ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 

г뷨

Ǯӱһ



ԭرƱȽϡ־20003 лǮӱһȨ

Ǯӱһ


һԣζԾ÷չӰ


Ρ(rule of law) һͨһ˵ġ뷨Ρѷһͬгһг뷨ΡִгмΪеĹǾѧûжԴоκһ־ƶһضйؾûϷ (rule of game)ִгΪһƵĸϷǻڷεĹڱнζԾ÷չ;Чٽáڷִ÷չйϵβǷרҲӦǾѧңرƶȾѧңҪоͬʱҲӦܵйעʹ¾÷չ;øĸǵӡ


ҹ1979ĸ↑øĸͷչȡ˾ϵľ޴ɾ͡ڽ2000Ľ죬ҹľƸĸͷչһ̨׵ʱ򡣼ó֯ʾýӹһҪ衣ǽغķչչڵصһսԾٴ롣ҪһÿţҪѹڵƸĸһ½׶ΡҪȫгƵת죬2010Զ滮δ10ڳɹ淶гơһ漰ҵ˰ڡóᱣϡгͨȶ෽棬Ҫҳһ١ĻôٱǷΡǽִгƵƶȻ


ʮĴˡгáΪתĿꡣʮֽһˡǹƾгõҪɲ֡͡ιĿǰΪֹѧֻעгƵĹȴδог뷨εϵӹɣǺҪǣǸΪεƶ⡣ִгԶҵΪɽ׾ãDzᡰά֡self-sustainedġҽִгΪһЧƵǷΣͨΪгṩƶȱϵġεĵһԼԼԾûԤεĵڶԼΪаȨ綨ͱͬͷɵִУƽУάгͨҪڲֱӸԤõǰԾýеĽɫֺ֧гáûзεΪƶȱϣȨӸ˵DzȫģҵгγɾЧõķչҲǿɳġ


ɺͷζԾ÷չ;תӰڳΪѧرƶȾѧоǰءȥƶȾѧڷɺͷζԾõӰ졣ȻṩһЩܺõ뷨ȱ۷ܺϵͳľ֤(empirical evidence)ѧӰޡЩ۷ھʵ֤окܴͻơ۷棬ѧòۡͬۡϢѧȷ߶ԷɺͷζԾ÷չ˱Ƚ׼ȷIJѧӹķھ֤ݷ棬ѧҲѾضоͬϵͬ͵Ĺ˾֤ȯͶԽڼгĹ(regulation)Թ˾ʡ˾ṹ֤ȯгչСҵչԼ徭Ӱ졣۷;֤ݵĽ󶼱κʵĹھ÷չ෴ȱκ͡ȹơ(excessive regulation) ϢûͷгҪԭ


Щоȡչһ۷;֤ݶ廯ˣ˷ľɵоʽΪԼͬɹ涨Ϊβͬȡ;˵ͼȵ漯ŵӰ죬ҲĻʷءеϵѧеĹɴ˲Ҳϵͳͨѧķ顣ǷȥоijЩƶرиεķκͷءת쾭УȨIJȫʱгȱݶҵչ谭ֱûзεı£гѳڳ־õرɿšչЩоѧйסȤǣһоǴת쾭ܵȻ굽չкͷҡΪת쾭йڷκͷɶҵ徭÷չӰͻҲܹע

