ʷιγɣǵԷγɵģιĹ廹ɽܶ˰ѽеʶ̬䣬ǿ顣һ֡ǿ顱ҪһΪĶܹõѡһġԲġ

磺һЩ뷨

һڵĻͽȥĴǵרǵµĻͽȱβ⡣ǰ

˺Ͽ۹ͽòòΡʵͽҲһʥ

Ҳǻڰƹˣˣϣǿ˽ӽϵۡȻ˹

˷һɻͽȫһdzҪ֣ûΪϵ

õĻͽһ⣬ǺȨĹϵȨҲһصڽ̣

ٵҪܸ˵꣬һȨ񶨻ƶϵ۵Ҫͨ

񶨽̻ᣩôȨĶҲǻͽһ֣¹˹ȻҪӵϵĹ

ǵϵĹΥϵ۵ʱ򣬻ͽҪ

ϴκС̸ת⣬ɲꡣСҲվ˵ת

ǶԵģѧľûǷǡڹŽ֮û㹻֪ʶѧԼ

֪ʶѶת罯ӻת̣е

Ƚͻ̣棬ѧѧԺҶ

ģֻ޷Իı޲ͬ

ӹ˲ŸɵġӦΪƽ֪ʶϸڵĽŬѾ100ķϵҵû

Ҫˮ֮ҪԼʲôĹסȱҪɴҲ

Ҫˮ

ġһֱĻǣйԲңΤδδֳ

ĶйԡҵжϺδֵǻ̡оǴͳԼ

dzģӱܵģġĬ˵ͳȻġϿɣȻ

Ҫ˷ģһζ˳ȻȥһڡϷĩԷ˵

ɹ˵ûдͳĸţδ֤ĺ˵

ɹųΪͳɵġ

塢˵һ䡣ĴDzȵģǹŵʱȻϵ

ϵ֮άIJңѰĴһĴ

ڻ档лҲһи¹˹л

ҲӦи¹˹

2005-11-07

(л߻ݼĻ http://godoor.net/jidianlinks)

ڽйΪʲôҪͳ
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ܷϿ͹͹ʵԣɱһ˲Ӧǣ˲ܳԽھʷԣܲᄈзԣܽûԽһķԡ˵,dz˵Ϊʲôѧϼ־塢ձΡƶȺ˾棬ֳ˾塢ʵߡ

嵽飬Ϊʲô֧йǰľ޹𣿲ǡŬǷϵĶϵᣨĪ֮ô룩жʵȴᣬܳõĺϵΣվԲҲֶ֧˶һɣ޷Լһж϶ۻ ˶ɹʵIJ棬йָֻǵĴͳΰģԴͷһƽʱһͳйʥˣǵľDZϵѧϰͳǼֵеij߶ȡܿ𣿵˼뱾רƣֻȨ˼רơһ׻ٵ߼СˮԴܷѽȻǻԣݴ£صùͳҲܻشǷǼٵģ϶ԡǿ϶Ȼʹᷢĵԣϣǻܷŵ㡣йκʶ̬壬㡣ʶ̬Σʶ̬νԻڵΣȡʤ

УڵԵʽϻعͳĻϣ˲ܲģȻ򻯵ģֿϻ񼪶Ҳв򻯵ģ˹ֻϣգǷdzҪġĻܲСĻΪǵļֵСӡСˡķֱ𡣿ܣĻͳӵ⣬˭Եķ⣬˭Ƕ˭ڼֵϾǵµģ˭ͽԴ±ѾˣµʲôֵȡģµеƶΪñͳֵϵΪȡҲģ¡ĻⱾȻд𰸵ģ˵ԿԻشģΪضڼֵϵ˼ǿܵġѧ˵뼯ȨƶȵԹϵ̺ԹϵͲǿ˼⣬˼Щ⣬ǵ͵ѧ˼ʽǣֵϵķǶ󻯻äĿ塢Ķйȫ÷ԴۺйʧΪܰŷձȷļֵΪԴͳԴй⣬׷ձȷļֵݵձȷԭµձȷʵй⣬ҲΪձ⡣˵Ƿ٣аʲôأǡʥ̡ǡסǡ֮ס,Ҳ֮ΪԴӦģģǡ硱ªϰǡСʦ޷ٷʲôˣָֻΪȻʥΪԴʹʵоƽҪȴʲôķηʽͷٶģƽĻӶ岻ٿܳΪѧйѧѧٿܳΪеοѧʵϣǻȫйѧĴڣͺͽȫйоһͳͶԴͳĴתմͳڡʲôԴһӹĹڶ۵ƪ¿ԿҺԭּ塣ôǽԾͲԾ֮䣬ѡŴ֮ɡ

ֻԴ⡣ҪԴ磬йˮ˾о˻˴֪ЩԵģһЩǼ˵ģȻоġһ˵д˼Ҳ˵ʥ֮֮Ҳһ֮һ϶֮Ӻ֮֮ϾֻǸͨƽͽеľ̽һ֮һ϶֮ˣӢηɼաҶԣӢηѧ˵ּաõķѧ֮һķ˹˹ɵйаʱο

