ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 

ʵ֤뷨ԨԴ*

Լɪ/ ᾲ**/

һʵ֤

漰ɵʵ֤Ƿ޾ҪΪѧСʵ֤塱һʵĺ׽ȷʵ׾Ϳ֤ʵ֤屾϶ڣܲûʷϵĹʮѧеʵ֤Ͷʮ͵߼ʵ֤塣ǣڸʽʵ֤ķ͸ڷʵ֤еĸʽѧ֮ĹϵŴı죬ԣͼԨԴһһʵ֤ѧĸаѷʵ֤ʶǺѵģDzܵġҪϵعڷʵ֤ۣķĪڽΧƵȺ 㴦ڸ۵ĺģɵʶidentificationɵĵ¼ֵҪķĺ塣ǿ԰ǷֱΪ⣬⡣һҪʶÿһУʵ֤ߣǵķߣ֧֣ͨ߷ԣһ߶Ⱥκһ⡪õʶġ һĻʵ֤ߵ˵ʲôǷɺʲôǷɣһʵ⣨˵ʵֵ֤֧ĸⲻֲڹʽĸָӾɵİ汾ѣǵĵǣɣΪһɺΪһϵĵ¼ֵ˵еĵŵһżȻ飬ڷɵݺʵʩ÷ɵỷΨһܹʶġܹΪʵ֤۵ĹԵһ⣬Ȩ͡ﲻͬĺʹڷɺ͵ᄈСĹʽвͬĹ۵㣺1Ȩ͡ûĻìܵıߣ2Ȩ͡ԵĺͷԵĺ壬ڵᄈԺʹãڷᄈԺʹãߣ3Ȩ񡱵ĺ岢ܸΪɲֵĺȷȻʵ֤ҲЩͬ۵ܺϡ

ЩУġҲҪԡʵ֤塱Ƹ𣬺ζ¹۵㣺DZõģpositedIJ⾭ΪбȻϵе۱·ߴ£Ȼ⣬ʲôǷһʵ⣬ʶɲ漰κε۱磬ô߼Ľ۾ǣκζԣϵ¼ֵߵΪɻ߾зԼһҪˣ֮ϵ¼ֵDZȻġżȻģŷɱƶʵʩ⻷ı仯仯˵ɵĵŵżȻءûκƷɱȻеŵ㡣һٽȨ͡DZɣκηɣǷеŵ㣩һʵԵȻˡDZŷȨĴڵģЩȨȫܲʱҲȷʵȨ͵ͻģôЩͲͬĺʹڷɺ͵ᄈ֮С Ѿڱ[]֤ˣ۱綼ǴģⶼȻܹƵšʲôǷʲôǷɴһʵ⡱Ȼûн⣬ʶɻ߾ǷڵʵǷ񱻸˵ŵ㡣DZ˵ŵ㣬ôɾͱȻһµԡǣʹûбŵ㣬ȻδԺڵһǷÿһϵʵһЩضоʵЧķɡȻijЩ¼ֵ⣬еʵ֤߶ɼΪʹù淶ɲζ˵ͬķɾеԼӾȷ˵ζţɵʱ򣬹淶ԲǴȫĹ淶ġһ㣬ʹǷʵ֤ҲܹͬġǣⲢ֤۵ĺԣȨԲͬĺֱʹڷɺ͵ᄈ֮С ĵĿIJDzЩ֤ᵽǽΪ˼Ҫ˵Ϊ֮绤ʵ֤º͵ģҪȻѧڹ淶ͷµĹϵЩϵĹ۵㡣ҪоһЩ۵㣬ǾijЩȻϵһ𣬵ЩȻ뱾Ϊ֮绤ʵ֤DZ˴ݵġ

