ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 


йѧ硰ԡϵн


ӢL.ά֡ʡԼS.۷ݼ׿ʲЭţѧ19985棬ΰ룬йѧ2006档


߼飺

L.ά֡ʣУӢѧѧԺȽϷݽڣѧʿʦٻӢ۹ѫµľ١ڷŷ޷ķᡣ

ԼS.УӢȴѧȽϷڣѧʿڷܷԭȷר

׿ʲأԺ١



ѧϰ˵ķźǹĿǰڷררΪ˽ⷨɫԺƶȵҪ;ҲΪйصƶȽṩҪزġ硶λL.ά֡ʡԼS.ڸǰԺԺһֱڳķչĽҪͬķdroit administratifʱǻĿģǶԸ˷롣һ1962귢Уʱ޶Ϊ档ΪӢķѧϰ˽ⷨһȴΪİġӡУйķṩάӽǣӷӢľٴεõʶΪתʱйƽ

һ

ӢڵеķˣԷ˺棬Ϊڷ仯ķϵлһŷûз仯󲿷ֵݾԺо񷨵һϳὫ޴ĶķϳͬĺΪԺᷢеĹܡǻԺڷλԭڷҲرܵѧĹעйһѧ̲ĺıͬһѧϡǰԿѧӳ̶ȡҲͬˣλµƪԺʷṹɡг򡢹ϽȨ˾ǰݽϸʵʵĽϣԷͽʣӢ˷dz㷺Ӱ졣

ԺƶǷΪ˵ջ󣬴ӱ鿴ĽǷڴоƶȵļ̳УҲ˾Ķ򹫷˽ķģӦϾרҵʡijɹҵĹע籾ἰϹþŷ޷ԺԼʱ¹ϣȹʵϻĹһ綫ǵձ1946ǰй̨ȵȣǶǶԷĽǽԺƶȡȻӢϵʵͨԺƶȣѧһֱûзڴ½ϵɹĿ磬ѧ߾ʮֹעԺĽƻ룬ĿͨԺ֤ȯԴԼͨίԱһԸõصľ߾һԣһԼصʱIJþ񣬴Ӷʹƶ͹ְϸӼоΪԺ޵ĹϽȨܸ㹻ȨϣҽΪIJþְܴӹίԱзƶȷߣΪֻϤʹίԱƶ߸Ӿԡʩʮйƶ𽥱ϿɲʵĿشʶѧԷ˼ӽǶ֮뽡ȫоͲŴ֯ͨԺƶȴĹ۵㡣һʱ佨Ժƺ˰йѡ֮缲鵤ҩŶĶ˺һȫ˼

ȻЩǷȫ黹Էܷ˽ܡԵ干͹οܷһЩشı仯ƶȨpouvoir reglementaireȨpouvoir legislatifܷ֡ίԱṦܵǿȵȣЩѧϰܷʱܹ˽⵽ġͬʱ黹ǽ˷ִıǨרҵΪ꣬龰εĻƻල߻֤ƼݿʹõĹϢίԱᡢ¢ϡӹܼľίԱᡢʵʩĵίԱᡢίԱᡢƲг֤ȯίԱȵȣַʽΪһָμķʽȿԱߵԣҲԱߵһԡԴˣλ߻ԼڹȵһҪƶȡ˱ȽϡڵӢรҵְܣ񡢹ҵաᱣϣͨʵʩġΪӢԱֳһ˾ԵģȻ뷨βͬӺУҲֻ뱾ĹҽϣӦҪſչۣҲڽбȽϲͬķƶȶ֮ʱӦȡ̬ȣҪԺƶֻļܻġ˾ܵ໥͸Ǽ¡רҵԵǿĹؼ

꣬ʼǿ˶ʽͽ⡢ٲãӣЩʽڻԷĹϵԺгķʽл塣⣬ڵطȨǷƵһ仯˽ܡĹϵܴͳĹ۵⣬黹һЩµı仯ŻӪ֮αϹԱȨȽ˽ܡ

Ϸ򷨣䱾Ҳʵ巨ݡµݶʵ巨˽ܣȻī࣬漰൱ḻԭȨΪص͡ԭ򡢷ۡͬȡϷԭһУλ̸˸Ϊ㷺֪ʶڷϷԭľݣӢԽȨЧԭIJ죻Ȩ༰ȵȡ

ԭչʵ巨ʹԭԵñҼ߲ԣʹʵ巨廯¡DZλߵĸ֮Ϊй̿׫дṩ˷йĻԭĿǰжᷨԭԭԭԭ࣬ںӼϷԭеġϷԡ׼ͣڡʽ֮ϣҪصΪطɡ뷨ɵһԡڡġϷԡδ˼ͨĶ߻йԭϷԭĽһĴ𰸣ԺϷԭ򲢲ڷаϷڴԭԼһЩǹ淶Եԭһ̵⡣