ҲôͳΪǺ£Աʥ;Сûʵֻ֣ǵ˵ѡ

̬ȣηɳɾ͡ǽƾѧ˵͹ֵͤľ֮ѧιǺʵɸԶʵܹ֮ƻȨ䣬ǿԵõͬʵۡеʹ˸оǷʵеĶҲûشֻ֪η鹹˵ʵȷƻŵȨرԶձȨôⲻɵĿʼū۵Ŀʼ

ҪԴһӢΪҵķѧУļֵǣӢ-ŷ޴½-˹-˹ͼȨң൱ȶ򣬷Ǵͳҵŷߣѧ򣬶ˡ磬Ρ¡ʯǮ¡

ȷռ׼ʵ˵Ƕ֪ʹʵõĽǶ,鹹Ϊ֮κͿ֮˵,ȡ,ǸܽӽǸ׼,صǹŴʵʿϡ

Ҫ˵,"Ȩ""ѡ"ȵձֵ,һ᲻֪Щ

ʽձֵ(׷ľձȷ),ûձȷʵʼֵʽ׷ձȷ,ҲһԴԴϵʵϴͳ,ʹ֮,˵,ҲǰĹĶ˵ձֵ,ӢǻĴͳ,dzۡ,ϡйͳ,ҪʽϵձɵijԽ,ʵںķḻԡdzԡõĿɲԡݴж,ȷ塢壬Ӣ֮Ҳ֪֮й֪֮ҲȡڳּۣӢʷ۵ϰߺʽйֲķ䷨dzĽߣʹ֮ʹ֪֮գ֮Ҳʹ֮ʹ֪֮һ͡ɡӡԻ֮ɣϰӶɣ֪֮Ҳӣйд޶˹ѧ˵ߡͳȴٱɵ⣬ԳĽУ˸徭΢Դ壻̻ʷᣬ£˵ףֲ飬ơˣǧʷ»ʽЩһ׳ۣԽԽյΪܣԱܡˣ壬ҽȡŵοѧҹ֮ѧ໥ȡͨΪҲοҪ˵60ԺԺȨǵӢص˾ȴйϵ

ҲգҲգ첻ɶ˼רơ෴ϵͳڲͻѧƤΪֹçưѣԭξѧߵ¡ йĹʾơΪʲôǵԲǡڰԵʤ桱ûһ壬άĿʾʱȡùɹγ壬ӢˣԼڲ⽻⣬Ҳ¶ʵȻΪԼȡ档˵Ҳӡκʱ򣬶Ҫֶձ׷κʱ򶼲 йй˵塱б绤Բ˳Բ˳²ɡǣDzʹáȨȨʣҲܷձDZģʵкģ׷ձȷϵͳҪԼҵͳδԾУ汻ûʵ𺦡ʹ֪йѧ߼ṹһģҲҪ˵ԼҵĻ

ִѧȨֻҼǵãйŵļȨ壬ֻȫųҵسкʵĽ̻ѱȲϣΪйֻԳ۵ʽ֣ӢҪܷǿԼһȡӢıصƷͨ塢Ϊģݣִйеǰ;ѧӦûΪִɵִرԼŵѧ˵ʵԵıȴãɱԽԽôҲȲɶԵе߸̬ӰԵ£ʵϲһ

̷Ϊɾжϣһϵ˾Ǵһ仰ͽ⡣

Ϊֹڶ˵ĶǶͯļҳ˽ӵҲλˣǶ˵ġǿ

ҲͬҾ߿ݣ߿ԸһʽϷѧ˵IJĹߡƾˣǰڿƾٿԵݣʫʸ踳ɣǾɡڹеĶǸ⡣ҵĽ취Ǵѧ˽ʵѧйҲҪϵѧʹ飬ҲԱѧУݵʵ⣬ֻѧľ߳⡣Ƕ˵ġ

ܷвдȨԣⲻһ֡ҹĵ˾򣬸ݡʥԡסа˾аķ٣ȷʵΪȡȨ̡ķٻеøá

ӵȸеôõأ˿ԣºĻ˲ʵжϣֻǸ ΪʲôӢ˸߹Щ?ֳŵٱ佱,ŤءҪ塣ڲܽūۡ

ӦˣǵĴ壬ĺѧϽĶͯùͿ佱ȰѭѭձҹеѽʧˡΪʲôߣ;ĸɣ繣Ұأɣϣ,ԼʦѧﶼԵСѧ,ʶֵũԼȴжԼĵѧ,Ľŵ߹,,ĵΪǿ(Ǵ)ĸ߹󡣡

ʵЩ˶DZµĽɫȷʵӢǺãۼʶ̧̧űͷ֡ΪʲôأʵҲ³ȷʵ̸ϵĵѧǴù˰ɡ

ҹĵοѧͨļԡʵõйͳʿ̬ЩӢĶҲأйȫܳЩͬǡ

ƶȱˣοѧ⣬鹹޴ǡ˵Ϊʲôôʵʺñ˷ŭ֮⡣ɶIJΪ޴Ǻ鹹Ǵοѧҹʷϳɹĸĸ٣ϵijɹֻܳçƣ˵ϵеĴѵıΪοѧçʱ˵dzйʷΨһһѧ߼ʵ֣Ӣƶȱᣬһ಻ƾǿǸѡ˼ǵ֯ĻᡣţΪç˽ھԵοѧλ˳׵ѡߣһΣԺDzߵĻᣬòdzΪıʿ͹ŰˣҲֻܳɾʹμϵĺ¡ç㹻ϵ㹻εļգɹĻػʡ֮ҵաʲôԺ͹ǵҵء̩ĸŸʹ¤һ֮һͳ£ĴʩԺ޴DZҲ첻òϣСƽĸĸڴεȵҲdzɹġξȷģСƽҲƵĴʦֻ˼ơԶƻ߻ָĻƽʵϵȷԵòϡһȫ1949ԭҲԸظ1949жһϵѣҪķ֮һɵƻ鹹ļ

