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ע֤argumentation۵Ļһϣ֮޴ѧrhetoric۱dialecticĴͳз֤⣨justification[1]ͬʱκһ֤ۣӦԵѿDescartesԣreasonreasoningޡһԺĹһ̵ֱӰѧ

û˻ϣ飨deliberateͱۣargueȺһ־ˣ˵˽ijһ֤ķ֣̽ȴ߼ѧҺо֪ʶۼǺ͡Դ֧ijЩ֤ķǿͱΪڱȻԺ۾ݷĶԣܵ˵ơDz޿ѡĽ취Ҳ粵ʵݡ֤ƺһЩƺܵ䷶ΧԽѧϵȷ״̬ѿڡ̸Discours de la mthodeĵһȷԼĹ۵㣬Ϊֻ߱ȻԵվסŵġΪչʾԵƷԣΪֻдȷĹ֤demonstrationǺϺǵģrationalͨݱ粵֤ѧе֤evidenceƹ㵽ԭ֮СѿѧƼһ򼸺ѧģʽЩѧϣһϸѧ֮ϵ˼ϵڵѿһǿѧǶǵĹ۵㣬бҪĹһɱȻɵϵЩȺ壬ֻһͬ⣬ֻ󡣵ѿ˵ܺʱֻҪ˶ͬһж෴ôȻһǴġ⣬ǽԲΪֻҪһ˳һйȷĹ۵㣬ܹŷķʽ߽һ۵㡣Regulae

Щѧɿѧ׷˵ҪDZȻԡʵһԣΪԿ۾ݵģͷӺͱӵ⣬Ӧӵ Ҳͨʹͷеʵһµ⣨J. S. Mill, System of Logic, p.370ȻܶJ. S. Millϵ۾ǸֱֱķǾѧѧȻȷЧֻ֤ЩΪȻѧϵ֤ݡ

⻰չΩ˳ӦȻѧǺϺǵġо֤߼ѧЩֻͨһЩָʾ⣬ֻ֤verifyĹӲʲôҲٷȥĿѧʹõ֤ܵѿʽѧӰ죬߼ѧΩдʿΪ֤оʱŸеڡΩˣûܹչʾȻԵԡһʱںһԣ˼߼ѧҵӰ֮£߼ѧԼΪʽ߼ֻоѧʹõ֤ǣ봿ʽص߼ѧ˳ӶҲ롣ѿıԸܴԭϽԵ⣬ҳͷҲƾ׼˽취̲ԷԼвܼԼΪʽﶼԲɿ˷ѡ

߼ݻԼӹɵĽ֮Уܹƶ֮֮𣿵߼ﶼṩĽʱԶֻڷǵֱʾ߱𣿪

ڶ⡢ѧʶ֮Ҫ壬Լ˵ȷ֮յ෴⣬˹Pascalͳȥ˷ѧȱ㣬Դڳ˲ǵǸһʵƵĿģҲڿ£KantйѧĶաظɭBergsonֱԵĶԱ֮СЩѧһνķǷ⣿ȫڶԹƺͳ˵ѿĴͳ

෴ǿһ֤ĻƼȲ׵ҲûκθݡʵϣʿѾͷֳ֤۱֤ǰȻضȻأǰ֤֤Ȼѿ֮Թȴǿ֪ʶĶһȷʱڷǵءЩǷӦԿ˷ϰ 󡢼ʾȷʵԵijԨԴ 顢ԻDzɭʽֱǰ۵˶ַһ༼ܵɫȫΪɵģҲ˼άʵʹ̡

ָ֤ǵжӰ˵ΪҪʹ֤֮صĻս֤ݹ涨Ե֤DzģΪһÿһͷԶòͬʱҲǾıʶ[2]֤ܹĺ߼໥䲻ͬεͨڡÿһ֤һ֤ݻԭ̣֤ ˹Եѿ֤۵ֱáPascal, 'Of the art of persuasion. Rules for demonstration.' Oeuvres, p. 380, Pliade Edition.

