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ͿɵŲִἰ



ִԵ龳У˼""Ѳں̶ֳϡԺַʽԸͽǾ⣬Ǿ׽ĿԣǷЩŵ죬Ƿʵֿԡ֮ڽ죬Ѿʵ弰ֱ֮ΪһСĹϵˣ෴˼֮һֽ״̬ʱĽ̫ҪˣǴ˹Τ
ͬͿҲϡܺϣҲźìܣǴӽӽdzعͷ¼Ųʱ򣬷̺Լԡˣǵļ̳ҲѾ۱·ʽ֤߼Ȿ
ڡֹۡ"ڶ"УͿ˵

Ҫʾʧ״̬˾м˱ҵľ󣬸ָijͻͻƵȻ޷Լǰ˴ĸ޷ṩܹʹǸƣǾͻͻнޣ̶໥Կ໥໥ȻЩǿͻߵĶԿжռϷ磬ʹ־ǣЩȻʱǿͳΣȴûͬͳΣ״̬϶һְ͵աɱɵսЭܹʱԵģܰκһ˵ֻܿӵĵֹȨɥʧôʣµֻǿͳεķɣսDZڵĻͻֵģԶ޷IJ֢״̬һֲ̬ΪĿ귴еģ֮ԴڣҪ֮໥ǿڸߵķDurkheim 1984:P.xxxii

ɱۡҲһλ

̰϶µطչ֪δֹûκΰ취ƽϢ̰Ϊ̰ͼﵽĿԶԶܴﵽĿꡣȵĻܹģؿĿȣʵƺ޼ֵʵǣܱʵʱǺҪֿܡǿĶδ֪ܺͲ״ĸоЩʶԺDZʧȥһȤʱͻȻΣյĴۣǾܡǵȴδδˣĹȥûκζԹȥڵʹ࣬Ϊȥ˵ֻһЩؽȹĽ׶ΡʹܹƭԼǣڲõĽҵԼδҸ޵һֵ²ı־ÿ춼ʾֻڷĺͰѷɵʶDurkheim 1951:256ff.

˵ͿִĹɺ͹ػôǴӽӽdzֹػپ¼Ҫ⣺˵ʧִǨµĽôֱǨĺľǽṹתͣǷʽת֪ʶϵıǵ»ת䣿DZ۵ģǷԵģWindelband 1923˵ֱǨͲʱԵıǨǴͳеȻڽ̴ͳͿҵִԭ˵"ִת"Ͱһijɷ֣ԭϵ幹ʷ˰ŵżȻ˵ʧ˳ͻս״̬ʧʹͻᣨڻڵأ趨ޣôֲ̬Ƿǻ˹νȻ״̬ķӳִ͵ijĽ˵һĻô�""disenchantmentʱ""ԭϵȫ»ĹУºΪƾʧʧкοʧWeber 1947£¾ҪΪһϵɣKant 1965ǰɱһµ񻰣Horkheimer & Adorno 1969:168-208ʹʶΪһ־ԵĿֲڸ 1979:114-123ΪҼἼ֮źṩ˿ԻͿɵĽǶ˵ֻͷֹһʹԻ˿ܣô"ɥʧʶ"ĴۣDurkheim 1984;1958Ƿζ"ǿͳεķ"Ѿڹ˵ви˵Ȩ־δ֣ȻԵĽ֮УHeidegger 1962ỹҪһάϵԼ棨Foucault 1979ôԹν"߷"߼ԼִǷԽǰδе"廯"ʽҪˡ
ǾʹͿеķ϶Ե½Ŀ֣̽ԼԹͿµŲ


ʧȱϯ

ڱ׼ѧʷУʧֻǸԵСɫԶдʵġʧֻ̨ܹΪ"ɫ"ijֶص"Ĺ"1 ͿʧʼDZġ̬ĻƫоģҪôǼʶѷ״̬Durkheim 1951:213Ҫôǽṹжϵı֣Merton 1968/1948:116ff.ҪôǸϵIJ̬ףMacIver 1950; Riesman 1950/1961Ȼʧ֮Ϳľɫʵռһϯ֮أΪִתеһ޷ӱܵʵҲΪһָ汾ѾΪִеһʶ̬Lehmann 1995:134ff.߸ȷе˵һִԽʽ˵ºڽ̵ʵԻôʧͲΪж幹ٵ⣬һʹڲͻ֡չͬʱɥʧϵĹкͰȫУGiddens 1991:1-9;Wagner 1994:6Ӷʹʧͬ쳣Լ̬һ߽ѵ
չ߳˵ͿɵԴһл۵ɫʣ壨social body2 л壨social organismṹstructure빦ܣfunctionhealth벡̬pathologyȸзḻѧȵζGiddens 1971; Lukes 1985ЩֻϵģDZֳ۵ȡǸ壬ҲǸṹǸԴĿı3
һϵִͳ""ĹͿɿ᲻һ壬һлŽ壬ڽṹϼϺͽ˸ϸ֯ڹҲ߱ллDZܡʼֵ̬ģ