ĿǰҹȻгáһʿ˵ѾģǻԶ˵ѾȽ׼ȷȫΪһ־Ƶгá෴Ϊǧ괫ͳСũõʶڵļƻʵԼһЩѧҶгõķȫڹͣǶִгƻڲ⡣һ£ʶг뷨εĹϵDZȽ׼ȷȫ̵ִгƵĹؼһ


ͳгִг


гõǷɢľþ߸г۸ԴáгΪһƣ¶ʹڼƻ֮ǰгֿɷΪ࣬ͳгúִгá෢չ൱ʱڣǴͳгãִгʷϵشͻơʹڱúν¾áƶԣִгõ


ͳгõص㲻ǾӪģСƶȾѧĽǶȿƶص㡣һڴͳгУʵ֮Ľ׶Ϊֻгס (spot market transaction)һֽǮһֻֽг׵ʵҪνͬ (implicit contract)ִҪ˫ (reputation) ǵҡִͳУ˽֮ĺζԽ׳ɰҪûСУ֡˸񻯽ס(personalized transaction)ijɱܵ͡һ˻Ȧӣ͹ϵ׵ijɱںཻܶ޷ʵ֣ҵгĹģ˸񻯵Ľ׷ʽкܴľԡ

ͳгõĵڶصǶԾ˺Ȩԣ()ƶȵԼ磬˰֣˰ʡֱԤûƽס͵¾ʵIJȨòƶȱϴӶַȻڴͳгУΪȫԼġܵԼ磬ϢͽͨԼضڲ̶ͬԤõǵֻǿάִ±ʱͻᶯҡȨȹ̡һƶԼԼĿǡرǵгִԤʱôǰԾõĿɿԻȡڵ档ڶЧޣΪִ޵IJȷԺܴ󣬶ִ߲һˣ߲ߺ͵طԱڶϲȫһ¡


ִг봫ͳг˵涼бϵIJ𡣵һȻֻ׺˸񻯽Ȼ൱ķΧڽУ˸񻯽ס(impersonal transaction)ΪҪĽ׷ʽֽ˫һϤԷʶԷ˽˫ζɽвͨġҪ(ͨ)ƽִкͬڶȻ뾭Ȼأ뾭˵Ĺϵش仯ʹ뾭õĹϵˡ־͡(arms length type)ྭʷѧңŵ˹(North)ɭ(Rosenberg)ڹڶԾ˵Ĺϵϴֵ־һת䡣֪һҪʷ¼1688ӢٸʱӢʼҵIJ;ȨʼλᲢ˳ҵִгƵԴ

ε㾭ú


ִгƲͬڴͳгƵƶȻʲôأһǷΡȻεĺܹ㣬ԶԶ÷롣編κйαҲжĵ¼ֵƽȡ͹ﲻЩ⣬Ǽ۷ִгжԾ÷չ;ЧʵáΪԣ㾭ú塣εĵһԼԼԾûԤεĵڶԼΪаȨ綨ͱͬͷɵִУƽУάгͨҪڲֱӸԤõԾýеĽɫ˵εĵһζŷɹ(deregulation)ĻôڶζijЩơͨεãִƶȷ뾭(ҵ)֮ı־͹ϵִ÷չлд£ֿɳƶȻ


εĵһԼǡԷι(rule by law)롰ι(rule of law) ĸڡھڣԷιͨʽҵ͸ˡԷιĸйͳĻʹڡսĩڵķҾ÷գDzԼʵ۵ġڵιеҪһϰտͨԼΪɿԼΪʱʵоȨԡ֮ΪܷԼҵƶȺɽ׾ûиıϣôִгõĻͲˡ

þѧΪʲôԼԾ÷չҪһȨȻĴҵˣΪиϰûеֶΣ˰ʹþ;ӡڶһȨԾԤƣշֻһԵԤΪûмͶʣŤͶʣ϶̡ƽĿȥ¸ԱԻȡԤļ١͹ɶԾ÷չϰԴΪԼ£Ծ˵ijŵ(commitment)ò(not credible)ͨϰĵġ߶䡱ھѧ֮Ϊġųŵ⡱ʵϣһ֡˫䡱档Ϊڼ½òչ˰˼ٶԼҲ档


ͨԼΪԴﵽġųŵ(credible commitment)ɡ˫Ӯ֡߼϶з෴һܵԼܶԾԤ磬շѣҲƾûҲԳϦġڶԤڵȶ߻ҵͻԵطͶʡھлԲɴ˲ľû棬ҲԴȡ˰˫Ӯġе˰ʷ˰ܶﲢǼ򵥵˰⣬ijŵ벻ŵ⡣߶Ծ˼ȸ߶ȶ˰Ҫصöࡣ