ƶȱе޴

ڡļ9ƪƪ֤ϵ˹󣬺ܶ˵

A distinction, more subtle than accurate, has been raised between a CONFEDERACY and a CONSOLIDATION of the States. The essential characteristic of the first is said to be, the restriction of its authority to the members in their collective capacities, without reaching to the individuals of whom they are composed. It is contended that the national council ought to have no concern with any object of internal administration. An exact equality of suffrage between the members has also been insisted upon as a leading feature of a confederate government. These positions are, in the main, arbitrary; they are supported neither by principle nor precedent. It has indeed happened, that governments of this kind have generally operated in the manner which the distinction taken notice of, supposes to be inherent in their nature; but there have been in most of them extensive exceptions to the practice, which serve to prove, as far as example will go, that there is no absolute rule on the subject. And it will be clearly shown in the course of this investigation that as far as the principle contended for has prevailed, it has been the cause of incurable disorder and imbecility in the government.

The definition of a CONFEDERATE REPUBLIC seems simply to be ``an assemblage of societies,'' or an association of two or more states into one state. The extent, modifications, and objects of the federal authority are mere matters of discretion. So long as the separate organization of the members be not abolished; so long as it exists, by a constitutional necessity, for local purposes; though it should be in perfect subordination to the general authority of the union, it would still be, in fact and in theory, an association of states, or a confederacy. The proposed Constitution, so far from implying an abolition of the State governments, makes them constituent parts of the national sovereignty, by allowing them a direct representation in the Senate, and leaves in their possession certain exclusive and very important portions of sovereign power. This fully corresponds, in every rational import of the terms, with the idea of a federal government.

In the Lycian confederacy, which consisted of twenty-three CITIES or republics, the largest were entitled to THREE votes in the COMMON COUNCIL, those of the middle class to TWO, and the smallest to ONE. The COMMON COUNCIL had the appointment of all the judges and magistrates of the respective CITIES. This was certainly the most, delicate species of interference in their internal administration; for if there be any thing that seems exclusively appropriated to the local jurisdictions, it is the appointment of their own officers. Yet Montesquieu, speaking of this association, says: ``Were I to give a model of an excellent Confederate Republic, it would be that of Lycia.'' Thus we perceive that the distinctions insisted upon were not within the contemplation of this enlightened civilian; and we shall be led to conclude, that they are the novel refinements of an erroneous theory.

ע⺺ܶٵΪµ彨跽ı绤ʽ͵óʵĽ۵ʽؼⲻοѧ޴ǡ

Ҫ㲽£

1Ȩϵ˹Ϊ͹ͬʱʵִİȫСɡ

2͹˵бԵȨĶǸ˶dzԱļʸ񣻲漰ڲͶƱȨڳԱƽȡܶΪDzȷеģϵġľƲ͹ıԶ壬ֻʷ;ܽᣬ⡣иȽϣӳԭóۡ㣬ʹո׷ʷԷԭɲDZȷģ

3͹˻˸塣ֻҪڣԺĸƽȴȨǽȻ͹

4ظ123IJ裬ԺƽȴȨҲδ͹ȨַʽĶ

5͹Ժտݵķʽ֯Ҳԡ

ܵʱһ¹ϵԣʸ񡢲Ԥڲ԰ΪλͬͶƱȨֲһֹ֯ķͳǿҵĹ淶ԵġǸĴʣ屾βȷձͬʱ⣨õϣֻܲȡͳһʷdzкޡγԭǸӵġȷʵרƣԭȷʵֹҼĺϲҲ˷ֹרƵȡܶµ֯ʽοѧİҲȷõĺóȻ壬ҲЧʵ䷴ʹԼҵܴ졣ڵھƪУ̸οѧ⣬ʹij޴ǵַԴﵽƿװ¾ƵĿġһʼƲıԶ壬ʷУھܽᵱз뱾Զԭϵ⣬ȷʵ˵ΪԲΪ֧֣Ϊ֡ҲڹϵȨϵ˹嬾ϵ˹Ϊͬõ͹֮һ֧ԼĿĸڵʱȷʵģҪԭϲʱļʶɲȡİ취ڸߵԭոʽ׷ʣʲô壿οѧҲ˵ԭ˱ҵĺҲ˵ʱΪԭԭԭʵIJͬʹãĿǣܶʹ޴ǺƵļ