ԸձģôҲǾ͸ĸԣindividualityһ壨subjectˣ־ͰijЩأDurkheim 1965:493

ɴ˿""collective bodyһֳĹʵڣһлио˼ͻж塣᲻˸Ҳз˼Գﻮ
ϣͿʼǿڵģpresentһ־ļ֣collective representationԵʵڡ˵һ־˸ڣֻͿɵһԸѡִճͬͻУʱг͹ƶȰУд˵УԱʸУǶῴִ᲻þʽһֳʵڣǽʵijܹ˵Ϳ˼аʵһ۲ԣҪԭʼͬ棨face to faceĻͱΪһֳ֮ʽ""ŵ岻ͬڼ壬ڵʽڸ壬ڸתΪڵʵڣDurkheim 1951:320ˣͿɿᲢԴڵʽڸ壬ʽڸ幹ɵȺ壬ڻΪڵĻء˵�"ֱֻӵغأͨijԼãΪΨһʤľȵλ"Durkheim 1951:249ҲϣͿɲûдӾѧӽdzֹ⣬Ҳûе󼰽׳ɱ͵ԭг⣬Ҳûǵ˹ܵͼ""ı̽""л͵»ǵ˹199767ǿִֹгĻܣǴٽԱ֮лŽᣬǿʶŦִ֮Եķչгƣȡڳȵλ۵ļʶ¡ҺгࡢԺ࣬"ṦܶģлĹܶǻһ"еڵĹܣҲʹˣԼˣҷ˼ҵڣself-regulatingĹܡ
ȻĹɲڽѧ̬ѧIJϣεĽṹ֮⣬Ϳɸǿڳṹsuperstructureе4 ʶcollective consciousness֪collective conscienceͿɿʶǾʽ"ʶʶ"Durkheim 1965:492ʶиʶͳһͼ壬ʶۺֵ̬ġ˵˹ŵɯԣspirituality涨˸˻Ϊ˼ҵʵôԣhyperspirituality涨ʵʽҲϣйس""ѧҲͳйۺĿѧȲųʶڸʶ֮⣬ΪʵڣάչڵڣʶڴתΪһ־ɢڸʶ֮У˵ķ˼ﻮжȡƶڣʶᾧΪһɹ淶׼Ը˵жԹ涨͵

ļʶ˵ʧһΣ֪ʷڽ̸ĸ˶Ȼԭеڽʽijʧˣ"յѾӷĹ˳ѾȣԷ˸ʽ"Weber 1947:149ڼֵչһ"޷"5 ˣԭ򲢲ͬڽϵԭ½빤֮ĸӹϵ⣬ȻԴӹҵʽУһµijʽڸijݻɶԳijݣпά 1992/1967; Descombes 19936 ʹ˶ԣ˵ͿɵǶʵڵ֤˵һΪԾһֶάϵŽŦľᣬڽ̳ݱ˵¹淶Ŀҿƣˣ"ȥػ"Ҳ;"ȥ»"demoralization, Durkheim 1958:12Ҳϣʧ"һ"Ƿĺͷġʧζţִ໥ļ˸͸˸֮䷢ʶѾȫƫ˼ʶĹ켣ϵһߣʹ˵״̬the moral vacuum


ҪܵijͷһƫҲҪܵĿƺų⡣ȻһִںȻ֮ЧԺ7 ѭ·ҲеŽʵʩijͷ˲УһֿƷʽѾͿеʶˡͿڡֹۡйŽоȷָͷɶԣִתԱΪ̷ΪĵƲ÷ľܳ⡣ǴӺͺϷĽǶȳôֻķΧԼȷĻָϵμDurkheim 1984:ch.2 & 3һϵ᳹ԭ򲻽ͽԭ򣬸ԭгﻮжϺζΪչġ֮ǰΪһµijݶôĺ⺭ѾճħenchantingҲճ߼Ҳϣ᲻ԭʥȻɭϱݵڽԵøӾ壬ӾйԣͬʱҲԭĹͬӳ󣬸Ӿԣʵ֮ϣͨڳpresenceķʽ뵽жﻮͨ͡뽻ԱʸĽ綨淶ŵԼ͵Ľһճ֮СִʷǰؽźԽĶԵԽ壨Schutz 1967:195ff.; 1998""""""""""ЩijҲΪж˶Ҫ˼ΪʱϵģȻھͽĹУȴ¶˸μ˼˹ȫ25пάָһ廯ΪжḶ́μпά 1992˹ҲΪϷԻƼijͻΧŶԪ뷢ģμSacks 1989:68ת 1997ɴˣȳΪ˷˼ǰᣬֳΪճж߼͸滯ÿһëϸѪ֮С
˼ǣƵһַʽȻûбͿֱӾ쵽ȴгΪ߼ȣӷ۵ĽǶ˵ͿɶȻʧڵĺϷԡȻʧڼ伯ʶ룬ôʧǷģasocialѧоĻʵôǾӦö־вͬʵʵԴһʵӦʲôͱΪʲôʵνnormal󣻵ڶʵӦʲôȴδΪʲôʵνķabnormal̬pathologicalǴеձ̬ɢھĸϣԹ̶ķΧھ֣ڹɲϿԳΪƽͣ෴ֻǴϵ̬ʱͿռ϶ijԣֻϽ׼򣩵ĸͣMestrovic 1985̬ͷ̬оĻ룬Ҳѭ򣭲ձ飭ձ顢ӦãӦõȽģʽˣжһǷʱͱ᳹ԭ1. ʵһ㷢ض׶γֵضʱضչ׶εض˵ģ2. ָձضмһϵģͿԼĽ3.ʵδȫ̵йʱּDZزٵģDurkheim 1950:64ʹ˶ԣõģҲģΪɼʶĽ涨ģʶܹͨڲõķʼĻϵʶͨڵijЩضضԷʵʩܼǿǶԼʶĸǿȣ֤ڵι̻"зļʹΪγµʽҪĿ״̬"
ɴ˿ͿΪѧȷһ׷׼򣬶Χ"Ϊ�"ĺչģȰʵ֪ʶжϣ򣭲򣩵⺭Ҳֵ͵жϣӦãӦã⺭ʶϵģҲʵϵģ8 ҪһųⷴػصƶԽ֤Ҫһճʵ߼ȷЧԻ֮ѧ׼ʵϾ׼һζѧʧȥԼع⻷ѧ͵һµͼ˶ʹʧҲӦ֮壺"ڸϵIJڳ"society's insufficient presence in individual"ȱϯ"the absence of society, Durkheim 1951:389ff.