ϵķǿһ֡ȨۡȨԽԽأʹŵòšϰղŵʱǾûĻԣշʹ𡣷ͨȨԼΪͻʹijŵÿšϰջϰ棬Ҳ档ⲻ߼ƵĽҲʷ֤ݿѰӢĹٸ˻ʼ˰ȨȨתᣬںӢսУӢͨйծѣΪĻծŵǿˡ뼯Ȩķȴû㣬ΪͶ߲䲻Լŵ


εĵڶԼΪҪշɷֺ֧гáΪ˴ﵽĿģھý˫Ӧ䵱ƫĵĽɫþѧķǻ⵽εĵڶҪԡ˵ΪԼΪ˻һǻº󡰻塱뾡취ռ˵ıˡҲԵģ֪º󲻸Ǯ򲻽򽻴ƷȾͲͬˣͬ⡣Ǿ֮ġųŵ⡣ǡ˫䡱档ھûУҵ͸׷ЧõΪҪΪḣ;Чʣͱȷ涨ȨȨִкִͬзɣάֵعгòеȵȡͨЩã˫ԼԼľΪﵽųŵ조˫ӮƺһۣһɵгҪ

ڷεĵڶֺ֧гݺͳ̶ȣѧвͬĿΪܵԽԽãҲΪҪܵĿһЩ۲û壬Ϊ˾廯Ұѧ۵ĹάгݷΪࡣһģоѧҹϵݡȨȨִкͬͨ˵ġҹˡáڶǽģѧϿɵ(ԭ)ijЩɺ͹Ʊ練¢ϷһЩ彡ȫͻгڻ˾ṹйصĹơȻȽϼ˵ɾѧҷЩĸԤѧΪЩʵĹƵôڸԤijɱǺݡԼ۸񣨷⡢ʡɼۡʵȣĹƣó׵ƣбIJҵߣȵȡ֮飬Ϊûгֵ֤֤ЩԤԾ÷չԵã为(гŤѰ⡢)ʮԡˣΪԵһԷӻáڵ࣬ӦΪءκγ֮гƶӦΪȡ


гϣʾֵǽطֱ𿴲ƷгʱгͶгڲƷг˵ĽȫͻйصĹ⣬ĿǰĹǷɹơеķǽڹ˾ǼעᣬԽԽáֱܶԭƵIJҵš񺽡ȵȶٱˡʱгܷͬҾʵʱĿ»ҿɶһǶԽڻгĹȴ൱࣬Ϣ¶ծչƵȵȡڲƷʱгĹϣҴͬС졣Ͷгͬŷ޹йĹơҲΪʲôͶгͨԽϺãʹľýṹΪѸ٣ŷ޽ΪͶгʧҵʽϸߣ侭ýṹҲ

Ҫָǣεĵһ͵ڶ֮лϵεĵڶԵһΪǰġҲ˵ֻеΪܵԼ뾭ñһʱſܳΪƫĵֺ֧гЧЩ˷ĸԤãΪǾɷεгģΪΪڵεĵһòܱʱ(Լʱ)ԤгʱȨгЧʡȻгҪܵԼ(ⶨʲôDzҲָʲôûҪ)ԷֹȹơȻεĵһ(Լ)͵ڶ(Լ)ֲһ򵥵Ĺϵʵϣ֮䳣ìܣһ棬ȨȥԼȨһ棬Լֺֿܻ֧гĻá¼˹(Weingast)ΪġƵĸ⡱(the fundamental dilemma of an economic system)