룬аԱسܷDzҲ鹹

ҳڴһͳȷǰ»úͺܶƵʵۡ

˹ŵΥҹͳĴһͳԭΥ˵һƵ֯ԭּ⣬˵һȫ˼ҵIJڴһͳ֮һ˵ȷ˵΢ΪǰߵҪ£һеطȨ裬Ա⳷طҪԱÿһֻһֱֻͳЩDzȷģȫ˼ʷʵеӢȻǹϵ뼯ȨƹңطкܴȨԱҲʵϣһƹңطIJҲйܷĹ涨ʵеƣҲǰŵġˣʷ;пԷ֣ľ׼ܳΪһͳ͵һơοѧҲ֤ȡнֶطĻҡĿѡ˽ίĹɴ˿ɼЩʥ׷ӵı⣬˾ǴһͳԭСƽͬ־˵Ʋй飬ҲΪű顣

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ΪܷΪʵеƣǵһƣҲϣһȹǿͳһҵĵͣڲҺͷ֮ǣܺĵͣô;ڹʵΪ̫Žᡢ̫һ廯ˣDZѧϰƹɷʽijЩɣڽ档

˾ϻʵй֮ģͨ˾ʹôΧԿܡ֮˵

Ȼҳɹ޴ǼɣοѧͷɿѧοѧͷɿѧΪǽȱĶǣҲ˵ӣ⣩۾ȫӲ㡣

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ͳͳһҪָ˼ʵIJ졢ƷʵIJ죬ֻڴҪͬ˼ʱйأΪִҲԼˡ

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Ļڵ¸ˮ棬ڣʵֹгϵľ⡣ʣǵĺӵȻӦĶɯʿǣĶͽҲۿأǣҲӦѡʫ׷ŵǵϡǵѧߵȻӦоʿ¡ޡ˺ϵ˹𣚣оϣƶȣӢͨ˾飬ƺҲӦоסӣоܵƶȺйŵоŴΡҪһ㣬ȾҪıڴͳ̬Ҫ˶ΪĻߣԭּľҲǷdzȡġĻٶ𣬻߿ʾһֿԣƶȵŬͬ顢غ͸˴ͳ

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2005-11-6

Ƿй⣬һЩڵĻͽֵüΪΪǵĿУ˵ģȹģԸ⴫̵ĸҲԸ⴫ȴûбҪӲعҹԴˣ̬ǽȻ෴ƣִйС֮ǵһᳫģСһֻνġĻͽƺơҲЩǣһǣڵĻͽȥĴǵרһЩڵļһĴŪζʲôڶǣ͵ǰҹСתʩغа¡ʩ˹ѧ˵رǺߣվ̵̫Сڵİͼ塱֮ƵĻ൱УʱգСʱľŲһѣһֱСIJ̣ʩ˹һ죬ʼôֱһìܣ˵ѾǰˡôֽΣȻֻǸʦŮ˹ӵСɳ֣ûн֮ãΪеij̶ȲΪޱҪ㹻ǿܹܻͣ̾ĵ˵սҲܹеŵҮ·֮ѱ䡣֮ͨ˼Dzת֮ͣܳԺֻлͶɵľѡ

Ҫһγȡһϣ޳ɳġΪгɣ羫ȨȨԼ˽˵ķҰ˿ڵҽεȡǵķڣһ֮γ˭ǻ̵ϵۣйδ֪ڡһУȷʾ˶Ի֧йIJΣֲԶԶйͳԴܳ¾ɣȻܹ

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֮йIJܣҪ⣬ڡûбȻĹʷ꣬ҸƫżأУdzżȻDZȻˣۣտܼ˺˻̣˺һ㣬ȻҪ齨֮ֺα֧ϵ۵һҶȺħ費Ǹڵѡһ㣬ո׾Ϊµ鵽ŵǰķͥд̣ͬѧ½δصij磬ѵΪ䣿Ͼijǰûո׵ŵ

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갲̸Ķ̡ǵһЩǡ˼رǶԡ̺ۡһľ裬һͬ͵ġй⼸λм˼侲֪ʶӣҲܹô ͬʱȻǵ˵涼һЩҪĸֵȶĹ۵㡣̸ڳͻǿǻɣ壩ġڡͻ壩ɣ壩ںӦġҪǣνġڳͻڡȻ˵Ϊ塱򡰻塱ᷨǴ޵Դ顣ᷨԭ갲ֲȫͬΪκһϡǿһһʡbig wordsԻһֱûѧҲֻͽҺͻࡣһijij߸һŻĻͽԻijijĹϵֺԻжٺøк;ʺϰѡ̣ڡijijߡǰݡƺһ棬ʹŵĻͽͬijijҲϴڡijijߡһˡͺñȻһͽͬʱҲǸ߷ӻѧˣҵĸҵĿΪ޳ͻϲûһֽ̣߷ӻѧѧƣҲûһС̣߷ӻѧңߣˡͬǻͽҲȫвͬҿ̣ijij塱ƺֻһֺ޷綨Ҷġǩѡ

ֵһͬбȻġڵijͻֵȣԼٳʷӣ벢Ҫظʷ·֤Ȼٿ˵ɻһбȻġڵijͻһ갲ֶʧ(miss)ˣǾ˼뱾ǽӲһ飬䱾ǶԪġ˾ԣ˵ȿǡ۵ġҲǡ۵ġȻôҲ˵DZǩҲDzıǩܶʱΪۻ˵òãҲ˵۵ģ˱ģ塱ڳͻͳ˵ȻڳͻҲΪ費Ҫ顱⡣κһȻͬһǡ顱ġ

