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ϴѧʦѧԺ100011

ժ Ҫĸᷢչвͬʡú͵λỮΪĹɲ֣ǵ໥ϵõĹϵнʾᷢչڵĿ͹۱ȻԨDDɣʵܵĹԨDDɣ֤ɵı֤ͳһ

ؼʣṹɣɣɣɡ

˼ΪȻʷ̣ķչв˵־ΪתƵĿ͹۹ԡʮȫָҪйʵʲ̽ѭִɡ彨ɺᷢչɡΪĹУᷢչɾлԺ͸ãᷢչϵУں۲ͺλõ־лԺ͸á˵ʶɣʶյִɡ彨ɺᷢչɵһť˼Ϊʶṩǿ˼Ҫֽ˼룬ʵǣʱȡϿ۷չ¾磬ΪгŬ̽һ񣬱ԶһЩ̽֡
һɷ

ɲ֮ڵġʵġȻϵᷢչĹ켣ͷչܵơѧʶɣȾҪѧطĻɣʶضʡúеĵλ

ɺͷչ߼ԽῴɵľϵͳϵͳԵ״̬Լ֮Ĺϵ״̬ͷչơ

һ̬ϵͳ

̬ӰͷչĸȻ˹Ȼܺ͡򻷾40ݻ֧࣬ᷢչ˹˵˱ȻIJǵĻвҺһչġ[1]̬뷢չԴʻ

̬ʵĶԡԡϵͳƽԡṹԵÿԴ΢ۺͺ⡣΢ϣΪΪȺṩȻˮȡϣһΪķչṩȻԴһɺ;ᷢչųķʡ̬ļҪԶ׼ģõġεġĵⶼͨʵһʱڽӰҲԶ̬ΣԴݽߵֱӶҡ

ȥ۽һ㽫̬Ϊⲿֹ۵ʧƫġʵϣĿǰϲӰġȻѲˡ̬᲻ɷָһ֣ͷչһȻʷ̵߼㣬ΪǴģҲֻܴδ

Ⱥϵͳ

ҪأᾭáΡĻʵΪеġ˼ָ˱ԼĻҲеĸĻ[2]ͬʱ˵ͷչҪᷢչıԴ˼ᷢչɹߣᷢչijߡɼǷչĶʵ壬ͬʱǺᷢչճ߶ȡ˽ȺϵͳΪIJ֮һоͶԴʮֱҪġ

ȺϵͳΪҪأ˼ͥᱣϡҽƵϵͳ

ɺͷչ߼ϿȺϵͳȾáΡĻϵͳӴлԺ͸ԡͨ˵⣬˿⡢ṫƽ⡢ȫԼȺ¼ȵȣdzһϵͳ⣬ǶӰáΡĻøֱӡǿҡ2003ֵġǵ䡱ǶȺϵͳһֱӵԴ

ȺϵͳʱȽϸӣݹ㷺ϵӣĿǰоܲ֡

ᾭϵͳ

ᾭϵͳҲᾭýṹʽܺͣϵ档˼ָijе߶ȻĹϵԼ໥֮ĹϵǽĸֹϵܺͣǴᾭýṹᡣ[3]

ϵͳΪṩʲƷںͷչҪģԼ;Ḷ́ľûʽԾ͸أˮƽϵʡͨΪоᷢչԿס

˼ʽȷģǶԴҪ֤⡣ᷢչĹؼأķҲ֪ƾղģ̬Ⱥϵͳǰ󷢶ҪװҪԴάתһᷢչʵ֤ں̬⣬õķDz־õġ

ģϵͳ

ϵͳǽھû֮ϵηƶԼӡ˾ʩϵϲ㽨Ҫ֡Ȩϵͳĺģڽ׼ϵͳǽ׼ͳεĹߣϵͳĹ֯쵼͵Ϊȫ־ûϲ㽨ϵͳһͻϵͳǿĸԤá

壩Ļϵͳ

Ļй֣֮Ļϵͳָᾫ̺ɴγɵϵη˼롢¡ѧѧڽ̡ѧȷо̽ԼѧоĻڽ̡ų桢ȲϵĻϵͳһҪڶȻ˱治ϵ˼ܽ̽γضʶ̬ʹɴӰµķչһIJϽ

ӳڿھʶΪʵĻϵͳڵԼ;ĻϵͳʵǿӰáΡ̬򣬶޲̵شĻӡ

ͬʺ͹ܽỮΪϵͳҪ͹̡Ҫ˵ǣһ۵ij󣬴һԡʵл壬ϵͳ໥ͬʱ໥ϵ໥͸޷ȻֿȺϵͳеˣǾϵͳϵͳҪأĻҪ塣

ᷢչĸ

˼ΪᷢչĸڲìԣڲĶͳһϵϵͳضʡԼ໥ĹϵϿ֮һֱȻԹϵͨ˵ıʵġȻϵ

̬ݻγĻŲ࣬ʹȺϵͳγɳΪܣҪ淢չҪȻγһˮƽӦϵγᾭϵͳûڵҪһӦϵͳͱϣϵͳʹ̻ϲ֮Ӧḷ̌Ļϵͳˡ

ԿϵͳǴ°̬ȺϵͳϵͳϵͳĻϵͳ˳ɺ;ģ߼ϵӳɺͷչ̵ıȻϵֱȻϵʺĹ涨ԣ̬ʾ˵״̬Ϲ涨˿ģ̬涨ԴͻϹ涨˾÷չģ˵Ǿ÷չĶ˿ڵԼõ͹ģϵͳʾϵͳʣõĹģҲӰϵͳģᾭúεʾĻʣĹģҲԼĻϵͳĹģ