ġ˫˾Ƶط


һڣиӵһ档κһɱʵеطԷȨԷӵطĻԡˣβҵ͸˵Ĺϵ⣬漰֮Ĺϵ⣬߶ԾõķչشӰ졣һͻǵط塣طͨطִ˾Ϊطͨƫ򱾵ߺߡôνأһƶȰ˫(two-tier)˾֯ơ


˫˾һͻӡڵطһϣݶԼһ˾ϵݲڸ˾ϵ֮˾ϵ˾ϵϣԺ(District Court), ߷Ժ(Court of Appeals)ѲطԺ(Circuit Court), ߷Ժ(the Supreme Court)Ժòȫغϣ50ݹԼ90ԺѲطԺǿõģ13(һʮһѲطԺ׶ʢٵѲطԺ)߷ԺֻܷصİͨѲطԺ͸߷ԺߵİپͳֱȫӰ졣


˫˾ƶԴƵطγͳһĹڴг൱áΪҪܷеһڰ˿йڹȨ¹涨ġȨҡݼ֮䣬Լӡذ񡱡һͨΪ(the Commerce Clause)ܷһȨʹȫȨ漰֮ϵ޴Ȩһ߷ԺԹִ᳹УΪͳһĹгķɻ


һ1824Ļ˹(Gibbons)԰¸(Ogden)ѷλŦԼ֮һӡŦԼλŦԼ˸(Fulton)˹(Levingston)¢Ȩ߷ԺþŦԼݵһΥܣΪݣŦԼݵһ谭Сһþõľܷеһ˵úףֻȨ֮


һ1827겼(Brown)(Maryland)ڱ۽ڻ50Ԫ֤ѡ߷ԺþκöԽڵݵĻȡԵķѡһþܷͬе

˫˾ƺܷеԼ߷ԺԴڵĵطóױ˾áӴԺݾӪĹ˾ҲᱻšʹκβƷʱͶȫΧڿԽݵı߽ȷͳһĴгγɡһҲһ˵һִгDzȻγɺάֵģһҪͳһĴг˾ƶȵ֯ʮҪ


ǹȥʮľѵ˵͵طȨϵϣȫȨȫȨھõķչֻгֵ·һȨͬʱֽijЩרȨ룬ŻھõķչڷҲһġ˫˾֯ϵ侭ѧ߼Ȼ˾Ӧط˾Χ漰ط֮ľʱطıԶڣġDzָط(˾)ԼǵȻDZطľ档ÿطʵеط壬ôȫȻܵ𺦡Ƶطֻܿڵطһ˾ǴƵط壬άͳһгһЧƶȰš

塢õг뻵г

20ҹĸĴɼƻгת졣ƻʵѱ֤ʧܵģ֮һ˿ڴ˼ʮľ÷չƶ˾޴Ĵѡִгһʷת䡣ƻעǻľãȴΪгþעǺõľˡʵϣϼкõгãҲлгã߶ǰߡˣһõгãֹһгӦ˼⡣


һгƲͬһõгƵĻԭǹ()뾭(ҵ)ĹϵλԣĸԴûкõ(Ƶ)λǰķε㾭ú壬гõԭжҪԭȨûЧܵɵԼɴ˴һϵϢû⡣ڼִп֧ȨԶԶڴͳУ˲ԼΪҲΪءڵһЩչйҺתΪͻΪܷԼʱź͹ԱַȨ˰ѣ̯ɣԤҵ͸˵ľûʱģȴ˽䲻кܶʱijЩԡ淶г͡ḣΪʵʸѰⲢ¸ܡ۳⻹˽ģԾõԤĽг׳ɱ谭÷չ

гõһԭδܽϺõԼ˵ְжֱ֡δάúȶȨǿ򡰺ֵӶ᣻˺ҵȨʹþЧʵ£ͬ޷Чִк;ײܵõƲ½ΣطȨֲȷܴƵطгָȵȡЩһЩתΪͻת쾭⼸涼ֹ⡣ݿ֤ȯгչIJɹһӡ


Ҫ˵ǣʵûһгáǣһõгòһгáʹڷңҲѰ͹ȹҲ⡣ǽһʮڷɹƣкתֱ磬ƲҲʹΣзܵ˵ҵгǽڽΪƵķλϵġչкתҵķνнΪ󡣵ҲһŶۡҹرһڷεгõͻ䷶䷨Ƴ̶ܶ෢ҡֱһЩҺ͵νչϿ죬ʹþ÷չѸ٣ǰǵIJٹҺ͵ҲŷһЩת粨