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ġҡֵ֮ȻǴĽǶ˵ġʵġɡ(conservatives)ϵĻĻϵģԸɣܶʱȡɡ(liberals)ظɣҲ˸Ȩܣԣǡǡǡɡܸڶܷʵλעоһ߷ԺѡеġɡסءʲôԼϵıǷһִȵȡ̸ġغɵļIJϵģĻߵϵġֻڴϡɡſ۵顱һֱΪйӢӦáSino-liberalȶǡliberalƺΪй߸ᄈliberalһЩҪIJͬһЩʵҪϣйδ֪ʶѧܹ㹻ǻۺ˼ά֡ȥǡͬѼõͬһЩʡʵϺ岻ͬ

ֵܹÿЩ˵ɻһбȻڳͻˡñȰ˵

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2005-11-11

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2005-11-2

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ϵۺÿһԼÿһԸԼԼһϵ˵ԼһȺȻϵԼԸһ𣬸ϵ֮Լľ------һԼһЩڵҪε֮ԼôԼֻһ֮Լǡϵ֮Լ

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ӽͽͳϺԵģǾһ˹Ϊζ֪ʶ˼άϵij졣ҵĶΧѧѧ߾ѧ£Դͳ׻˼ʷƺӡ֪ʶ˵͹زʵ˵ץסһЩʽĶ©һЩıʵĶҪǷʥ֮ΪϾʷǵظ췭ˡ

Ƿ壺2003꣬廪ѧڶҵĿɽʦ˼ооǶŸսʦܶĽϡʵϻ壬֪Ƿ׼ȷ

磺ʦƺһƪµĿͽ塷

Ƿ壺⣬ڷdzԾѧӵҷԴĩһƪ£ֱԮӵĻ֮dz

ġ·ʽȼƪ£йķʽӦӿɭʽķɽṹµ̫ͼʽķɽṹͼʽתԴͳԴתĹ̵УйŴ͹Ŵǻڵµĸ˺Ŀԣоȡ˺ܴijɼ

⣬йѧԺѧ½дġ˵Ȩһϵ£йĴͳĹϵĹע۵񱾺֮֮ͳȨ

磺񱾸һԵת

ҽҲһЩⷽ飬ȻıȽdzҪдһЩ£¶һӺ˾ǨġʷǡҪ̽νĻ֮ѧһЩԷ˼롣Ҳ˼ˡۡѧһЩ߿ǡУȷʵ˺ܶõ˼ԴҲеĸйĶǾãкܶʵĸһЩ˵ĸ͸

ҿĶй䣬ʵϾһ˼ĶԻ̡ΪϾһʼܵĸϵıй䣬еʱ÷dz̼һֻȻһƬ֮ĵļʱ򣬹Ү˿˾Ǩ˵ͣҲǵ˹۵ѧ뵱Ȼмƻ۱ϡ͸һ˫Ḷ́ɡ֪ʶøӷ

Լоۣ˵ۣշdzͳ·ѧ˼ʷ߹ʷġо̵Уеһõƶȵ˵һѧ߼ֵǰ²ǿܵġд£һ˵ҪָĵͳΪûйĵ˵ʽĻָ뽨õƶDzܵġΪʲôôҪϵķ˼óĽۡ

ұȽϹעͳԴڵĻļֵ⡣һΪʵʷijԣôͳΪǰŬijɹΪԵ֪ʶӦþijֶؼֵ⣬ӵĻĸҾöԴͳ൱ձ飬û˭ʶһȱʧҾʰŲȱɡҾͱĻˣʵҶɼֵƳ粻κߡͬǣҲɴͳĶ棬ͼͨһ֧㣬ƶͳתԴ졣ԣǷ署ص壬ʹͳϵʱرĸˣΪǵҪģҲĻչϣڡҰ졶ԭоΧһּ

Ƿ壺ҡ硢һͬʡѣ2002һе塣Ϊʲô"е"кܶͬкܶ˲˽ʲôĿǰһ̽еһĸһϸһе硣

Լдһƪ¡ɵǷܡ۽й壬йͳ壬Ƿͨؽҵķʽлͬ壬ĻͬͬͬĽǶȣγлµͬΪйĻͳһͳһΪĴһͳ춨һ⣬Լ2002дһƪ¡ѰлԸֲܴڣչΪۡҵ·ͨάȣһ²⣬ǰɽȨͳ⣬½άȣʾͨĸͼͨ˺ŵ½еΪйԣӶΪйṩԵԴ

ķͳĴͳķ˼볬Խ

磺һһЩЩͻʵΣӶһЩϵԣ۽硢ѧѾһĻӦһ漰ͳ⣬޷رķͳĴͳ۶Ĵͳķ˼ͳԽ˼봫ͳĹϵ

ĵĵ֮ڣһǼҵķͳһȴԡ³Ѹй"һҲҪ"ǣĹײϸǵȴд""ˡı꣬߼便ʲôһֹϵһʱıһʱ־ıض½ʵķ³Ѹ֮Ϊйľһ�""ȥѲԱԼ"ı"""ʵ""ǰֵ࣬Ҫʹ쾫񡣴ǰ뱣ϾϲѣΪһֵ塣ڡԭ෢"ͳе³Ѹ"Ҫһ