droit administratifص񷨵䱻˳ΪǷɿѧΪijɾͣڷ˵Ŀǰ߸ΪֵԺⱾӢ׫дΪṩһķȫò籾չֵķŵ㣬Ժƺõʵ巨Ӧرǿǵ;ȼõԺԭԵǷչرԼɵԭ̱ԡɷϷҲһЩȱ㣬λߴͨӽǹ۲ġ繫˽ֵѡԪ˾֮ijͻԺЧоִвȶŷķˡߵĹ۲ƺҲڸǣDZȽϷǼ򵥵հᣬλԣΪ˸õӦǵĽ˽߶ȷķƶȵĶӦͬĴʽָͽֵġѧϰͨɻ޴棬ʱͨȦӣӵвͬʷʹͳķƶȽбȽҲмֵġȻˣͬҪҲйƽҪҪĿ⡣

ˮƽޣϵȱ㡢⣬ָ


ܷͣı庭ԭͼ˾顷Whittington, Keith E. Constitutional interpretation : textual meaning, original intent, and judicial review / Keith E. Whittington. Lawrence : University Press of Kansas, c1999.ǿǿ 룬йѧ2006棩


һԸ


һǷijɾ͡Ķԭּ巨ѧµġǿı绤֮һ --Rogers M. Smith, author of Civic Ideals and Liberalism and American Constitutional Law


һش¼Ҵδȸõؽܷۡۺ͵ʱϵ顣͢ٵƷ˺õ֤ͽѧߣԭּߺͷԭּߣòע⡣⽫һƷ --Ronald Kahn, author of The Supreme Court and Constitutional Theory, 1953-1993


һʱġҪġоϽд飬ܷмֵĹףĹܷ͵õ顣ӦܵߵĹ㷺ע⡣ --Robert Lowry Clinton, author of God and Man in the Law


ΪֹԭּõġµšۣReview of Politics


ΪЩĸ˾Ȥ˸߶ȵĽܡͼ־--Library Journal


Щǰ۸ӵķԻ˵齫֤DZزٵġοѧ۲죨Perspectives on Political Science


ܷѧоҪĶԹסⱾʮֵĶΪԭԭּ巨ѧ͢ٳһҪܷѧߺע顣Judith A. Baer, Texas A&M University


߼


Whittington, Keith E.


˹ٴѧϵڣǡܷͣȨܷĺ塷Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999.ܷͣ͡ı塢ԭ˾顷(Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1999.)ߡƷ㷺漰ܷ뷢չ塢˾κͳְλNeal Devins顶ܷ档John M. OlinѧίԱԱѧĵķѧߡJames Madison Program in American Ideas and Institutionsִϯdirector of the Undergraduate Program in the Department of PoliticsΡ


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һܷڸУҲ绤һ˾ܷۡΪһֳĵķıܷΪģԺҪǸʵʩЩơܷȷʲôĽͷʺܷ̽ʱҵĽǣܷʺϸԭͼѧ͡ԭͼѧͼʾ׼ߵıͼʹЩͼܽǰܷۡ


Ϊ˾齨ǡĽͷҪһܷۺص˾ۡעЩȷǷdzҪġţԺܷ֮ϵıʷǣԺĽɫܷıĽߡԺȲеһֹҲһѧ쵼֯ңȻ͹иرĹܣһɻءԺȨĻǾȷؽ͸߼ˣҪ˽ʲôܷ͹ģԼʲôܷǿŵġҲҪ֪ΪʲôӦý͡DZ׷⣬Ϊ֤˾ʵΪΪ˽˾ļʵҪ˽ֵܷͱȻdzԽһ̣ԱΪһܷһܷķ棬˵ǷɵĶҪεķ档ܷʮҪҪֻΪܷƵһ֣ȫ


עܷ۵ѧѾطԭּ壬һԭּʱˡʹڷԭּ˵ԭּѧ·Ҳġ˿ؽԭּҪԣδܷ⣬Ҳδܶ乱׵ĶȻҲָԭּѡԱҵΪΪԭּߴĵλDz֧ѧ߹۵һڵʹٴԴԭּ塣ֵأԸҪΪӵԺͽۣԭּͨܿġҲѡ˱ϸ۰ͽӽͷзҵķһIJ֤֡һֽͷһκܷ۵ַӦһַʵϸʷôһ򣬼ԭּij˾Խʯlitmus testԽͷܷﵽָۣΪһӦܵƵڱУ۰ֻΪ֤Ժ󽫻ͼشܷ⡣ٴܷͬ͵ʵȻǽһʵIJ


ҵǣеĹ۵ڹȥӰָѧߡ̫޷оٵǸ޷ȫظȻмѡرлˣ⼸ǣJ. Budziszewski, Robert Clinton, Robby George, Mark Graber, Don Green, Ronald Kahn, Sandy Levinson, Joe Mink, Walter Murphy, David OBrien, Jeff Paul, Corey Robin, Jim Scott, Steven Smith, Tracey Storey, Alex Tabarrok, and Jeff Tulis.