ǾдڵʱбҪ⡣һͨγɵķ֡ѧҺ;ѧͨȽֻϵӢϵϵ¹ϵͱŷϵӢϵҪֶdzķϵҹķܵ¹ϵӰ϶࣬ڲپ÷ڸܵӢϵӰ졣ͬϵеķɹ涨(ԲȨ͹˾ṹ)Ծ÷չвͬӰ졣һЩѧҷӢϵӰΪ棬ϵΪ棬¹ͱŷϵм䡣ʹͬһϵУͬҵľ巨ɺִIJҲܴǶԾ÷չӰIJҲС


εһִ˾رڷչйңִ˾IJдıϵķɵIJԾõӰΪִ˾ѡԭϽһҵķɿԼ򵥵ճ(Դ)ִ˾һˡԴ⡣졢쳤ʦͷDzܴӹڵ(һ)һҪ൱ʱ˲šִ⡣ִȲֻץܸ㲻ɳġ顱ʽġ˶ʽִǿִִܷԼʵ֣ȻDz׵ġ˾⡣ִоҲжʧҲijЩԱͼΪΪ˾Ӧͨɳߺź͹ԱȨѵġĻһ֡ǷȡǶԱǷ񷨵֪ڡҪʹȫǶԷĽҪ൱ʱ䡣

ϵķҪƷԽõгãִ˾ѶҪöࡣҹչ൱죬֮£ִ˾͸ͻˡִر˾ĸĸǷνеĹؼҲͳΪһõгõĹؼ


÷ӽǷҹǰĸ


Ӧǰҹǰٵļʵ⡣ҴӷͬһӽĸͬеӣɴһЩ


һӣԲƷͶгĹȹӦ١


һЩŴš淶ţ㡰ǿơӴгȡ¹涨֤֡ϸ֤͡ʸ϶顱ȵȡǵƱƱҵȯѾʷݣҲǿʼռ֤ϸ֤ʱˡЩ֤DZҪ⣬ڷηչгõľΥġԾټijֱͨӦ˿棬෴ȴֱ׳ֶͨθ۸¢ϾܾۣȺǿҲֱ磬ٳΪũǣϰ֤֡ݱijаѲڱйҵϰٸùݷҵٱ磬һЩƼź͵طڸ߿Ƽڸ߿Ƽ϶˵ijһӦű϶Ϊ߿ƼڡȵĹ¡(ƱȽϡ20001)дǴĺDz˹¶òǰ䷢Ĺʦ֤飬ΪǴѧѧѧƻҲᱻǵרΪ߿ƼƷΪڵʱߣ


ǵijЩɺһЩŶӪСҵӪҵעϰҹ˶ҵ͡ϻҵעʱûҪ˱ΪһԪǮעʱҵҪеΣǽҵ;ӪķΧȻܵơӹʾι˾СҵΪ㷺õ֯ʽǵι˾ҪעʱΪ3050Ԫȫ֮СѧҶʮҵıȽо֣ҹעһι˾ġ¡֤͡ĸҪʱ䣬Լٷ涨ӦɵķöԶԶھңڶǸУԵԽϡ⻹񡣸Ҫ˵ҵĸָԤǿȵȡԷչӪСҵдڵ⣬dzҵʲ࣬˲ġһѡǣⲻ֪ҵ̫ĿҪѹֲҵΪЩϰȶҵһЩҵа֮ɰ󡱱ȡǮá

