ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
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ѧԺͨʶѧԺʦ

(Hilary Putnam)ڡԡʷ1һУһ̳п¾ѧ(RTH: x, 60)ʵۡ(internal realism)ԴƳ˼ڶ (RTH: ix )ǡԵĿ͹۹۵۹۵Ķ(the dichotomy between objective and subjective views of truth and reason)(ͬ)Щ֣յڶѧˣʵۡ(metaphysical realism)롸塹(subjective relativism)֮Сǰ߼֡ġ˵(copy theory of truth)ʡ˼άǺŻ(mental representations)""֮ijַϹϵ2ġ˵Ϊһ˼ϵ͹۵ȫ۵(RTH: ix )Ŀ͹۹۵㻹۹۵㣬߽컯۵(alienated views of truth)3ϵʵۣҪǺڼ֮Ŀ͹۹۵۹۵֮䣬ѰһںϿ͹ۼ۳ɷݵġ(RTH: x )컯ġ(RTH: xii )ۣԱѰҡһ𹹳(the mind and the world jointly make up the mind and the world) (RTH: xi )

ʵ۵ָ(the problem of reference)ΪǽôDZҪܡ硹(notional world) 롸ʵ硹(real world) ֮4ǣ˼ߵģԵģͬⲿⲿ󼯺ϷһһһӦķϹϵأ (RTH: 51, 27, 41) ΪϾ⡣

ǽDz֮(brains in a vat)ǵԽԱŽһʢάԴӪҺĴУԵĩұһ̨ϣ̨ʹв֮Ծճ˵ľ飬Щ֮鵽""ʵ̨ļþ(RTH: 6~8)ϲõļ(RTH: 6)пܳʵ۵ǿ϶ġΪʵDzǵĹģԲǵϵǶڹᡢ򵥻ԤǿӵеϵȻǼٵ(RTH: 122)ʵпܲŵǸӣDz֮ԡ

ָʵԤˡصָۡ(magical theories of reference)ʡ˼άǺŻָƵĶ֮йе(intrinsic)ڵ(built-in)ϵ(RTH: 3~5, 16, 51)֮ԵļƷ(self-refuting) (RTH: 7)֤ģ

[1]Dz֮ԣô˵Dz֮ԡʱָΪӰеIJ֮(we are brains in a vat in the image)

[2]Dz֮ԣӰеIJ֮ԡǼٵġ

[3]ԣDz֮ԣô˵Dz֮ԡʱDz֮ԡǼٵġ(RTH: 15, 51)

ԤȽijصָۣ""(noetic rays)ָŶеػӦʣȷϵĶ(Self-Identifying Objects) (RTH:51~54)ôDz֮ԡſָDz֮ԣӰеIJ֮ԡɴ˿ɼʵߵǣ

[4]ʵ߽ܡ硹롸ʵ硹֣֮֮Եļпܡ֮Եļпܣʵ߱Ҫܡصָۡ5

[5]ʵ߲ܡ硹롸ʵ硹֣֮֮Եļ㲻ܡ񶨡硹롸ʵ硹֣֮Ƿʵ۵

ʵ˵ѲڣΪǷ񶨡硹롸ʵ硹֣֮""Ƕڸܹ֮ڵģڸܹ˵˼άǺͬڲģô˵ʲôӦʲôǺŲ(RTH: 52)ɴˣʵ۵ĵһּǣ

(IR1)ʲô󹹳ɵģֻһܹڲʱ(RTH: 49)

(IR1)Ŀ(God's Eye view of truth)(RTH: 50)Ϊ磨ǵĸԽ"ƥ"(match)(the noumenal world ) ȫδܸȾĶĹ۵(RTH: 134, 54)ô˵أ

Եȼԭ(the equivalence principle)ûŷۻ񶨡ѩǰ׵ġֵڡѩǰ׵ġġָȼԭ򣨻򽨻֮ϵ˹(Tarski's theory of truth)ǿնģʽij(RTH: 129)ΪδӦĺĿɽԱ׼(standards of rational acceptability)ʲôʱӦáʱӦýijЩΪ(RTH: 137)磬һ㶼ΪѧȷѩǷ׵ģǺؿɽܵģʲǿѧȷѩǷ׵ĻǻָЩ˵DzġɽܵġԵأǵָԤһ׺ĿɽԱ׼ˣҪȷʲôܲ漰ĿɽԱ׼˵ǵĺĿɽԱ׼֮л(RTH: 130)

˻ԻĿɽԣп۵ġԵģôɱ֤۵ġԵأȻϵʵҪЩ塢廮ߡ

Ҫעǣϲһײ""(canons)"ԭ"(principles)綨ʲô(RTH: x)ʵϣԡ׼ԵԹۡ(criterial conception of rationality)ŴŽ綨ʲôǿɺؽܡʲôǿɺؽܵĽƻ淶(institutionalized norms) (RTH: 110)֤ǣ

[6]һףCΪԵ׼

[7]ֻܱC֤ʵ(verified)䣬ǿɺؽܵ

[8][7]C֤ʵΪѭ

[9]ˣCǿɺؽܵ

[10]ʴˣһCΪԵ׼һ۱CǺģƷ(RTH: 111)

ˣ(neutral)ԹΪ"Ļ"(uncontroversial foundation)˭Թ۸(RTH: 136, 109, 215)ΪDz˱塢

壭۵Ψۡ(methological solipsism)6Ʒ(RTH: 135)һкĿɽԣնǸÿһˣ֮˽֪ʶ(private knowledge)ľ(RTH: 122)ôÿһԼȷ(being right)ΪԼȷ(thinking I am right) (ͬ)أжijǺʱҵȻҪҵжȷģֻҾҵжȷģʹijʱҪȷʹֻҾȷʹǺĿɽԡʵʹãп͹۵ģģӦñ׼նѭԼ˽˸оԼԼȷĸо֧Լȷġ۵Ψ߲ȷΪԼȷ಻Լ˼롢жϡ˵ֻڻ롢ԣ۵Ψ߼ȰԼ˵߻˼ߣֲܰԼ˵߻˼(RTH: 124)