ҲرлRogers Smith, Stephen Skowronek, and David Mayhew. ÿһ˶ҽΪһεıʡۺܷ弰䷢չжصĶDavid MayhewStephen SkowronekҷdzмʦߣǸԸҽΪǵصû


Rogers SmithĵĵʦͬºѣΪҷ˳κѧӦôʱ;Ρܷ֪ʶӳڸеز֡۵ͬͲͬ۵㶼ͬƶǵķչ


Bowling Greenݴѧѧĵľú֧ʹɡ


Ľ򡷣The Province of Administrative Law, Michael Taggart(editor)Oxford,1997룬йѧ2006档



199610£ڼô˹ʡеһλϣһЩֱĴǡӢôѧһƺѧ֮ѽ⡪ķΧȷλϵݽ۱Ļ㼯ǡķΧⱾļԵ𡣡


λ֯ߣ¿ѧ˶.̩ؽڣʱ˹´ѧѧԺѧߣμҪţѧŴѧ׶ѧ¿ѧʿٴѧȵѧУѧߣ⻹һλְڼô߷ԺŮٺһλ׶صʦΡʷĻ˵ĹҵȻŸԲͬòʶͬʹǵһϵͬĹע㡪ǣ˽˻дͳϱΪרҵְʱǰδս


λμߵһͬǣĹҶڴѩA.V. Diceyʵ֤巨ѧ۵Χڡ˿ѩӰǵʱʱ֣һ¡ҲǴӷʵ֤巨ѧ˹John AustinѧΧThe Province of Jurisprudence DeterminedCambridge University Press, 1995ġ


ܴѩӰ칫ѧͳѧߵ綨ΪѾڵķɹ淶ҽǷ͹࣬ܵز֮߼ϵDicey, Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution, London, 1885,P34.ִͳУѧϰڽסɹ淶ɵġϵѵþĿĹˣԼеġʶỷ


עĿǣļԳԽ˴ѩӽǡָЩ¶ûдѩĹѧǿԺ͹淶ԶǨеȱݡⲢס˶.̩ص˵⣬ɼΪһͬ塱ִǨԷϵɵӰ죬Ӧ൱ٶۡ


Ȿļ׫ȻڡߡȻ۵IJصͬЩĶע⵽дʱʵз±ǨľұΪĸƺDz赲ʷͨռλĹʶ˵ȻȵسгΪȨɵĵˣһǹӡְţһȴŵĹģܵơɵĹƱϽ˽лгʵࡣļһЩֱԷӳЩǨΪо⣬Ĭ.ء.ɭ..׸񡢰׵. ˵£һЩУҲؿЩǨӰ졣һ㣬ʹⱾļڳΪ԰˹DZѧķΧ׾ģ¡ĽȻ֮ͬڣ˹ӷȷķΧһٶšΧȷһ·


ǵʲǽơ˽лȵǷгֵɣDZѧҺѧȥоվڷѧҵʵǣЩƵǷҪDzֵرԭе淶ҪЩ½˽лԭеǷҲӦƽҲƽеһ֣˽ˣȥȫ÷Χһͳѧ⡣ǵıǨЩĴ𰸲ٿôͳķɽthe analysis of legal doctrinesȷΪ˻شЩ⣬ѧDzòԽͳѧƷֽ磬ЩЩԭѧΧѧ֮羭ѧѧ۶Ұ


Ҳ빫ѧҵıλйأļ߶һǿɼģ˽˻ġ빫ĿơĸԺԴ˵ijɡǵƵ̬ȣǵɳƵϡǰ


ֻǶԷɶ⡰ʩӿƵľݺʵֿƵľ;ǵŲһ£Щƫͨ˾ʵֵֹһЩ⿴ֵ滮еõ֣һЩƳ編ԺãһЩעн֯Intermediate Associationsġǹٷãͬע˾̵ģ˾ı׼ҲڲͬЩΪӦͨеƽȨԭ򣬶һЩȴӴ½ϵ롰Ȩá