aһζţij˸ΪҪΪʵʩ

bڷеĵ֮ڱȻϵеĵ¼ָΪŷʵĵ£

cÿһϵŵȨǿԱ֤Ϊġ

Щ۵Ƿȷǿ϶ݵģ߹Ϊ֮绤ʵ֤ĻʯòҪǡһףfirstorder⣬ǿɶԺʵķۿԱʩӵһơϸ˵ǹһЩһԵ⣬ЩһκοԽܵĹڷϵĴںʶļ׼testȻеġ

ǿ һַѧǿԽܵģĹʶɵݺ;ɵĴڵļ׼ԵΪʵܹüֵòҪ۱硣

ʽDzһ׵ijҪһӳֵ۲Ͳҿܡˡ顣ʽͼץסΪְ汾֮ĺĶͻҽܱȻȱȷԵĴۡǣһЩҪij廹Ҫġ

һٶκķ۶ʶɵݺ;ɵĴڵļ׼testЩṩһ׼ΪԼҪ֮һķѧҶԣƺDz֤ġһЩͬӰķѧûͼĹΪļ׼Ƿѧɲ֣ΪǺ޽Ļ߲ܵġգLon Fullerdzֹ۵ĵѧһλͬɽһбҪ˵ðۿDzķۡһҪɡ⻹ȫĻ۵IJԾDz׼ش⣺ЩDZ뵽ѧķΧ֮еģ߷ѧķΧʲô

ڶٶ㹻ḻļֵĴʻٶڼֵvalue-ladenͼֵɣvalue-free֮ȷĺ蹵ҲվȻѧ/Ȼѧ֮κһߡǰļ׼ܹcapableüֵζŴв۳ֵĽۡٶһôվ˷Ȼѧ֮ˡ

ⲢҪǵͼԼ¹۵㡣ֵζΪ壨behaviousism ֳܹ֡DzûʲôֵģAһa social conditionʶɵĴں˵һҪһǷɹ򣬽ϸBһʶ[]Ĵں˵һһǷɹϸ

⣨the social thesis

Ѿţʵ֤˼ɵĻ͵º⡣ҵĿIJDzκĹڼ׼Ĺ۵㡪ü׼ɵݺʹھͿԵõʶ𡣵ǼȻ⻹ʹŷķ۵õһʽôٴη˼֧ɾʮҪġڴʱҽòijָȷĹĹ۵㣬ڷϵĴںʶ

Aͨĺۻı绤ɾǣȷطӳճСɡԼͬʵĺ塣ſԲҲѾƵزΪȫеһȻɲ֣ƺиϵĺԣȴǾԵġɡlawһǷɵ÷Ȼlaws of nature,·moral laws,ƶȵķlaws of various institutions,˼άthe laws of thoughtȵȡеļ÷ģߣЩͬʵķ֮䲢÷ϵȷֽߡˣ磬ڹʷʵ۾Ͳճ

ΪƵɣԵ÷usage̫ȷˣamorphousܸԳֵ֧֡ȷʾ˵˵ɴ¹Ҳ䷨ϵȵȡʹۣڷϵĴںʶԣdzҲDZҪ

ȷʵΪʵūǵĿἰƶȡDZֱ⣺ ɡճܹʶҪʵ

B⾭ɶƼذѶԷɵӶԷɵзƣͷֹ˻˼άȷʵȷģ˵֧⣬˵Ԥȼٶ⡣ȷʵԵƾ׼ʶôʶɵʱûطʵԿԵģdz״ġǣɵʶҪ漰ȻѧŵҪ漰һôʶɵʱԿʵֿԵĺʹġ

CųоߵĸƫҪо߰˵Ժ͵ĿŵһߣֻЩܹüֵķʽ̽ءɣȷģͬԤȼٶ⣻һĻΪͬϣЩȻѧȷģôоߵļֵУٱΪƫʶɵΨһʵķⲢζֹ۵֮£֮Ϊоŷضļֵǣȷʵζʶɵĺʷ̽ijֵּЧ̡ DɣԼѾ֧ɵĸֱ仯ʽвȷġǣ֮ԾԵڷɾΪƶȵԡЩƶҲܹijǵƵⲻݵķʽ⡣ǷɣһЩƶһһַƶȡΪ֤һ㣬бҪһһķʽϸ˵ڷϵ֮ںʶļ׼Ҫɷ֣ʹǵͬעءڷϵĴںʶļ׼أʵЧefficacyƶȻԸinstitutional characterԨԴsource

ʵЧЩûġǺ֣ͬҲٱоٱġҲѧȷʵ̫ĹףţٴһЩǻġд͡[]ȻIJʵЧĸΪȷϸ⣬ôЩѾͿȥҶͬһ㹻ˣһϵijͬڱʵʩķɣһŷ߽ܻٱ˿еһڻinternalized룬ֻΪȷ漰ķڼٶʵʴڵģѾٴڻ߽ΪڵķɡҪһȻѧҶԴҲκ顣ңҲǰѷɵıʿ̻һƶȡʵЧķɺûʵЧķɣַǷϵҲȵķʽһ¡ΪͬҲ¡ijһ²ضȺе£social moralityһرȺغͽܡڴˣʵЧû˵µʡʵЧĵ²ͬûʵЧĵ¡