ĿģڸоӱͬʱҲһоǵĻʧȥĿꡣѹ֡𲢷Ը壬DZ᧿ΣЩ˵ŦѾɳڣһּ˥䣬IJ̬Durkheim 1951:2139

ʧȱϯ״̬ʹ򻯡ȼͳ滯normalizationΪѧо⡣ͿɶԳ̬Ͳ̬Ļ֣ԼԲ̬֮Ϸλİᣬǡǡ֪ʶͺʵ߼άΪִṩʵϣʮG.Canguilhemָ"Ƿthe abnormalŻǶthe normalȤ淶normֻͨƫŵȷϣҲֻΪƻŵԽʾֻͨӦۺʹʶͿѧ"ת 1995:25ͬҲͨšͽյֶΣܳ켺˺࣬άʥͿΪִ뾭ѵ"ʳɷ"ʵʩ"Ȩ / ֪ʶ"ԣֱӴٳ˸µ˶ִ֮�"ػ"ǶmadnessΥ棨aberrationcrimeperversionillness and deathЩʧʷⲢڽҿЩ""ͨ"żȻԡԺ"ʷFoucault 1972:229ʾִά滯֪ʶȨԡ
ΪȡȨΪһνԵıʣԼճԴĿ꣬Ϳʼհѽ͵¿ִὨ⣬ճʵΪ""10 ֮ճѾٱųʥ֮⣬෴Ĺ͹淶һֱɺͱ˵""Absoluteˣ᱾ִԵ񻰣ΧĿϵ""ĤݼӦξµʽ֮Ӧ½ץסִԵָѲٽϵijͷƶά֮ض֪ʶ̬""֪ʶһʶƷ͹ʶ̬һΪʵ߼Ĺ淶ϵͿƼȨ˹ıϵ͸ϸ΢ֲFoucault 1979:116ff.ˣȷתΪڵĿƣ˶Ա""Ľ̻Ҹ죬µ"ʶ""μ"
"Ȩķ޴"Foucault 1979:304ΧʧչȱϯơȨ뷴ϵУطִ֣ʵһתһ棬ͨԭʼнȳʹΪڵΨһƾһʹճȵλʹҽĿԺͿԣͬʱ壬ȷ˳滯֪ʶ̬ȨƣݱΪճĹ淶ϵӶհֿԺͿԡͿǵִ⡣


ţǸ壬Ǿۣ

ȻԶûнĵĿ첻ԴѡֹܷͷֻʹϺ͸Էչ˿ܣԼǿԼӴͬһе෴ִ֮ܲɹɸָĽ״̬ܲʹȥѰܹ͸˵µн֯Ŧִ֮𲻽Ϊĵ˽˿ռչԼɴγɵļ˸򣬶һ˿ܷĿϵǿ۵11 ͿɶԷֻͷֹDZŵϹܺ͵⺭ʼձбȽֹ۵̬ȣΪ"ִĵ»ûзչҪij̶"ǣͿڡֹۡйʧͷֹУڡɱۡжʧɱʾУԿԼԼظܵķ⡣
ȻҲԼ򵥵عΪ֮ĹϵΪͿɵ˫ؽģܹ֮ڣΪѾڻΪʵڣͬҲճʵĽ˵Ҫִ֮̽Կܵ⣬ǼȲܽӸ˷˼ںͳִĽǶȳҲܴӵ֯ƶȺʶ̬Ӧؿ໥͹ɵʵ߼ֵעǣ˹Τ½ӽ׸εϵۣѷ˼ͶͻΪһ־꾫ʱͿȴִοܵһ·ߡǾԲܹ֮ܺ˼Τ໥˼Ϊʱǰʱ֮ŶѣԵʱƷռںʶ֧λͬΤҲΪŻִ龳УԴݻ˾ɵڽжнţӶʹִijͻ͹Ե²԰ΡȻͿȴΪȻִָתȲһγ׵ĶѣҲһֿɹĵԴ;ڷŵŽ͸Էչ廯ʽУǾͿԷһ
ͿָҪȷͷֹὨеãͱļ֯ʽ⣺1. ֹ֧ͱͨɼ幹ɵĵʵʵһԣcontinuityͨƽȷһҵڻƣ2. 岻ܹԼձнһַcategorical imperatives12 ܹÿ淶Ĺɹ̣3. ¹淶ͷƶȴӸϱһͬһҪǼʽǼĽ4. ͹ҶܳеһΣΩְҵϵȺʹμDurkheim 1984:xxxiv-xxxvܹЩģȻЩͬͬйͨ֯ĶְҵȺ壬˵ķţcorporation
ŵ壬ÿΪ˻Լˣˣ͹ˣȨ壨ˣȺԱͬλл໥ͬ͹ͨĹϵŦҲڸʽְҵȷְҵͷ׼Ϊж˼ֵжϺνһ׹ƶȺᾫʹÿԱΪ�""ǵİֻ֮ȨΪǹӦһʵ壻ֻԼгҵЧתͿɿŲִתʱڵIJһֱ׷ݵ͹ڣʼչᴩȻɫʡ˵۹ʱڣЩԷγɵҲı䣬γһַdzӵĹϵDzһֹΪһ֣ӦضԹҸκ񣬶һܵ˹ҵǿƣȡǿļ͹Ӷİ취ʹûȥܴӳǰ𵽵۹ʢӳ˷ŵĿˣвɺھú͵ʵӰ졣DzΪ˽趨˽ޣʹȺԱŽụ˼飬ǿȨ򣬸Ҫǣǻһִڽɫʵʽ
Ϳָŵĺľǹ񡣾ÿ嶼Լ""ÿǰԼ""һÿҲԼ""Genius collegiiڱȺĹҲ""Pius in collegioŲйͬʽͽʽйͬĹأһУ֧Ȩ䡢Լκճ»ͳҲϣŽ˽빫ͨijͿƵľʹͻֳ⣬ҲԹͬĵΪƶ뼯кͼʶӦĹº͹淶ְ֮ҵȺԱУ

ȲѰÿһΪʲôһֹͬ沢ʱDzά棬һ֮ͬܿСΪǽһܱ˴˽Ȥ˹ͬףһֹͬĵDurkheim 1984:xliii-xliv

ǿԿͿɶִ֮Կ֣ܵ̽ᴩ˹ΤͬӽǣγʷĽǶ˵Τʱͽе⣬Ϊ½̽ͽеϵ۶γɵְƷʣ13 ֮ԱʸʼľʶΪģμWeber 1947;1958ȻͿȴΪⲻڴˣִӵĵ»һΧŽΪĵĽԭȷģȫ׷ݵڽ̸ĸ֮ǰԶʱڣʱͣԻʽΪŽŦְҵȺѾ⺭ˡˣͨţDzڷ׷ִȷ԰ִĻԭҪ볹ʧֵҺͱأ⸱