ֵһǣĿǰ淶һڲٳϱãڳΪȹƺԤʱֵĻDz뷨ν淶ЩҪ㣬Щ֤ҲҪԷΪִгõĻص--رǶҹĿǰʵ--뾭Ҫ൱ľ롣ˣܲ㡰۵ءŶǿơʵϣһЩǴšȫǿŸģġ⡱ıȡ档DzһܣͬʱΪѰⴴӶΪܿµķ֮šȥĻǾͽɱػ뻵гˡңӡȣڷɹƣԤӡҵͻͽķչ֤һѳGDP1%ƼáȤǣӡȸĸһǡйʮĸijɹȴ߻ͷ·ⲻܲǡ


ڶӣԽгĹƲͲӦĽ


гͬгڶԭ⼸㣺һͶͶʽȡûر֮൱ʱ͸ҵͽڻܴĻ²ͶߵĻν·⡣Ǵߺ͹ҷɢѴ⣬ǺѼжǵַܵǽгеĶͶߵڶ۸(multiple equilibria)г۸뾭õĻ޹ء⼸DZڽڷգڷ籩ֺݱΪΣΣ


ڽгЩԣڷңԽгйصĻķɺ͹ƶ൱ࡣҪ˾֤ȯжй˾ͶԽн(С֤ȯ˾ͻ)г׵Ĺơѧرע⵽ϢڽгеҪáΪ˻ڷգĹҪй˾ϢͶ¶ԹɶȨرɶıҵ(prudential regulation)ծչʱʹ涨ҪͶк֤ȯ˾͸ͶʷΧҪ֤ȯгн׷ϸij򣻵ȵȡЩǷҴĽΣмȡĽѵܽɵġǺͶĽΣҲ˵˽ڹƵҪԡ


ҹԣĿǰԽڵĹƴ⣺һDzDzڹƲԵģ磬ǵҹ״ձҵеʱҪøڰЭй涨޶8%磬ߵ15%ߡֱǵй˾СɶıΪ˾ڲ˻ͬɶ¡ٱ磬ǵ֤ȯ˾ǹеģܶź͵طƣҵ͸˾ݹеΪױʱֺʹ


ҹڹƵõϼǿֵÿ϶ЩηҲdzֵùעȶȷʵӦûڷ,ֶβֵعرСڻ͹ǵľӪΧڽгķչǡİ취ͨչȼӹƷڷղͬʱطչڻȻָĻҹСҵرũСҵʡͬأҪմ͡ơҲгйƽڻĺΪ˽ڻĻԣȲڽгҲҵĽչ


ӣƵطӦǿһ˾ơ

ҹһĸطԷȨص˵طĻԣǸĸɹһҪ֧ǵطԷȨͬʱҲij̶ֳ˵ط壬Ҳִ˾ϡʡ׷ͨɺֶͶ뱾ԼزƷ()(սϸߵ˰ɴ಻)бּ⣬ִƫ򱾵ҵͬ˾Ҳվڱصطһߡ磬ҵ֮ľףԺͨƫڱҵʹ˾ΪջһʡһʡֻЧ£ȻͲ档ȫ档Ӷ⿪ŵͬʱڵĵطȴȻء


Ƶطͨ˾Ƶ֯ʽĸĸ1994ʵеIJ˰ƿΪṩĽڸĸǰȫ˰ɵطգȻֳɡ1994ĸ󣬷˰ֺ͵ط˰֣˰ԭϽططԵĹƷ֧ȫԵĹƷ֧Ϊ˴˾ط壬ǿԿƵ˾Ƶĸĸеĵطһ˾ֻбڵľףʡľһ˾бҪֱһ˾漰ȫԷɵİĿǰԺֻش󰸼ΪӦִгõҪӦݰʣɹǰСһ˾͵طһ˾ְֱ˾ʱ1998ʡĴеĸĸᆳҲṩIJοһ˾ԺʡĴԺʹһ˾ܻܵطӰ졣