ΪҪҲͬȷɴںʶļ׼ĵڶɲ֡ɵƶȻԸһΣڷ֮ƶȷľȷʵĴۿȷһߡңȻѧң㷺ͬǣһ淶ϵһϵƶȣӶԴЩù淶ϵв顣һһͬ⣬ֹ淶ϵһϵȨԲռߵλáԼӵƶΪϷǷȨ

ɵЩƶȻʹΪһͣa social typeΪһƶȵԸ񡣼֮ijȨָоϵˣʵЧҲʵЧȨҲ˻Ϊڷij͵ƶȣ໰˵ΪʲôƶͳأʣѾ̸ķɵܹӦԸϸķʽǣڷɵĴںʶһļ׼ѾʱҲͲӦóּ򵥵Ŀ̻ĸϸڹ뷨ѧΪѧֻijЩķϵijЩ͵ķϵִʱģ⽨ĵȵȣûбҪеķϵ[]

ɡѾ̸ģʹ಻ͬᄈУұԳνɫɫĹ淶ʦʮȻؾ۽ǵְҵԹעֻעضij÷ijѾƶʽϵ÷෨ѧѾ˵ɵѧӦ׷ڷְҵӦԷ˶͵ƶȵķʮȻҲȫֻٶѾĴԵIJһҲȫģķɶЩɷͳεǣڵ⼸ζˣһ൱Ҫƶȡ㹻ʹ÷ɳΪһҪרоĶⲻҪҲӦúԷƶȼصĸӹϵͬҲгֵһʶһ͵ƶȡ ȻڷɵƶȻʵݵġȻָһַɵƶȻĸijȻDzݵģΪɡһ㣬߽磬ǷɵƶȻԵıȻϵЩijַʽйصƶȵϵı׼[]ǷɵƶȻ̺Ķˣޣеı׼µĻģҲȻеϰߡЩ׼еһ࣬ЩʵƶȻϵinstitutional connectionı׼[]Ϊûγһ루separateı׼ϵĹ۵Dzݵģŷ»߷֮ûŲݡ

һƶϵĵڶҿܸΪĺΪDzǿӵʸΪijϵijΪɵΪʸûзӳڷɵƶȻ֮Сij͵ƶȣôеڸʽĹǷɹ򣬼ʹڵġҲбȻĵԣôҲֻ»֮ϲпܣеĻ򲿷ֵľҪƶȻϵĹȻӵеԡԷɵʶʩӶĵҪʸ񣩽ȻζŻ߹͵ƶȵĹûȫΪɣЩƶȵĹȴΪ˷ɡһ֣ɡָ

ɵԨԴthe sources of law

һ˸ȤĹؼϣʵ֤߶̬һн֧ǿʱǵʵѧ˵ȴʵЧƶȻΪڷɵΨһǰĽϳΪweak⡣׾Ϳ֤ǰ˵ǿDzܵͬġ跨ɵҪǣЩδ涨飨unregulated disputesЩ漰δ涨Ӧڵ¿moral considerationsĻϱ[]ǵһ࣬Ŀڸûгͻĵ¿һٶ֤˵ַɣ¿ѾΪùɵһ֣˴ûзû涨ǵ¶ԸҲûй涨ֱǿķ档ܣʲôǷɵľdeterminationijЩоȡڵ¿ΪȻֻ۱ʶɡΪǿ⣬Dzò˵ʹ漰µĹȷʵǷɣǸԨԴȷģ漰ĵ²˶뵽֮Сڹ˽еġͻ򡱣һ񣬵ȻǶڲڱɵġ

ʹЩ൱һҲͬȷģ෴Ĺ۵㣨Ϊ涨Ӧյаķɵһ³˷ɵһ֣ûðʵЧҪΪ̫ķϵԷҪ۵Ҳû뷨ɵƶȻìܣ³˷ɣݸù۵㣬ͨصƶϵʵֵġ󣬶Ե˿Ա뵽֮Ҳ뷨б߽һµģΪ˵ԵµÿԸֲ֮ͬʱԨԴsourcebasedķʱⲿֵ뵽֮ȥ˵֮Ӧüһ䣬ĿǶ۵ĽǣijЩǻԨԴĵԭ򽫳Ϊÿһϵһ֣ȻϵҪ󷨹ڸֲ֮ͬõء ǿ֮IJǣǿ֣ϣÿһɵĴںݶȫԨԴȷġһ棬⡪ǿ⡪ʹɳΪʵЧƶȻinstitutionalityɲ֡߼໥ġȻʵģǶڿ̻ʵ֤˵ȷʵDzֵġⶼݵģ