ͿҲûѵʶһִῪʼʱγʷ뵱ǰʷֲֳͬ߼μ˼˹ȫ46[]: 456-463ֻͷֹŽᣨʧķ⣩ִƶȰȴԵøӸˡȣ˼˸ķչѾְҵȺķΧø˽˻;廯ͬʱڳŵȷ˸塣ͬʱľҲ෴ķչ΢۵ʽճʵʵʩƣֽᾧΪһһַ˸񻯵ijϵžս1. ְҵֻܶضְҵӰ죬״ӵְҵ֮ռ䣻2. ְҵԴְҵȺԣŲܹԳһ壬ԺͿԶȺ໥գͬʱҲ߽ǰľԼʶ3. ԲͬԵĽγ廯ƣ֪ͨʶϵͳȨƲ˶ͬʵĿƼƽճʵ߼У˱Ĩƽˣ""das Man, Heidegger 19624. ִԲڱ˸ˣҲ״˸峨ݵĿԣУҼἼγͬʡƽȳѡֲͱ䶯˫ϵʹҵ˿ԣʹ廯subjectivation, Deleuze 1992Ϊڳ滯ִһ⡣£͸֮һγ״̬
ϣͿɿʼijԡͿΪִ᲻Ϊ趨ԣһΪṩԣһֻͷֹʹҳΪʵ壬űΪάϵڵĹؼڡˣ˵Ľŵʵڸ˵ҵڣself-regulationҿƣself-control"¹淶ʵǷչԼҺ͵ҵɵҪ"֮˵ĿԣĿԶǽڸ˶ԵԾĻϵ�"˳ִ桢涨Ϳ"ִ˵ıִ֮ĵ½Χ""disciplineչμDurkheim 1958;1961;1969

޵Ĵڣһ֡Ͻɲ֣ӵϽɲ֡ˣȥǣԼıԣ޷Խ޶ȡ˵ı޷ܵ˼ɵĿƣDurkheim 1961:51

ˣ˵ɻthe discourse of freedomʼҪɻthe discourse of disciplinizationģWagner 1994:9ff.Ҫ˽͵֮ҵһмͱͨƵڻʹʵҿƣ仰˵˷ֻŵʵǸݵ¹淶ͼ׼ķ˼жǸ˾߱⡢պ͹᳹µǸжʶڵšȻڳ;˫زչǷܹڸڳأ濴Ϳɵʼճȥ͸˵ĶԪ֣֮ʼնһġڽĻʽУͿٴ͸Ӧָν壬ܹΪж滮ͨɵʽͿƵĴڣ⣬һоϰߵʶϵͳģǿŵġͬν˸񣬹ữIJԣ˸ıڸʶΪһָߵľʽ԰Ѽ徫ڻ֮УҲڻ֮С˵µڽǿܵ�"±˸"
˵˫ϵĸˣ԰塢͸Ҫعͬź͵˸֮С¸壨moral individualismζţ˵ɡֵϣȷԴڸ˵ϵ۶õְʸҲǴҳִҽIJ෴"˳"the cult of individualŽжԵķУԵʵȻᣬԾǵʵڱϣ

ǿȻسΪһλߣѸȷΪIJԴΪеºڽһ䱾IJʵϣǴģҲԽʥDurkheim 1969:28

ԣִ˲ǽŵξѧ˵һ󣩡Ȩʶ԰Ʒʺҵأ壬֮⣬иε⺭ҼӺݵȳɷ֡14 ʹ˶ԣָڽʽڲͬĻϽʶعҲʽ"ǶԾ˵ij"Ƕ"ͬ"ˣڽ̲ǸΪңselfڽ̣ǸΪߣotherڽ̣˵ǸΪȫ壨allڽ̣˼ϵĵģʽ᳹ʶ
˿Ϳɵ˼뱾Ҳһת䡣Ϳɵ˼볬ԽڰᵥָΪл壬Ѹ򵥵ؿлϸģʽվڵ¸ϣڽ15 ˽ԵĻ֮Ϊ˱еijΪʵĿԣпܽԡǿͿᴩʵ֤塢ԼʵͬʱܺDZŵȻͳڽ̼ʵĹУǿؿͿ̺ŵĵ۵ɫʡļǿ˵ӾпɸкͿ֪ʵԣҲǿ˵ܹԷԣͬʱȷ̫ϵӣMonas monadumĴکձԹ涨ڶ൥ӵֱ仯Ԥгķʽʹÿӵڲ仯໥Ǻϣ1982ˣνڽ̣ζŸ˾ԣҲԤʾڻڸ˵Ŀԣ˵ϵķѧ˵ִĹɺӳҪǣӲбģontic壬ɣgenetic塣

Ȼ˵ͿɵĻҲȫͬЩʵϣҪһҵ⺭ǻִ֮еʷ˵ķ˼֪ԲȻ״̬ѧ˵ܹ͵ģǿ»Ǻڸǽķ˸ѧɺ͸µˣҵɻûһͿɱ˶ϣνĸ˳ݺڽҲdz˵ζѡΪִ㣬�"ʶ"Sapere audeΪ־֪ԵĽţʹ"Լ֮ԼIJ״̬״ָ̬ûԼ֪"1990:22ˣȻѭͿɵ˵ôлŽ̳кͷչĹ֮Уᴩһֻɵľ16 ɵķʹսȻⲻڴˣɲǸ˵ʶ̣־Ȩ֪ļȴϵ涨ġɼһϵ¼һϵиӵʷ̣"ҪΪһ༯Ḷ́ҪһͨĹɸɵ�"μFoucault 1984/1997ΪտµĹ涨ɼǾԵģƶԵģ⺭⺭ڷӺ֮䣬Լ˽ú͹ֳ֮һַḶ́乫öɵģ˽Ƿӡʹ˶ԣͿʼΪԼһߣǺԵɵһԵǰԵ˶пܰ״̬heteronomy״̬autonomyпܰɱһ񻰣Horkheimer & Adorno 1969/1998
ѧѧоҵɽ˼Գﻮ彨壬ôȲڶңalter-egoͬлȷԣҲܴߣotherĹͨлȷԣμSchutz 1962;1967֮DzԵĽǶ⣬νȻ̬ȾDzȷġ˵ճж幹ɱһֿɹյĻһֲܵĿԻںһֳ·ԣ¸ͼҵһȲƽij״ֿ̬ԳΪڵĿԣȫͨԲ֮Եʱ佨""Լе֪μHeidegger 1962:46-66ǰһֳ·ԣΪµѧ˵ΧԶչģ˵һ־ʣethosǣ"̬"limit-attitude̬ͨ廯ҵ棨outsideѰңܽĿԡˣ˵ɹһԾУô