ǣų۵Ĺ۵㣬ڷ񶨵ĿɽԵĿԣΪпÿһĻʷʱԼĺĿɽԱ׼(RTH: 113, 121)һĻǸ"ɹ"(incommensurable)ôжǵĺĿɽԱ׼ǷǵĸأϵĻشǣĻҲƷġΪɹּģһĻʷʱУʹõʣָ϶ӵеʻ(expressions)ϵȺ(RTH: 124)޷ԣ޷Щлڹ͡ڴ£һһµ߾ͲӦðߣ˵ߡ˼(persons) (RTH: 114, 124)Ļһ˵٤ԾвɹĹһϸЩȻƷġ(RTH: 115)

ɼԼȷǾԵġģ۵ġԵ(RTH: x)ʷгĿ겻Ϸչ(RTH: x, 216)Ϊʹһ䡢ϵۻܹкĿɽ(rational acceptability)ں̶ܴϣȡ֪ŵ(epistemic virtues)ģڹ(coherence)(simplicity)ȫ(comprehensiveness)Ч(instrumental efficacy)(RTH: 132~134, 135, 55)ǻһڹDzģѡȡһϼ򵥵DZѡȡһϸӵ۸ġȻҪشҪһ룬Գ֮Ϊ֪(epistemically ideal conditions)һ֪µõ֤ɣô(RTH: 55)ˣʵ۵ĵڶּǣ

(IR2)""ij֣뻯Ŀɽ ('Truth' is some sort of (idealized) rational acceptability) (RTH:50)

Ϊһ۾߱Щ֪ŵأȻǶʲô֪ʢ( huma n cognitive flourishing)뷨йءǻһڹġӵġƬļ޹ЧDz̬ģ֪ϣʾ֪߱ŵ۲֪ʶʢı־Ȼ֪ʢ뷨DzйʢҸ뷨(our idea of total human flourishing, of Eudaemonia) (RTH: 134, 136, xi ) 뿪ġˣйԵ뷨йҸ뷨֮һ (RTH: xi)֮ϵ˼·ǣԤۣԤֵ(theory of the good) (RTH:215)

ɴˣ˽ϻʵֵĽȻ֡Ϊ뷨ǵĺĿɽԱ׼ (ͬ)ôжʲôʵΨһ׼ǿʲôǺؿɽܵ (RTH: x)Ȼ䵱ĿɽԱ׼֪ŵ㣬Ǽֵ(value terms)Ǹ""""һͣǶ"ڹ"""뷨ҲֵһʷƵģ˵йǵѧ۲ġѧļֵ֮(RTH: 136)ˣûмֵǾû磬ûʵ (RTH: 136, 137, 201)ʵֵֻһΪģ(hopelessly fuzzy)(RTH: 128, 139)߲

˵ˣΪΡ˭Ա뷨Ǻأ֮ѣǡҪ֤һϵ֮(RTH: 136)ߣִ˴󶼽ʵֵĶֵ֣ض־ѡ񣬹ûкԿ(RTH: 154)ôǵԹۣ˵𣿵ֵָּ֧⡢Ե֤ѧվסģ֮ŷʵֵĶ֣ǿѧִԹɵӰ졣ִΪֻѧܶ"ڵķʽ"ṩʵġ걸(RTH: 49)ʹЩܻԼѧ䣬Ϊ۵(RTH: 143, 144)Ȼֵ㱻Ϊ۵ġɳôDZҪܺܶ䣬йɫȻ״̬Ҳ۵(RTH: 146~147, 205)ƷʵֵĶ֣DZʾмֵǺģٿԴֵ֧ļֵ(RTH: 155)

Ȼֵ۵ģһʷԵģһһݵؽ綨ʢ֮ݵģʷĵԭ(RTH:xi)ֵ۱Ԥйԡᡢּٶѧѧļٶ֪ʶ۵ı仯ֵ۱Щٶĸıб(RTH:215)ֻϣĴͳЩвͬԹۡ¹۵˽жԻӶ׷ѰõġԹۡ¹ۡѧĹڣԵı(the nature of rationality)вϵ۱磬ӶԷչѵѧ˽(RTH: 113,105)ôԹۡ¹ԻյŵǰѲͬĹ۵ΪͬԹʱ趨һļ޸(a limit-concept of the ideal truth) (RTH:216)

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1 Hilary Putnam, Reason, Truth and History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981)¼'RTH'гҳ롣
2 项(mind-independent)ҪƲʵΪ˵״̬㲻ǡ项ġ١ûʵ߻в˵״̬ˣ˵(discourse)򡸶ڸܹ(conceptual framework)ƸʣRTH:128, 49, xi, 50, 128, 134
3 컯۾ʹʧȥң硹һݵĹ۵㣬RTH: xi
4 Ƶ֣硸(beliefs)롸(bracketed beliefs)(intentions)롸(bracketed intentions)֣֮ʱʹá硹ϵ(subjective belief system)RTH: 43-44, 28
5 Ϊʵ߿ָ(causal theory of reference)ָ⣬Ϊָ۽ˡ̶ָơ(reference fixing)⣬֤RTH: 32~48, 217~218
6 RTH: 121ӷ۵Ψһ壬Ϊ֮ΪС

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