ĵڶ⣬ǰĻùֿǽܵĴйء³Ѹ˵⣬Ҫܹǡ֮֡ͳͳĻDzеƣĻټζžǿϣǰܸˣȷȷʵʵĹʶDZʶγ˳Խɺɵģ͡80ĻУѧձһйʷ̵ۿܣͳִǨӦĻɱƶȡֵ棬˶䷨˶ɸñǨ׶Ρлλ"֮飬ʼԼ֮֮Խ̡" ʵĻṹ˵ǰᲢĻƶĻ뾫Ļ߸һ¡ǵĻӰ죬ͨн黷ڲչɡƶһάij̶ֳһǿƼ֧ĶʵϵĻ֣ôܹͳԣͳĻĿ֮ͨĻл輴Ըı�"ģ£Ӧ"ԶӦǰĻҪأô֮˵ЩӦòΪضĻ(塢)Ļ֮ʵϵ־ı⻯־Ծ졣Ļӵһ㣻Ļӵڶ㡣˶ߣDzſνļ̳뷢չ⣬ſ̵˶ҾãĻķչеÿһӦþܳԼٶȣһһijɼ͹һĻۡ

磺ղᵽơйѹһֱڷ˼Щ⣬80γ˶ַ˼һͿܡΪйⲿѹĵһӦǽIJıõIJһЩĸִĵһ׶Σ˶˵һʧˣǣ䷨ҲƶȲı仯Ҳʧˡ׶ΣĻϵı

ڰʮɻ£йʷһͿܡͿܣӾõIJ浽ƶȵIJ棬ĻIJ棬һһˣһһĽӽıʡ˵ĽӦһһ߲Ŷԡǣʵϣйִת͵ûнһٶԺȻûнйת͵⣬ϸ˵йûִûнĿܣûнµṹµĵҲûȷµķҲûγɣµҲûзͳһҲûнȻһѵĹҡ

Ƿ壺̨ǵķѵ⡣ֻ˵ͳһ֮ǰһʱڡ

磺ĽǶȿľ룬ҲĩʱΪңԶϾȨܱȼȨһЩ佩̶ȣȴԶԶھרơ

Ҳ˵һִĸָûһõƵĽʱعͷǣһ⣺ʮǸĽͿǷǡ˵ٽһ㣬Ϳ͵Ķ󣬼1920֮й֪ʶγɵı·Ƿǡ

عͷٿйͬʱִĹҵ˵ձӡЩҡԼĹ۲죬Щûг׵ȥݻٴͳûнıȥݻٴͳٴӾϿûнȨ壬壬ִĵ⡣ʱҪ˼⣬ִDzҪͳΪǰᣬԼ˼άҲ̫򵥣ʵҵĽǣҪղ˵һ֪ʶ罫ĻƶȣƸԣڵĽܵغһ

Ҫȫ̷ͳĴͳһ˼ΪʲôʮĩͶʮͳ֪ʶΪʲôһͳҾãܺŷʮͺʮ͵"Ψ"мĹϵŷʢһʱй˼ؽˡǷͳ

ĹԽԽѸٵй˥䣬ձʹй֪ʶӵ̼ܵ˺Ϊʷɵ嶯Ҫͨ⹹ͳ֪ʶϷԣ⹹ͳļֵϷԡ

磺֪ʶ棬֪ʶܵ"Ψ"Ӱ졣֪ʶ£ͳԽԽñݻٴͳʵϣ룬һߣȴͳϧұݻٴͳΪѾ˲ɾҩìܵСΪñıһҵĴͳ˵ϰߣɵֱӶһ߲ӦǷͳģDzӦͬùұݻٴͳȷ

Ƿ壺ĵĻרƣɶΪʵɣרƣ׵רƣԣĸͿѧҪ񣬾Ƿ⽨񣬾ҪרƵĶڿѧҪšҪҮ˶йӰ죬һĵ⡣

иͬ˼ǴĽǶȿ۹Һε⡣һ˼۽ӿڡӡ˵"ףϡ"ףνƣDZ׼ϵĹҮ˵ȻʷۻҵǴִͳļֵԭ򡣴ϵָԾȨΪĵȨ֯ȽϽӽǽνΡžõķչ¼еǿƼƾ豩Թ干ֽչģĶ뼯ȨƵع""""ȫͬƶȽṹҡѧı𣬾һ᱾λһǾλ

ѧ"ΪΪҲ"壬ṩĹƷָԸϵЭ뷨Ƶľ"¶"ȫͬغԵԺΪԣһˣһרƱ绤ʿ˼�""ʲôյ־Ϊʲô˱ȸȥδԶ컹һԣΨһܶԻʵĶˡ

˼ĸԸƲȨDZȽųֵġѧڲûֳɵ˵иȶȻҪҲ塣Ӣ˽ǴӢ˵ξвģˡ˽Ǵӷˡ˵ξвġйأӦҲ벻Լʷɣӽ龳ʵҪչӦĹɺ˵Ӧǵߵĵ֮

磺һعͷһҸղ˵ʷѧһͿܡشһйĴͳݵ⡣ԴӽѧĽǶȣһ⡣νĴͳһȫĸͳʲôͳֻܴӼ鱾ϵĶܹĴͳֻǵĴͳ͹۵Ĵͳ޷աĴͳ˵֪ʶӸǵĴͳǽ֪ʶΨĽͿĴͳԣĴͳһƬΪΨ֪ʶӸǵģôһ͡Ժ󣬱˵ʮһٶ꣬ѧܵģһᵽͳ뵽ľǼ˽̣ɱˣ˵ʷȵȡ