вѰձֵʽṹΪĿĵʵչijЩʷ¼ʷ죬Щ¼ǽΪΪ˼ԼԵʶнڴٳijճΪѧζѧܹ㷺ΪȷĶɵ׷ṩµĶFoucault 1997:8

ʵɵ۲ûͿɵо·ߡΪͿɵ˼뷢չһ۵ͨ¸Ḷ́ԣŽڷţҪȻڽҵ⡣Ҳϣ֧ͿƲִάϵһִҪĿԣͱڳ滯йɶصҼ廯
ͿʶֹͷֻŽᣨijֽǶ˵ŽڱΪ۵ģҵһʹ˶ƣγ˶棨outsidesӶʹһλýҵĻᡣڽ쿴νԵڽ̲һֻ룬ɷϵǣڵĿͨ廯ʽչ


ࣺط֪ʶѧ

ʵϣͿɶִ̽ʼվؼ⣺һǷֻǷܹԼʶְҵΪֳͨʽʵЧƣǷתΪ滯ճǷܹΪϵʵṩԣӶʹڼе⺭λ˸ζѧʵ壬廯ΪճҵʵʹڻһбκʽĿԡʹ˶ԣͿɺ˼ת򣬾мҪ塣ǡԭʼࡷǡڽĻʽԼ׽ɼԴЩᴩһӽǣҪڽʵ۵֣̽Ҫ֪ʶ۵֣̽Ҫʵȷ֤Ҫʵڵľ幹⣻Ҫ�"ƶ˼"Douglas 1986ҪȺͷĸϻй廯ʽȻЩǴͿģⲢڷͿر̺㡣
Ϳ˼һҪ㣬Ҫֲ˼ھֵ֮ۡ϶ǹ淶ƶȻǣʵ⣺ƶν뵽ճж򻥶֮УЩʵΪμȲܼ򵥵ذƶȿʵǿƻҲܰճĹɽ෴ƶǡǡӦñ¼ʽֺ͹ҵķʽ


߼ѧҺѧҿɸɸֶغ͸ӵҪعɵģңֶ塢ƶϺ͹ɵҲɸ֪Եձأǿ԰еĸ¼ʵֳɲͬͣЩ͹ȷб𣬳ΪոԴֹ۵㣬ձѿĵ˵ѧ˵Уڽۻٵ¶ĵѧķ˹ѧ˹ۣܶȵȡȻͿ˵Ⲣ򵥣κη༰䵼ĹɺĸԴʵϣκηȺ໥ĹгֵģȺĻ϶Ը¼ʵƶ԰šˣ಻ܻΪķΧ෴ʵǼ˼루collective thought, Durkheim & Mauss 1969:5
κ໥תκȷиڳȱϯԼʶΪǰ᣻κķȶķ룬κȶͣκηͶϵ̻ͱʶǵԴ屻һϵͳô൱ˣ߼ȼֻȼһ棬֪ʶҲǼķʽѣμNeedham 1969:xi-xiiˣǽʾ˷ϵͳγɵĸԴҲҵ˽ΰšֻβƶ˼17
ͨԭʼͼƶȵоͿָԭʼ岢ж˸ȺԱͼڳݲ޸𡣻仰˵ЩȺԱݵڸϹν˸зˣͼ벿֮ûвԣ෴ʼմ໥ںϵ״̬Уֵͨʽ˼ͬκγԱʸͬлãκƶҪҲͨͬһСʵϣνʶһɲϳıthe flow of representation, Durkheim & Mauss 1969:7Ⱥ֮ĻʣͼڣɷϵͳȷͬһԻԡ֪ʶѧĻԭ
Ϳɿ಻ȷȻȻԵһַҲǿʶĽǶȣǵļֵжϺ͵½ĻЩḳǵģᲢûԴʽǣ෴ֱͨȺͷʽǵĴԲãʹƶȻ˼
1. ˵Ⱥ࣬ôضԼضΧĽ޲ǽĹ۲õġʵϣκʼֵı󣬶Ԥ˼ȶĹϵЩϵ̺ŵȼҲ̺֧ϵҲ˵ÿһַͼʽƶȵȼϵҲƶȵճĹȼϵϵͷúͰţμDurkheim & Mauss 1969:8-9;81Ʃ磬֮ԵϵôͺпܽͬˣͬԿ֮УӶʹ֮佨ơͬȵĹϵ֮ӷʽȷŲԱķʽͬһԵԭϬţͰ໥ӣ죬ôҲܻסǵͷгΪȻࣻͬڲ֮ռ̲ĹϵУҲԭʼΪʲôʨӺ๷֮ܽһ�""""ĹϵʵִУַͼʽҲ洦ɼ18 DzѧпƵ͸¶˵μKuhn 1970;Foucault 1970Ҳڶ"ʱ""Сʲ"Ľ׼зֲԵijɷ֡19
2. Ⱥ߼ȺǺһģȻĸ֮Աֳ֮Ϊ""Ⱥ壬ΪȺ໥䡢֯ʽһ߼֮ճ磬ŰȺʽ߼ɹͳ߼μ¡ 1988:383ˣͼƶУκﶼȻڵʽԳֵģһʼͱ"Ա"֮ĹϵҲͬһϵμDurkheim 1965:462-496˵ȼҲеķȼ߼ȼУ"ṩһײ߼˼άĻ"Durkheim 1965:173
3. ͼʽضŦ߼ϵҲճжĵָmoral significanceͼ飨collective mindԼ壨ͥȺʽֳġͿɵĻ˵ͼʽС֪ԵϵͳţDurkheim & Mauss 1969:86-87ңְžһãУaffectiveЧʶintellectualϵЧǿҵöࡣˣ;ʵԣе֮䲢ûʲôʲֻͨʽıòܳΪɼĺͿ˵ģܳΪճҪءϣʽͳͼʽйأƶȷ루繲ͬ塢һ壩Ҳͨա׼̡ȸʽֵģЩű͹ƶЧ߼20 йڴˣDzͿɶԱ""ԭʼʽmanaμDurkheim 1965УԼĶ԰"糡"the theatre state, μGeertz 1980пҲضԡ辺ķ棬"Ѫʿ"ķŷμStolock 1982зеİء
4. 𷶳Ϊ֣Ⱥĸܲɷ֣Ҳǹ涨֮ʱ䷶Ϳռ䷶Ļ֮ͼʽȿ̻еʵڣrealityҲ̻˹ЩʵڵضҪءͳDurkheim 1965:488ˣͼʽĹɺüԵģֲͨڳֳƽ˵ĶҲŶijͿ̶ȣʱԺͿռԣϣճƶʱհǿģreversible, μ˹Ժո˹[H?gerstrand]ʱѧ[Giddens 1984: ch.1]Լʱо[Husserl 1964:105-110]Ϊҷ˼ṩ˻
ѭͿɵѧ߶Գϵͳճ߼֮Ĺϵ̽֡У˼˼ĸdenkkollectiv, Fleck 1986ڼʶԣ˼ĺ֪⣬"ϰ"learning""knowing⡣ν""ضķͼʽ˼뷽ʽճʵп˵ķʽҲ˵ǡǡǷͼʽ涨˶ԲͬijѡԲͬԼԲͬͼȷԷͼʽۣȴ벻ĹͬɲμԷʽ�"ѧͬ"֮ϵۣKuhn 1981:291ҲϣκθȺ嶼ijַŻ""symbolic 'human being'ѣңʵҲǶصģɲμSchutz 1962:231ff.Ѿͼʽĸ㼶ֿˡͬ˼άʽʵһָͼʽconceptual scheme, Douglas 1986:13dzϵĸ壬ǽƶȹܣinstitutional grip췴֪ʶμDurkheim 1965:462-488ˣ֪Ҫ֮ĸϵǹ̶Ŀ͹ϵǸϵıappearance֮ϵ"ʵ"һֱʵСڼʽУͼʽ仮ĸֹϵȫDZԵģʵھһӦĹϵ
˵˼İţǶᰲţν⣨Fleck 1986:50ʵϣ֪DZһոһյʵday-to-day praxisڼ˼Ľṹκ˼ݺ߼ָԼݺжϣһּʽûȷޣFleck 1979:103ϣԹͷᰲŵĹпãҲͬʱΪ˼жƶ˼߼ʵԼ硣