ЩŵIJ벻ͬвͬĻͳĶԼԺγ̶ȲͬأҲӳ˲ͬѧ߶ڷʲôŻٵķ硣


һϵн棬ۺĵĹ˽ڸˮ档Ƿ֣롰˽ʣijϾŶ⣺Ϸ˵Ϊ⡢˵˰Լʽ׷Ŀ⡣Ҳ˵ԹңҲʱ뵽ΪǷкϷԣ˽ʱ뵽ǸǷõ˳ֱϡֵּȡϸʹù˽·Ȼͬۡֹ˽ιۺС


ǣͨԼԭ˽ķǿΪʽʵ֡桱Ŀ꣬˽˻ֱȡضֱͳרġְʱѧŶԷڹĿйְܵ˽Ȩʵʩʱ˽򡢹˽֮ͲٴڲԽĺ蹵֮Ͷ̸֮


һ˶.̩ؽŵ£Thurman Arnold˵˽conflicting symbolismǽĻ֣ӽ£˽мֵ֮õ͡۵ļĶƪеõֱӻӵĺӦȷ֤ʵIJϣ˽һЩDZڵļֵƪṩ˹˽֮ŴĻԼ໥͸֤ݣͶзͬһ˽ĺ򡣡


ҪǿǣͨѧҴɳİѡԼͨѡԽʾԭݱϸ·Щϰߴ½ϵѧ˼άʽ˾̾ͨƶ£ЩġȡĹӲȫʧͨڲDZȴڷɺб·ֻá۷ʹðݱʵ·ԹһͷתֻܵǼ򵥻˴ӶøɰͰ͵Ľۣǵ֤ȡڡ巴ӳ˸ġ˾ʵ


ȻⱾļҲûźЩʱδش繫˽ĽѾߵһҪ߶Զ˽ֶڷκ͸ıز𣿾гҪɵĿƻгǷεһʽЩǸ󣬵ҲձԵ⡣Ҳ˵ģЩⶼעܻ𰸵ġ


йⱾļ壬дļļһֳԣͨһѧ߳ԡǴԵء˼߱仯ԷɵսΪڹ˽ϱķΧ⣬ͨ磬Ϊ֮ͨҲͬ⡣


žűԵʱ徭Խ磬ʶ̬Ҳ緶ΧС̱仯Ѿıڶҵκᾰ󡣽ơ˽лĺ;ٴͨСܲЩġε龳涨г˽ĽƲʱ˽ϵҪ½͡ѧҲܲʵλɵij


ִȫͼейҲ⡣ȻʷѧͳIJ죬˽ģйһ˼ҵķӦйȻԼ⣬йѧߵȻϣಽ׷δԼ˼͹סǣԹͬսǺʶоɹ迪ءѧϰ׿ǰ;ããĵ·׷׵Ȿٿ֪ڹ˽ڵЩƵķ̸֮⣬һЩ̤̤ʵʵ˼


ӢĹCraig, Public Law and Democracy in the United Kingdom and the United States of America,Clarendon Press,Oxford,1990Ϻ麣룬йѧ2006档


ݼ


⣺ҪġܷݺͷΧܲɷ֡Ҫġǣֻиһʵŷıۣ߸ijΪһӦŷıۣ׼ȷܷʺݡ


ӢĹѧоijɹڹ⡣˴ѩļζԸֶԪ۽˹㷺ۣ׷˶Ԫ20ͳڵķչԼӢԪķչͬʱϸ˶Ԫ⵽Թ塣൱ƪ޶˹ĹԹ壬ԼͼIJʽ۵㡣


Ȩ֮󡷣After the Rights Revolution: Reinventing the Regulatory State, Cass R.Sunstein Harvard University Press,1990. 룬йѧ2006档


ݼ


19ĩ20ͳԺرǶսԺԼңһȨȨΧţپȨȴͳȨչᾭȨȨӦҵĽɫҲIJԤɣҪΪȨʵṩıϣΪ˴ƣregulationĿִʵṹdz޴Ӱ졣ȨȡҪɹĿѾȡһ棬ȨҲ⣺һЩҪֵܷ˽ȨͣгδַܳӣһЩھ˵ĵЧʡҪĿͨ޸ĺͷɽЩ⡣ѧһƪ˵ɭ˹̹ǣοͨԹƷĸĸͣڱϹ븣ͬʱֶܱܷʶҳϡڹȥʮ굱Уɭ˹̹ѾΪΪҲսԵķѧ֮һȨ֮ǶԷԺδԼӦδ1932ԺķĹۡо˵Ȩ֮Ķ¡Ȩ׼۽ŬҮ³ۡ˵Ϊҵ⣬ǶҪðһҪָѾɭ˹̹�<Ȩ֮>ij棬۶Щ͹ȤˣЩעɽ۵ˣһҪ¼