ҲԴһǶȽͳΪǧĴͳһƬһƬ޷⡣һǧ˻ˣȫͳôάּꡣ

Ƿ壺֤վסšѧһλдһ飬ǡйʷйûʷڸ˵ֻһ˵ɣ˵ϣ˵ɣ³ʿ˵ɡǷֲԣйʷдйʷ񶨵Ĵͳ﷢ɡ

ṩһ֤˼·˵ӵҮ˵ۣȨӹ壬ȨƶƶִйͼලʵʩȨĶ壬ʲôܣǹȨ͹Ȩ֮䰴ƶּۻۣʵһ⣬ܾʵˡνȨƺ⣬ֻһ̸зʽʵ֤ĹԴİŷʽת۶ƵȨȨƺĺȨ֤ǻ֤ùйܴΡĵijԽڰйתͣΪ򾭹ɵĵת͵Ĺ̡濴ʲôĹ͵ı仯ԭеִģʽ˵ɺȨйĴͳףԿ϶ҲʧĴͳҲϲҵĿȷŪһԲ׶ĶȥͣйĴͳDzҿ̨һֻϣùҮ˵۷йܡȥǻһµ⡣ǿ˵йĴͳһֶ򡣵ǣ⣬ζŷ⣬ζŲȨŵⲻܱСDzǷģdzԽķͳҵˣﵽһе⣬ʵһַ˼ϡ

ǵжǵĿ档ʽתdzԵġ

ӽDzһǴڵеӽǣʱеǴⲿӽЩ˲ȡǶĻƶȽȫ͵һܵġվĻʹͳ֮⣬ǵȥн͵

Ƿ壺ǽͣǿѧ͹۵걸⡣

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ȷʷʽΪʲôֵӵģ䱳ԭʲôʲôDZȷļֵں׷ʵУ˲ΪȿӺӻҪǵһЩDzȷﵽһѣΪǸһϵǣǴǵļͨڲóһۡӱжϣ˵ӱ˶ʵ⡢жϣöĻĽģʽ۶Щ⣬Ե̫ˣԵĿģѾӵһ־ҽѧ飬˵Ψ顣

ĵ⣬ѧʵϸһûڲӽͳǴѧеһֻһѧۣеĶѧۣƵ˼ʽͳġһ⡣

ѧӸϾӱжϵĸDz֪ԼǴһ˵Ķϵеġ⣬ҾҪͨѧԵķ˼ѧķ˼˽죬ȫķ˼ҲҪⲿ˼ԴһЩ飬˵Үˡ¿Фءа¡˹˹ȣҾ˶дøáҾһͬص㣬ѧһһǻصո׵⣺ԵʶԵľޡ

ĵۣҺ͸λһһԷʱ˵"֣ԩ"ûдﵽԼĿģҪﵽĿķʯ󺣣"ԩ"ĵĺʹúˡǣͬͳ֮ǰҪѧķ˼ҶҵĴͳ䵱УĸΧݵԴ̣ɢؽܵģΪûкĸܣҪѧ˼Դ顣ͳʧһʹ飬ͳĻָܴⲿǿӣֻڲҷ˼ĹɡĵһʹοѧΪܣѧͷѧѧԹŵοѧȫѧʵⲻʲôõ壬ܹƶȱЩѧʵIJʹоһЩ˵ʲôƶȵıʣʲôǷɵıʡ֪ʲôƶȵıʺʲôǷɵıʣõѧҺͷɼңѧͨһȷԵĽۣǴضǰþĽȻжϡ죬ȨijƣƾȨij۽ΣҲȡڴΪȡģڽԼģ˼ʽûиı䣬ȻΨġĵ˼ʽ£ҴͳȻӦηΪϰǣ˵ǴͳصСʶֻΨйĿֲʴͳôӦηηǷdzġҿת͵ʵʳɹǵ´ͳ̸ʽĻָȲѧķʽҲȨ۵ķʽȷȨʵ֤ԵķɵķչҲֻھ徭Եĵ´ͳչͷḻ²ŲΪԴ֮ˮ

ˣ˵һֱӵǰᣬDzڱѧУͨʹָķʽҵҪһ˼Ҫ˼ķʽǷȷ˼ܾظһһʵеĽϺõƶʲôһоʲôѧͱѧ෴ȷĶȷĽǸⷸ󣬱⽾ӱжϵĸƶȱһЩоøһЩ漰ʲô""ʲô"ȷ""""ȷ"Ϊһĸܼʵʻҵļֵ͵ձ壬˲ΪϵĽͼȨ嵹һöҵ档Ǻصģһѧ˼֮£ܷıʲôԴ˻һȷĻشǵʹܷãõı׼DZԳ׽ܱȫֳɵĶֻˣõı׼ͨͳʹͳԴøϡﵽģڴͳڲﵽġҲʹοѧͷɿѧΪܣöĵλľκͷɹ涨ͲǴijЩǰֱƵֵ;ƶȺ;巨֮䣬߼ԵġҲõĴʣҾԵģ߼ȷԡ