a ʱijЩɵʶȡڵ۱磨moral arguments

b еķϵжһЩɣʶҪȡڵ۱硣

һ۵㴦ڷʵ֤ıԵشҲҲԱΪ뷨ʵ֤ϡǣܵһ۵ڻԨԴķɵżȻڣcontingent existenceʹõ¿ijЩУٵһΪЧı׼ڶ۵ͨ۱ⷨɵĴںʶĸϵıȻԣʷԵʵ֤/ȻĻѾվȻһˡ

ҽΪǿԱ绤ͬʱųaͣb[]ҽ°ǿijΪԨԴ⡱ڴʹõһԨԴsourceǴһЩζģǺ봫ͳеķԨԴ[legal sources]йϵݺʹܹʹõ۱磨ǵĵ¹۵ͼ۱磬ΪԷɽDZҪģȷʱɾһԨԴɵԨԴһЩʵǣɾͳΪЧIJҷɵݵʶϵġԨԴҪȡʽԨԴformal sourcesÿȷһɵЧĶһᷨټһҲͳһɹʽԨԴڴʹõġԨԴͬԨԴصĽԲϡһɵԨԴͲһΪΪȵȣЩͬʵʵ֮塣

ԨԴʲô۱罫֧⡣һԨԴⷴӳǵķɸconceptionڶںŷɸ

۷ٵʱַӦþֲ߱ͬʵĿģdesirableԡǵķ֪ʶǽͷɵļɣչʾǵķɾʵķʽΪDZ绤ͬҲǵǻۡԵ⡢ǵĵ¸СȵȡȻмֵԡĿǰĿĶԣƷҪġҪڣʹһΪ߶һ֮ΪһٶʮҪģҲһƷʲűΪǹ˷ٵķɼڶƷʣΪһٵĽɫأȻֻDZΪǷӳĵƷʣķɼܡƵģһǺûǻʱʦмʶҲϰۣɱڷǷԽܺͷɱڵǺûǻ෨оԣdz˵Ǿзϵȱݣ磬ǻڶһƶĴͶģȵȡһЩоΪȻڷǿԽܵģȴ¶Ƶļȵľʣ䷨ǶôѭؾɣѾƻ˴ͳĺгڱ˵ķ棬ߵ̫ԶЧʣȵȡ ЩԤȼٶ˷ǡʱǡȥЩչʾǵĵƷʶ䷨۱ġûκɼٶ˵ֻеڷִʱٵĵƷʲŵչ֡Ʒ̫ƵӰоˣٶͲܳΪļٶжϵʹòΪǷãapplying law۱һΣǺͷ۱յġһʽ֤۷ٺͷ۱ʵļ׼̵ָءһǣ÷봴ơ»չ֮֡һ˶Ϊټ÷ַչɡҾǵֹసжʱһʮģٴµķɸݣҲͬʮٽѾȷķɡؼ֮ڣͨĹ۵㶼Ϊڷչɵʱʹõ۱磨ܿܲʵ۱磩÷ɵʱ򣬷ʹǵķɼܣܵٲòһƷ֮ʱDzʹ÷ɼܡҽݲ⡣ Ѿȷģsettledɺδȷķ֮֡еʦ֪Щϣɻûбȷʱ˵İû֪ʲô·˵Ϸɵô涨ѱһǴʱǻӾȷرԼĹ۵㣬ǻ˵һŵ⣬߷ɻûбȷunsettledȵȡҪоЩδȷİʱٱΪʹõµġġǷɵ۾չɡоѾзɹ涨İʱٱΪʹǵķɼ÷ɡ