³Фִָƶʵһ֯ϢķɭҲִ߼֮ΪƷμWilliamson 1975ճϢȫѭŸ˼άϰ趨·μSchotter 1981˵û̫⣬ǿƶȵ˼е̣һʶϢƷȨĶ̬̣Ȼͳ滯̡ǰǹԡԺͱԵģ𽥱Ȼtake for granted, Schutz 1962ᰲţЧself-validatingʽϵͳϵDouglas 1986:48Ҳ˵ԱȻıǩĺԺƺ"Ȼ״̬"Ϊġ
ʵȻ״̬ĪԭʼԷֹʽ˼ͿɶϣԷֹǷֹʽڳʼκ֯ṹԷӳĻ죨μ˼˹ȫ2345Durkheim 1984ֿ漰һ档ʵϣνŲȫȻʵڻΪݵ21 ෴ǡǡԴijϵض֣ԱҲȫϵڲ֮ijԱУŮغͱֳԼȻԣͼʽthe scheme of analogy֮ϡķ1973оȷָԷֹʵʲŮ֮𣬶Թϵ趨һ޴ǡά-˹˹˵Ļμά-˹˹1995:198-220ͱϵͳʵһֶԪࣨdichotomy dual classificationͼʽ磬"Ů/ = /"ʽй"Ů"˵Ů֮䲻ϵȣҲͬᴩ֯ƶԭԱռİģŮռרԼ򣬽޷ȻˣķָŮϵνṹİҲģԭʼҲ"Ů/ = /""Ů/ =ҵģ/Ͻ"ĵʽζԱ쵽ֺ͵ȼֻȥμNeedham 1973˹ҲΪ"/Ů"ǿΪ򵥵ͼʽȴ̵ؿ̻뱱Զ¡ǰʱչʽȼţƶȻȽṹǵʶ֮УDouglas 1986:49-50
ͼʽͼʽԭʼרִճҲ洦ɼйذ졢ͶͶ͹ȸֶԪĻУͬԿƶȺϷ̵ԼͲ͵ȸֹܡ



ص
˵
ԪͼʽУǿԷ֣1.ͼʽڱģᄈڸ֮乹ijԣͬ˵ߣԴ͸ĸ棬ͨתʽĸӹϵ2.ͼʽһıһȨӰɢпɼͿ˵֮ϣԼʹƶȱֳ˺Ϸлķʽճ߼ͨ׶ȴѲ⡣3.ʽȣformal analogiesϰߵijṹͬʱҲ塢ģȳֳ򵥵ġճĿռ䰲ŹϵңͬʱҲתʽռ䰲ţ㣩ȺͳһȷȺֻĸݣɺɣˣͼʽԼ˼Ļָ棨缤뱣صģֵУ뵹˵ģʶ̬۵ĽDzͬģ4.ڶԪϵͳУ򲻽ǽԳŵɵģ䱾ҲʼչᴩŶͶԿԭ֮γ"Ҫ"֮ƶϲҪһԵ߼ͬʱҲҪԵ߼κԶͬų˫ػϡ22
ˣԣsimilarityһƶȣ֮佨˿ԻԼijϵʵڵĶԪDZڵĶλͻ໥ءϣַ֮ǿͿԤڵģΪͼʽǵķ˼жй֪ʶ棬߰˵ƶѾͨͼʽķʽˣμQuine 196923
ƶȻʷԭԭֳʷһֱʽ۵˵ʷϣʷʱļظ͸ƣʱľۼɣճʵ¼ÿϣ䣬ͱЩѾȥĸ¼ν䣬ʼհศɵḶ́ȣַͨͼʽԹȥбϣʹʱӰһճƽϣʹƶȳΪӶseen but unnoticed߼ͬʱڷͼʽתķʽֳʹ߲Ϸס밵ĶԱȺͱ任ΪתͿѡġǰ˹-Ϳɵ˼·ߣŬڽоóĽۡ˹-ָԭʼ˼άIJֶ/Ŀĵ߼һѡԭԽȡìɵĻһ"龭Ϸ绯"μEvans-Pritchard 1956:322ˣ䲢ѧ˵ж˼ķΧڣ෴ؿӡۡȰżҪأҲŲּҪأҪء涨"ʲôʷ""ʷʲôķʽ""˭ڻ"Լ"Ǿܹʲô"⡣