ǵĴͳĴͳ˵һ㷽ʽû⣬˵Ե﷨û⡣ͬʱҲΪĵΪĹ淶ʵҲû⣬ĴͳʽһġƵġȻһЩĹ򣬱˵йǿТ˵�"Ϊ"˵ҲҪȫУֻܲȡڲķʽǴⲿijһѧۼԷ񶨵ķʽйͳо˼ƶԴôڴͳڲ⡣йŴĴҲ磬۲ȽϸߵһӣŵοѧҹҲϸоǴͳƶȡ࿴ʵҲδܹõоҪľ飬Ҫһ־ѧģͣƶʲôһԵĺһӿ˵ƾƶȣƾƶȳڵĺʲôëһӿóҪִѧ֪ʶСڿƾ£ˣͶΪ˻ȡȨĻУʱͶʷdzø߰ȴûвġ˵ΪʱͶʣԵøԣֻ˵Խ࣬Խƶۣ϶ƶȱһֻˡĻҲҪij̶ֳȵ˼֮£˵οѧͷɿѧͳΪܵġԴͳƶһʡͳƶȿܴźܴȱݣǣҲкܶŵ㡣ͳεʽкܴŵ㡣

Ƿ壺ǶԻڶ֣ʵϰ⡣һĵĽͿܡղ˶ԿܵĽͣΪʲôγܣһΣĽͣھĽǡһͣΨѧı֯͹IJԭﶼǻһµĿܣʵǶ˵Ĵڶ⣬ҪǴͳǷݣᵽͳһĴʱϵĸʵһʱһĹ۵㣬֮ǹŽ֮ǴͳɵĹϵΪ׶εĹϵ

磺ֵĵµѧۡ϶Ϊ͵Ĺϵ

ͳķһִϵĹϵĻսӦսѭдģ־ıǶķ˼졣ʷѧҲDZ﷽棬νߵȻѧƵƣȽϺһ㡣췽棬ҾĴͳ;һҪԴ

磺ΪһָǡνĴͳѧϰո˶һֱҮˣһֱ˶ᣬʩ˹ǿԸΪԵ壬һֿԵľԵ塣

˼Ե塣

磺˵DzΪһ˵ԣԴͳϰףΧĶһdzϸĿѧĽʣΪһѧʽġѧʽҵһռĸԴҿһռжϣ˵ͳûDzáǹҮһرҪĹ۵㣬"Բ"ǶǵĴͳϰסȵȱһ־ηҮԼ˵ЩܾǵDzôõģܾȷ"Ĭ֪ʶ"޷ݿ͹۵ı׼жϣǵǺûǻһ£ǶһЩͳ˼ڽ̵ļֵжϡˣDZ"Բ"бǫ̬ȡӽȥ¿йĴͳͻµ۳

ģʵôһ⡣˵ת͵ʱҸΪҪΪ˱˴ͳĹңǵתͱȽϳɹˣѱͳ鵱һֹ߼ã϶ﲻĿġֻܷܵһֹ⣬ܷһԵĶͳһֵԵĶȻǼֵԵĶͲʵʻܷʵʻ˵ܷƽṹôŵģԺôõģDzܶԼֵΪһʵԵĹ涨�"֮֮"

磺ҾԿԱȽԾƵĶͳԲĶ˵ľƶȵIJһȽ壬һķƶȣ˾ƶȣȨɡƶȿܱṩһػԷظıͳĿܡԣʱ˵һ֪ʶḶ́һһܷһôôȽϲ༸ǧľ飬ǿһµжϡǴͳʲôʲô޷һԵжϡԣ˵棬ʲôȥŬ׷ĻҲȥһõĿܣȥͳо

ǿͳҪԣʵһãνйص㹻ӡеʱǿԲijijijijģʽʱ;ͬˡȻΪһڱĴ졣жϿ߼ʣ߼ǣ㹻ӦȷɵġʾӦǣʷѰɵĶ壻ʷѰʵ֣ʷѰƵĽ

磺Ҫ̸۵Ǵͳ˼ԴʵϣͳɵʵԴҲǺܷḻǣҪһֵַ۹⡣ֻеԸ⿴ijֶʱDzܿijֶ˵ںܶоʷѧĽǶȣû񰢿˶ɵĽǶой500Ĵʷ˶д˻ʷй̴ʷҲһΰɴͳڻʷоҪһ"˶ٵӽ"̵ĴҲ׷ɵľ

һذݴͳ

Ƿ壺۵ĵ֣һĿܣһ漰һȽҪ⣬ֵ̽ijɹǣ⵽ѧʱĿܣͨĹԭڵ˼Ե֮ͨͨڵͬͨĺǶ֮䲻ͻй裬תͣáΡĻᡢɵȵȣйתͣԷͳΪۣǡĴͳڣй磬ŽڵìܣٶԴͳִһֺ񱡹ŵĴǸղ̸˺ܶķ棬Ϊʲô˵ΪʲôܹϣԽһ£Ҫ㡣

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