ȣLeibnizͷԸ߼ʩơϣܹ֤иӵĹṩ֤ͬʱϸ˶ЩĿҲǷõ˵ͬ

ֽ֤߼ۣȡ ˹ ̽·߷չģϲ֤ͬΪÿһ֤֤ݻԭ̵Ļ֤۾Ͳܵõչ֤۵ĿоۼЩijһѰͬʱٳɻ˶Ըȷš˼ά֮ȷŵһص㣬ǿȵĿɱԡû˭޶ֻо֤涨ضȷŶȣҲû˭ΪijһȷŶĸȻԳƣ֤ݺġ

ȡ֮ߣDzҪһʼͻصԼȷصݣǽǷֿоļǶߵijͻ˵յĺгһ¡Ωڴ£ſܷչһ־ѧԨԴ֤ۡ

ڹȥУһЩ̻о˲ʱ⡣ʮͱΪýͣӿ˴[3]Ȼִ߼ѧҺѧǶһȴʼ޶ԡⷽʵоҪطոʱڵרԶϣҵ̽Ȱ˵˵Լ۵ļһоǡس֮Ϊ޴ѧ

ʿ䡶ѧTopicsһЩ֤ʽڡ޴ѧRhetoricչʾαõġʿ³Щ֤ʽΪ֤۱磩 *** һ֤֤ۺͱ֤۱ѧ֮ijƹϵΪ֤۱ѧһѰձܵĹ۵㣨ŨosΪ㣨Topics, Chapter 1, 100a .˵֤ۺ޴ѧΪ׽ȣطʿµı֤۱ѧи֮ݡȻ֤۱ѧһһֱָ߼ԺڸHegelںڸѧ˵Ӱ£һһ䱾ȥԶĺ壬ڽձΪܡ޴ѧһʵȫ෴޴ѧѧϱãA. Lalandeѧʻδᵽ

һҪȥѡ޴ѧDZ֤۱ѧ˶Դ֤۱ѧ޴ѧʵ̬ȡΪ֤ӦģȻDZȻ⡣֤۱ѧ ӵпɱȷŶȵ һδù˵ĵλǷǸ˻ģͷԶǵ֧޹ء෴ȷţԼ˵discourseԵͷԵĹйŴ޴۵ĻҪءַʽ֤޴ѧϵǿһʵ ֤ǴڣaudienceĹϵ֮зչġѧоһҵһʵλáȻȻǣִ֤оԶԶԽŴ޴ѧijЩƣͬʱҲ޴ѧעijЩݡ

Ŵ޴ѧҪĿ꣬ڹϽ˵˵speaking¹ڼһȺ˵ǰ˵ԡ˵ʽѰȺ˶֧֡ôʵǣ˵Ŀ ͷԶȷţͬҲ֤ĿꡣԴǷҲòŽ޶ΪеһȺˡ

ųЩƺ󣬾Ϳһѧ߼ѧϣ˽˼άĻƣѧֻѵʵߡǿԮʿµġ޴ѧһ޴ѧķʽܵõһЩ֧֡⣬ӡˢִеĽɫбҪرǿһӡˢıһ棬ִ߼ѧо޴ѧĽ·УԺԶԼ۱֣̽ЩʺϷѧɡκι֤оĽǶȽпǡƽһ˵ĵۣ֮˽飬һִ֤ۡ޴ѧķΧԶԶԽŵ޴ѧ

Ӵͳ޴ѧбģǹڵĹ뵽˵ʱͻ̸ԺСÿһ˵ijڣǾǣед˵Ҳһһ˵˼Ϊһڽ̸СȻߵĹؼȱϯʹΪıԼǹһˣʵǣߵıԤĽΪġ

͹˵޴ѧоͨõġԤȽһϵеоֱӵõۡγļAristotle, Rhetoric, Bk 1, Chapter 2, 1357a .޴ѧһΪΰͼڡ߶ƪGeogias, 455, 457a , 463, 471˼ҵطʹѧľء˴һ⣺ΪβϿԽ֤˵ɫɫڣһȺûܹں֮ڣȷ˵ҪַԼõĻ͵ʹԼӦڡôǣһ˵һϸ˵ȻЧȴһܹȡһλѧҵŷͼڡѵƪPhaedrus, 273eһֵѧ𾴵޴ѧʱһҲܹ˵ļաڷ仯ʱ֤Ҳ仯ʹ֤ĿʼЧӰ˵ͷԡж֤ļֵʱ˿֤ɹ˵ͷ֮Ʒ⣬һԭӦرǿѧ֤ķͳΪ֤Ϊǡ Ϊǵ˵󣬴ЩΪʾѹӰĶߡǣǼͥСߵۣǼۣÿε֤ͬġȷżȷijЩ֤ͷ֮Ʒԣ˶Щֵ֤֮۵ĵôǺ֤ճĹͬṹչʾЩ֤ΣԼΪʲô֪ġ