Ϳɼ׷Ǵ֪ʶѧĽǶΪƶ˼ṩⲻζȺͷͼʽеıʽֻƵĹܣ⣬ǻڹҿƺҵõͬʱչһ廯Ϳɵ˵ִķֻͷֹ˸˵ĶԣΪȺȷ˸ְָҵҪǣַֻͷֹҲʹԭеķͼʽ˷ֻͷֽ⣬Ӷȷ˾в̶ͬȵķͼʽŹϵ仰˵Ϊ˷ֻͷֹĶ֯ķչʹԵһλ˸ΪάϵŦˡչǹԵŽҲûȫȫһֻܹܲ͸Ŀƣ෴ԭзͼʽڲ˴۸ӵıֹϵͬʱҲ໥۵ͽIJͬķͼʽִ֮ڽо˵Χŵȵʵڻֵ齨ģһؽ硣24
ˣִһʹὨƺһ˶ؿԡǷ֣˼߶ԪصͼʽУҲأ硶·סðͺʮաСũķμ˼˹ȫ8:117-227ͬ϶"Ʒζ"tasteԴʱڽ׼̬ĻҲԴһǶ˵ʷ¼ʵᴩŶôӵķ߼μBourdieu 1979ˣҲڽɫλͽɫţԼ뼯Ϻͷͻȸճʵ֪ʶпᴩIJǴĿ̰ģʽΪҪǣΪdzģȻصȴڲ̶ͬȵԺ;֮佨˸ӹϵԸַͼʽ֮侭ִλ©ʹҵƩֽɫͼʽ໥໥໥ӵԼʱհŹֵĸӾ棨Ʃֽɫͼʽڲͬʱڡͬ򡢲ͬ龳̺IJԺżȻԣӶʹת˿ԣΪ廯ʽṩ˿ɹ̳Ŀ϶μDeleuze 1986ԹߺͿɼ֮ϵۣ
ˣҵҼִһֱȻҲһ־⺭żȻͿԡⲻԹΪ֪ԸãͬʱҲΪֻгΪ廯ʽṩһֲܵĿԣṩһ档ֻ֮ΪҼԼַͼʽ֮µѷ϶ܼȻԻֹһѡ볬ѡڱ볨Ĺ켣