ԨԴͲϵͳЩ֡ԨԴ⣬ijϣзԼԨԴṩ˽ʱΪϷѾȷˡİУٺܵ͵ؿԱ÷ɣңȻǻԴģôɵþͽ漰ЩԨԴнļԵķɼܣڵǻۡԷԨԴı׼ijûд𰸣ôȱɴ𰸡δ涨оİʱͥȻµģɵģݣǵоͷչ˷ɣٻеķϵģȻأİеоٲֵڵµĺ֮Ŀ ٶԨԴ֮ȫغϡʵϣԨԴżȻЩֵ÷ʽغϣôԨԴǾнģΧõ֧֡䳬ԽЩֵճõĵطǿΪϵͳϡֶԨԴ۱粻ԡɡһʵճ۱硣෴ijƶȵĸҪӾǵеķƶȣȻ䷶Χڴˡǣⲻ۱˵һƵķϵĸĻʷʱб֡෴ֻԼƶȵһ֡ǵѧƶȣⲢûʲôκͼĻԵıȻɲ֡ζڽƶȵʱúߵͼ߼ֵܡζij׶ΣͨԷƶȵĸǵĻз࣬ܣеҲûʶ ȻбҪǷģԨԴⲢǷӳǵĻһЩʮָdzѡΪˣҽ򵥵֤˵ԨԴץס˲Ҳ˶ԷɵĹܵһĶԶ׼ҪԱ֮и͵Ŀƣforbearancesco-operationЭ(co-ordination)Ҳʹӷ㡣׷䲿пȷԼĿ꣬ͬҲȷġһеIJͬԱͲͬҲںЭͿƵĿǺʵϴڲͬɹܵһȻIJ־DZһ㣬ϣԱ˽a private viewȨƵIJŵǿֹ֯ͣǵ˽ǵɣΪһԼе˶ԼǷͬ⡣ͨṩ֤ʵķʽָΪ͵ĸ棬ǾͿһ㣻Ҳַֻʽһ㡣[]һij߶ȣǿԲⶨԼΪҲԲⶨ˵Ϊȷⲻͨ涨ƲṩصĶʵֵģһͨһֿķʽ涨ΪֺҪΪģʽʵֵġһʵѾȻѧǿΪ˶ʵڷĺ֮һ˾һ˽֪ӡڷʵ֤УءˡҲʮǿһ㡣

Ϊ˷ֹ⣬֤еļؼ衣ᣨ͵ĻС͵ģһʽķʽԱıҪȵȨIJþ֮ǵġͳΡУһҪأͳڼ֮УһɢĹͬ֯УһСеȨԲþǷɣЩϵǷϵǣһǾзԼľDZһȨԵIJþ˻ֳȨԲþдһƶȻһ֯ƶԸегԱȨƸijԱʹijֱ׼Ϊñ׼еģpurportedȨѡģ۸Щ׼ǷȻһ㡪䷢IJþ뿼ɼԼȨ˵DZԣôȻζţǵ۱ʶЩǿܵģ˵ضңԸݹ֤ʵı׼Ͷ漰۱硣

˵ԨԴĵһ۾˵ӳϵͳ˰ǵķɸмڹ֣ôڶ۾ݾǸ̽ͽʾֺڲǵԨԴʶɵһġԵġҪĹܣṩ֤ʵı׼ԱͱΪܵԼǾͲͨսñ׼ԶΪǵΥѡܣȻУͨΪı׼ַͥ÷ɣЩ֤ʵIJҲǷڵ۾ݶϵ˶Լı׼Ļ뷨ͥչɵĻҪڵºԵĿڰΪʶɵļ׼ʱԨԴͰѷɵƶȵһӣڵоԵҪԡ

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* ҵĶԱ۵˼ܻڵֽͷ˹ȻDzͬڴ˵óۡ߰ԼɪȣɵȨ£ţ򣬿׶س磬1979

** 廪ѧѧԺ

[] ʵ淶Practical Reason and Norms162ҳ¡Ҳμĵڰƪġ

[] 弰ƪԼҵġʵ淶IJֵ岿ֵڶڣҶԹصĹ˲ͬͽͣĹ䡶ɵĸеõ [] ҵġϵĸThe Concept of a Legal Systemţ1970ھ£йʵЧһ۵ķ棬͡

[] еġѾᵽʵҪIJҲƲáǿƻʹúΪʵʩƶȵĴڡԴˣ H.ŷϿˣH.Oberdiekⷨ뷨ϵʱƲǿáThe Role of Sanctions and Coercion in Understanding Law and Legal Systemsѧ־197571ҳ ȣʵ淶154162ҳ

[] ɭΪϵܼ򵥣ǷͥĹ淶磬ҵһۡŦԼ194529ҳ ˽ӼӵϵǹصĹ۵㣬Щͥòеı׼ɵĸ89ҳ¡.

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