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Ŀǰҹ䲻ڳΪص⡣һⲻǹƽ⣬ҲԾЧиӰ졣벻ᶯңӰ쾭õijչ۴ӹƽǴЧʽǶȣ䲻ⶼӦܵӡԴȫͬĽ˼·


һְ취ͨǿԤʵм۽˰ʲݣԴ˼ƶ𡣵ǺΣյģΪпֻصԴʱΪ亦꣬Ϊ֮شۡ۽˰ʵУƺǹʹҪ֪ܶྭѧҶʶ˼۽˰ԼȴIJԼɴ˲ĹӴѰҵ(˰ʦͻʦ)Щ󽵵˾Чʡֻdzԭ򣬼ijЩ漯ŵķԣ޷ı䡣ͬʱֵעǣЧ˰Զ˰۽Ϊͨ˰©͵ֿĿ(deduction)Ϸ˰ͨȴΪǻͲõĻʦʦǮ¶ӪԸõֿĿ˰DzäĿʽЩҪĵĻĵĹ졣


һֿǿ䲻᲻֮ĹϵرȨɵĻ᲻ȨγɵĻ᲻Ӷµ䲻ϰղġȷǶԷ䲻ȨǮ׼ɵķ䲻ܵĸԴԱܷԼȨ󣬴ӶȨĻҼֵȨǮ׵Ļᡣ˽䲻Ӧӷ֣İ취Ԥ෴Ӧź͹ԱȨԼǵĸԤԽȨĻҼֵѰĻᡣˣҹĿǰ£ǿӦǼٸܣ䲻Ҫһ


ߡܽ᣺ЧĹϵ ҹڳɹľƸĸ20Ӧ˼άԷΪִгһ1020ķܶĿꡣⲿó֯;ȫ򻯣ڲѹ羭ȱҵѹ󣬸ܡ䲻ͻ,ʹǶʵһĿȸСЩҪܿ߻ͷ·


ͨ۷Ƚоʵ˵˷ִгƵĻεĺȷ뾭֮ı־͹ϵھõķչôڷھڵʲôأǿԸΪһ޵(limited)Ч(effective)ŻһõִгãûͻᵼһгáЧ¹ϵȣЧıҪƻõIJʹѵ20ĸľ飬ᵽһ޵һܵȻѹҵ͸˵Ļ;õˣֻ޵пܳΪЧǣһ棬޵Ч޵ҲԶΪЧȨܵɵԼ뾭ñһľ֮ΪƫĵҪΪӦóַֺ֧гЧĻá

Ŀǰƶġתְܡĸĸǰԭһ޵ĺЧתΪһ޵ĺЧӵǰоٵĸӾ彨ΪһתĸҪеĸĸ﷽ȣҵгĹƷ棬ҪнˣΪҪԼó֯Ϊȷɹƣҵɰ󣬸гչռ䡣ڶҪѡءʵʽǿһֹƣرǽڹԷڷգóܴ֯Ķա˾֯Ҫĸ˾˫ṹԴƵطͷչͳһгشٽá󣬽䲻ⲻӦֻסٷ䣬ӦȴԼź͹ԱȨܣʹٽƽ֡


ڽһøĸУѧҺƶҪ༼ԺͲԵĹdzṩϸµ߽⣬ѧҸӦ˼¡ԷΪִгþһ¡п˷ȵ谭⣬й֪ʶ⡣͹ԣDzҪƼʮƻõ˼άӣҪһЩǧйͳĻ˼йͳĻȱٷλϵһǣ˵ۺ¼ڷνϵijɹʹþڷɣǿΪṩ

ڣгá͡ιҹܷ˵ҵĴѶڴ˻£Ӧһог뷨εĹϵŬƶԷΪִгƵĽҹýһõִгá½гתؼһ£ڹȥ20侭øĸͷչȡõijɾͣû70ĩ80Ԥܹȥijɼܱ֤δijɹؼһټֻۣҪǰռȶķ򣬼˼룬ɾ棬ȫԣôҹ콨ɻڷεִгƽdzϣġ

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