̵ܽ

dzϣ쵱ٴͿΪľ˼ǵʱǵ˼ѾԭòˡҲͲν"ԭò"ΪЩ˼ҵȻDZǵʵ֮УøСʵϣͿȻһڵǰᣬôѧͲϵĿѧȻǻûн͸֮ĵ½⣬ôҲǼϵнضѡȻⲻ˵Ϳɵûġ෴Ϳиܵ˴ζѧѧ˼תתĻһִת䣨ȻDzܵʱĽǶһ⣩ˣͿ֮Ԥ籾Ϳɸǣ£ִ᲻̺űȻԵĿƣ̺ǰδеĿԣңֿԲΧԭϵڽ̺Ϳѧչģһʽ˵ĵʵߺͽִ֮μBauman 1987һ⣺Ƿ廯ԵĿʽճһڵոʽأ
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עͣ
1.Ϳɶԣanomie˵ϾͿ԰۳ֳ֮anomieеۻУвĺ塣anomieԴڷͷ"a-"Ǵзǰ׺ʸ"nomos""""淶""ԭ"""""Ⱥ塣ˣӢ۽͵Ͼnormlessnesslawlessnessʧĺ塣ʵϣʧnormlessnessͻܴ©ΪǾԴanomieһֱݵϣĵanomoisôɱֽΪ"an""hormoies"""inhumanness""impiety""injustice˼вͻҵ˼ˣ"ԭ"˵˳淶ϵĺ塣ѧָa-nomos÷ǼΪģڹϣѧڽѧѧԼѧIJͬŲ̺ͬOrru 1987godlessness, sin, sacrilege, normative breakdownindividual derangementȺ壨Passas 1995:91""ȫʧˣBesnard 1988
2.ʵ壨social body뷨ʮ׼ȷȣbodyͿɳѧȵζƥ֯ܡٺϸȸͬʹãȻҲֳ˳ԽѿԪ۵ͿᲢų巽⺭ڡڽĻʽпؿһ㡣Ҳܽsocial body˵ѧthe sociology of body ѧembodied sociologyȫͬ
3.Ϳɵѧ壨sociologismкܶεĺ塣ȣѧζѧһŶѧƣԼо󣬼ʵΣ᲻һԴҲһֱʣڸ岢壬ȵλȻͿɵۻ봫ͳʵۺͱкܴIJDurkheim 1950˵ǾĺϵģǽʽʽֳģμDurkheim 1965ԭʼڽʽۣյĹޣĿģų˴⾭ϵϵ
4.Ӧע⵽Ϳɵۣmaterialism͹ۣidealismΪ˸׼ȷذĻ壬ҲΨΨ婤˫ֵ̬ģͿ"߻ǹߣͷ϶ȷΨһܽܵijƺ"Durkheim 1950;P.xxxix¬˹ɽΪͿ᾿Ϊһ̬ṹΪһּʶʼպܲʡڵͿɱȽǿṹ棬˵۵IJ棬Ƚǿʶ棬˵ǹۺ־۵IJ棨Lukes 1985; Alexander 1978˹ΪṹͼʶĹϵȽ֮ĹϵGiddens 1971
5.ʹ˵˹ΤѾڶԼֵжϺͼֵ˵ʮˡִԵķΧУ"ϵ""ħ"֮𲢲Ǿϵ 1998/1951Ǹֹͼֵ໥�"죬һʶһ֮ΪʥΪΨ䲻Ϊʥһ֮ΪΪ֮Ψв֮Ϊһ֮Ϊ棬ΪʥΨΪʥƣɳΪ"Weber 1947:147ff.; IJμչѫ 1988:255ǡǡڹϵ̮֮ʣ""۶λͿѵʶһ㣬ԭʼڽ̵ĻҲͳͳΪᣬΪḳϺ˾ηDurkheim 1965;¡ 1988/1967
6.ֵעǣֻһֱ˵ǰ˵һµijʽе幹ɡԼ䷽ʽԭϵڽȫͬ˵һֳĻ"ε"ڽ̣μ¬ 1995˵ڽ̡
7.μ˺ĬȻƷͶʹۣ˺Ĭ1998:1-31
8.Dzζѧ˼ϵĸתҲζͿѧdzԽµŬĻǰ˹Ǹdz˷ѧңЩйɫʵ˼ǶϣǵУʼDZһԤ۵ǰᣬΪյĸݡ
9.ʧ⣬ۼҶвͬͽ͡FentonΪڻ̲ȻγɵģˣʧģFenton 1984¬˹ΪʧȱϯĿѷĽʧûԼĿ꣨Lukes 1985˹ΪͿɵ۶ʧ/淶컯/ϵĶԪGiddens 1971
10.""Ĺ˼ķչһͳȻΪոݵʱҲճĺ壻仰˵ֻճõȵǰ£пѺ͸ڡ˹ƪͼ""ո֮ڵһ""ĿںţԼٵμͼ˹ƪijֽǶ˵""ζų""˵ָͳԵָų󣩣ںڸġѧҲԿй"ȫ"⣨ڸ1979:12
ʵϣ""ִ˼лΪԴֱ۵ȣرڵ¹ѧͳؿȡ򡣳˵Ҷ̩֮⣬׵¡ΤĻۣĵ¶־ͼֵۣķʶ̬ʽ֮ϵۣԼյ֪ʶѧڼǿʶ"ṹ"ͽ͡ҲԷ֣""ĹֻճSchutz 1967:10ff.
11.FentonMestrovicǿͿɵĸΪͿν"˸"""ȸж͹ϵĸFenton with Reiner & Hamnett 1984; Mestrovic 1988˹ΪͿɵĸֻ䱾ϵıȻΪͿɿеìܡƫģHirst 1975
12.ķcategorical imperatives־۵⺭֪ʶ۵⺭룩ںߣɲμĵ֡
13.˼ҲϣٳٲϷʱۡĺΪ޷ؽƷͨеĽ⡣
14.ǿԿͳϵĹͻ֮໥"ͻ"Դ߶"ƫ"ⲻͬͿΪνƫ᱾ʶԵģ˼վԭ۵Ϊ³ν"ԭӵƫб˶"ʵǾܶԺԵʶ˶"ʵ""ʶ"ķѣһСͽŵ⺭μ˼˹ȫ40209-243ҳ
15.ע⣬Բָ˵ϵ""ָǸ˶ԵԾͶԵĽǼ򵥵˵"Ϊ"
16.úڸĻ˵"ʶԷ̬ԴʶľԱ"ˣӿ϶ӷ񶨵˾ԵɺͿֲڸ1979:79-123
17.ʵԷ༰Ϊı֣representationĿ죬ڸҲһκ˼Ĺ¡³ϣġ֪ʶѧĶ˹ʱЦ"ЦһΪ֪˼룬˼̱"˹Ԯij"йٿȫ"жԶķࣺ1.ڻʵ۵ģ2.ģ3.ѱģ4.5.ܶ6.˵еģ7.·Ĺ8.зеģ9.ģ10.ģ11.Ưβ͵ģ12.࣬13.մˮ޵ģ14.ԶӬģתFoucault 1970Ϊֱַһ漣Ծʽͨ˼ϵͳʾ˼Ľޡķʽ˵¼⣺1.ڲͬ˼ϵͳ໥УǷ˼ĽޣͬʱҲԲȥ˼ֽޣض˼ٵIJԣ2.κ˼ϵͳɱشʱ͵ӡǸضĹ淶ɡ涨Լ˼Ŀԣ3.κ˼ϵͳȻı棬ŷijɷ֣ҺʹݻйͬһͲֲַ֣񶨵ĿԣμFoucault 1970
18.ͿҲָǴӿѧʷĽǶԽԽΪ巴˼˸Ŀռ䣬ⲢζŷдĿ͹ʣ෴DZ뿴ЭȼȺϰľ޴ãֱǵ"""˵"ءף಻ǿ͹ԵģDZԵģμDurkheim & Mauss 1969:88
19.ͼڳݻƶΪķͼʽȫнṹ⺭μά˹˹ 1995
20.ÿ˵Ҳ԰ַͼʽʽһʾƣexemplar mechanics¼ͳ˶ԱʸҲԱչʾ˸Ȩϵķμ1985:279-286;Polanyi 1967
21.Ǹ˵"ʵڵΣ"μFleck 1986:47-58
22.ٵӲûȷijճгӡ
23.˹ָƶȲǵµʵйأ뼯Ҳŷdzܵϵͼʽͼʽ͸ʱĽУͨữsocializationʽʷȥ¼תһճضڲ졣Ȼ˹ֹ۵ܵ˰˹-º͹ߺյӰ죨μDouglas 1980ǰڶŬڽ̵ȷϵͳ䣨systematic remembering, Evans-Pritchard 1956ĸ򿪴˼䣨collective memory, Halbwachs 1992оȺӡͨΪͿѧɵ洫ӡ
24.ľָɶصfinite province of meaningɵģÿ򶼾ص˼ʵ֮䲢ܽȷ幹ҲܽЧĻԭֻоһ־㵣shockܳĽޣһʵ֮accent of realityˣͼʽɵ˼ĺ⺭ǣ1. ضǹעг̶йأ2. ضãepochɵֹжϣ3. ضʽĹɲž㵵ĻɣΪĻ4. ضʱӽ磬ձʱĽγɵı׼ʱ䣨μSchutz 1962:209ff.