ϵͳ໥ϵаһıȻԹϵʺξʣᷢչĸɡӳᷢչڵĸƣᷢչԺܵơҪ˵ǣл壬ϵͳ֮Ҳзãֶͳһϵб仯ͷչġǴɺͷչıϿֱȻԹϵռģǸԵģϵͳ֮ķҲֱȻԹϵԼġ

Ȼ粻ͬ˵ԾܶʱӰ̣˵ķչ಻ϵѡ;ߵḶ́ʵҲضڵıȻϵɡɵĻȻϵͳ֮ϵʱϵͳõġɵġģѭĻϵͳϵͳϵͳȺϵͳ̬ϵͳ߼˳ʾɵĻϵͳķùϵ

ʵǵ˼Ϳѧ֪ʶָģȻʷij߶Ƚǵȷ˼֪ʶԴʵ͵¾ʵԣϾڼȶ˼ͿƼ֪ʶָ½еġָ˵ʶӳ͹磬Ҵ͹硣[4]дˡûи,Ͳи˶[5]ԡˣʵӦĻϵͳȻʶ̶ֱӰʵĻϵͳʵꡣ

˶ᷢչʶֻͨϵͳϵͳ̵ĵڶڣڼҪλáκν׼Ѷȡ͹ȨΪԼҪ ϵͳҪͳν׼ȡòȨӦԥذʩķھý߼Ȼϵͳڵϣġ

ʵĹޣʵ߼ȺϵͳǰڵĿĵأּﲻ˵ķչģʽֻ˵ķչģʽDzģҲDzܳ־õġ

벻򻷾̨ᷢչԴ⡣̬һϵͳ̬ĽҲһϵͳŬԴ֮һ̬ʶֶΣھϵͳȺϵͳѭáзƹԴ˿ıģʽȵȣĿɳչղܹʷ̡ ҪָǣɽʾֻʵڵܵҪʵʵϵͳ֮ĹϵǼ򵥵Թϵ໥á໥ӰлϵǡǡлϵֳĿ͹۱ȻҪ

ġɺɵı֤ͳһ DZ֤ͳһĹϵͳһᷢչܵĹУ涨Ļʺͷչơеκһ޷ãһлϵͳһ벻ɣǺģġֻΧɲܷӦеãʵǺЧġͳԴ֮ˮޱ֮ľڶҲ벻ɡֻᷢչеĿ͹ҪҪÿѧ;ȥʶղԴΪȥᣬʹԼļֵõʵ֣ѧ;ɡɸǣ̵߼ڶʶĻϵͳԳͷ١ʮһȫǰֵ˼˶ҹĸ↑ź̵ִӰͺܺõ֤һ㡣 ɵı֤ͳһʾᷢչ໥ϵķ͹̵ıʣֻдһ֤ͳһϵвȫ̵ذᷢչĻԭȷָʵ˱߽ɵı֤ͳһΪɡ ɵʶۺʵϵ塣һ϶ɵIJɵIJΪɵȫҪȫḻطӳᷢչڲĿ͹ҪͬʱʾʵӦѭĹԣᷢչĿ͹۱ȻݣҲһܶݣǿѧʶᣬǿѧ᣻˱֤ʷۣҲΨѡۡڶΪɵҪݣͻ˼ʵʹʵĽϸӽܡɵӵΪʲôͬ£ͬҡ塢չںܴһʷΪоṩµӵ㡣
塢ɵļʾ

һֿѧ巢չ

ķչǸϵͳݽ̣ijһϵͳƬķչⲢųijһϵͳᷢչģֵһϵش֤һ㡣ҪǼȫ桢ۺͿɳЭչ֮·ȫ桱ָҪעлĽ裬Ҫ߶ȵҪ߶ȵָ̬ۡעϵͳڲķչҪע۲漴ϵͳ֮ЭչָעǰķչҪעij÷չһ쵳ݽ겵˿ѧչۺ͹г˼룬ɶҹķչشʵԶʷ塣

ӶʵԵо

ʵŹԣҪʵԼ߼ǰĻϵͳϵͳǶʵӰֱӡˣҷչĺûҪؾͿ˼ĻǷ٣ƼͽǷ񷢴ƶǷơɼӰ˥ҵһؼأɲ졣

־ѡ۵ͳһڱȻп

ǻĹ淶Ľ֪ϵͳжʺĹ涨ԣΪѡṩ˹ռ䡣ҪַԾܶԣ޶ȵŻᷢչĽ̡ȻԴԣҪھͳԴDZҪµԴзƹ㣻ȺϵͳԣҪ˿һ˿ڴתΪԴ;öԣֻղͬƺ͹ȽĹģʽŵ㣬߳·ӣԣȡִͬƶȵľܽ߶ȵ˼Ļ,ֻбżݲĿؽ󣬲ڲͬĻײѡʵлĻΰˣ˵ȵȡ

οף

[1]˼˹ȫ201971棬3839ҳ

[2]˼˹ȫ261ᣬ1972꣬300ҳ

[3]˼˹ȫ251974棬925ҳ

[4]ȫ55磬1990棬182ҳ

[5]ѡ1磬1995棬311ҳ

The Exploration on the Basic Rules of the Society
QI Aiping
(Teachers College of Beijing Union University, Beijing 100011, China)

Abstract: The author in this article partitions the society into five basic components based on the nature, function and social status. From the views of their interconnection and interaction, he opens out the impersonal inevitability of the social development, i.e. the fundamental rules of the society , and the overall rules of the social practice, i.e. the rules on the social government, and then comes to the conclusion that the basic rules of the society are the dialectical unity of the fundamental rules and the social governing rules.

Key words: constitution of the society, fundamental rules, governing rules, basic rules

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