ֻ֤עȡͷȷŵ˵ʽԼԽȰ˵˵ļƾζӰͷԵЧķǡǡ෴ᶨֻЩ֤͵õϵDzض¶ҪȷʱɿıڻڵľԼǰĹ㡣ǣijһ·ʼЩ֤ʱЩ֤ĺ塢ֵ͡ĹϵʱͲɱҪ֤

һ棬κΪ˻ȡȷŵжֻ֧ԼôԽ֤򡣼ĬֻʵˣְˣȡЧֻеЩʽԴֶչ֣ŵвʱΪ֤áڽԴΪֱΪǽֶεƩף䡣ֻеЩΪ֤ʱDz޴ѧϵ

һأЩĿࡢܹӰΪ֮صļֶΣȥڣconditioningڡֵڶʮ͵õشչַԶ͹Ϊ֪ˡ̻ƾ޿ɱȼļɣתһԤڣԼʹڸ⼴֤֮ĹУЩ˲ɷϵĹЧڴǵ뷨һԽ֤Ϊ֤޶ͨ˵ֵڡ

ʿνġΧ֤extra-technical proofs Դ˵ֻ֤ƾĽ޷ȡһͬʱ֤ܽAristotle, Rhetoric, Bk 1, Chapter 2, 1355a .˳ἰˡΧ֤һһdzпϵʾǾ̵ǽIJڸıļϣͳͨ˵ʽӰͷԵۣϣ޴ѧ£Ϊ͵ļգŧͦǣ

֤۹ע˵ʽЧӰͷԣ˿ܱΪѧһ֧֤ǷǿԵģ֤Ȼ˵ֻӵڶ仯һ̶ȵӰô֤ʱƲЧԵˣ֤оҲΪʵѧһ⣺ɫɫǰԸָ֤гֵļ⣬ЩʵеóϵġһձЧԵĽۡѧڴо[4]ҪԲɡ

ѧͬġѧ֤ĸֽṹ ڼʵ֤Ч֮ǰķ⣬DzΪʵ鷽ܹжĿѧԼѧе֤ļֵΪѧַѳΪĶ

ͬѧǵо·ǴʵѧװģʽмȡУŬᡢκѧеáЩģʽвԤΪƵ෴ǽ߼ѧѰУЧϸЩɹķ

Dz19͵ϰڿѧȦﻹͨУ߼ѧûʲôλԡWhatelyԼ1828д޴ѧΪأô߼ѧӽѰ[5]

ڹȥһ䣬߼ѧ˾޴Ļڴ˼ʼѧʵõ֤ظϵĹʽѧõ֤ʽоִʽ߼ʽ߼ܵƣΪDZѧӵʽ߼Dzɵġ߼ѧӦ֤ͨȥǵ֤ۡٵһǷĿѧɺѧõ֤߼ѧDZۼڿ֤μݽ֤ʦڱ绤״֤Լѧ֤


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* C. Perelman, ʱ³ѧڣ̩棨O-TytecaŮʿ

**㽭ѧϵʿ

[1] Cf. C. Perelman, Raison ternelle, raison bistorique, 'L'homme et l'histoire,' Actes du Vie Congrs des Socits de Philosophie de Langue francaise, pp.347-354. ( Paris 1954).

[2] Cf. C. Perelman, 'De la preuve en philosophie' in Rhtorique et philosophie, pp.123 ff. ( Paris 1952).

[3] صĿ¼cf. Lasswell, Casey and Smith, Propaganda and Promotional Activities ( Minneapolis 1935). Also Propaganda, Communication and Public Opinion by the same authors ( Princeton 1946).

*** dialecticɡ֤ѧ桶ʿ¡ȫIX޴ѧԴ ϣ dialektikָ磨ΪΪƽʵԭ磬˴ע۱硱ڽdialecticsΪ֤ʱҲע۱ѧ/Ķʱ˶Ӧɡ۱硱͡۱ѧ/ע

[4] For example, H. L. Hollingworth, The Psychology of the Audience. ( New York 1935).

[5] Elements of Rhetoric, Preface. (Oxford 1828)

׷л߻ݸ塣

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