ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 

ϣżȫҰеĹ

ӽ[1]

ʦѧ ѧԺ 300073

Ҫ
У潻ϡȫʱĵߵĹϵµı仯ˣȫ͹۵˼ȫҰйԵΪҪΪڵᣬϣںƽ⡢Լھ񣬾һԣƶ̣ȫţΪԵؿռ䣬Ҳ˹ϵսԽ裬ȫΪĸӰ졣

ؼ
ȫ

һ[1]ϣ
2050ڶ̶ͬȵΪѰҳ·ǿʼĿᡣ[2]ʵķչʹʶ᲻Խ֯񣬱﹫ҪάȨɣơָԼȨγɹ빫֮Ļһ̶ȵĹ᲻ǰᣬҲƶȽɻȱءˣ϶ϣ[3]оηչۣоȽεѧߣͬʱԼεоСЩѧֹ۶󵨵Ԥ⣺ƵΨһǹᡣ

ѧֹ۵ؿĹϵûеṹάһĽڹҡ͹֮仮˽ޣճ˲ܹȨԤĹȨأڶ壨־Ը֯ΪеʹɫΪн飬һͨƵΧγɡԼȨΪơֻԼȨάȨ棬˼ʵϡɣһĹΪṩ޴ƶĻά֮һĻϵĺгᳫĻԪݡЭҲġϵʱ۵ΪĻг˸Ϊ͸Ϊ걸ķʽĻоĻάйá

ȫʱĵǿʼ˼ļȶϵα仯ᵽϣżҪ⣬ͣĶԹ֮Ĺϵе߼죬򵥵ؽ϶ΪǰߵİѾԶԶˡȫΪķչṩ˹ռ䣬ҪһΪɵķƽ̨Ͽߣ˫ȰߵĻϵϵͬʱҲͽоĽǶȴӽṹĻάάת䣬Կٸоռ䡣

ھ
ȣֹ̽ʡվڹ빫֮Ĺᣬṹӣ̬졣ڽǹȵĹעȾijЩ񻰵ζǷȥġġ۱͸ṹƣǻ֣ᷢʵϹڲᴩһԭеķʽάϵŹŹȨɣƶĽ̡Щԭ򣬱߽Ϊھ񡱡

Ȩεƽ

ǶԹʶܣɾһȴﵽ˸߶ȵĹʶһƽ⣬ӵеȨΪάЩȨе֧֮ƽ⡣[4]

Ȩ֮ƽǶ̬ģڲͬʱգͬȨгֲ̬ͬͬʱҲǾ̬ģȶ֯ƶȳ־öȹ̵طáƽʹ֯Լò໥ϵ໥Ӱ죬ڱͬʱҲŸԪؼĿݡЭԻΪеȨṩƶȺϵıϣΪеλ˵ߡռУԷչȨȴίӰ֮¡翵ζConnellԣȻȨ֮ƽ⣬ʹԴڽĹһǰֱԾӰ֮Сܺ뿶ΪÿܣĴDzɵġǵǰĿͶʱҪһ㡣[5]

ӵȨĶȡڹӰȡڹʹȨʵЧȡڹҶԹȨά뱣ϣȡڹԹͬе񣬶һ빫ֱءоķF.ͿWilliam F.Buckleyϣ˶ʶ˸ȺCommunity֮ĹҪĹǸһг֮Ĺÿܵᱣ˶ӦõõĻر֮һʵҲʱÿӦΪԼʩӸ˵Ϊһĵߡ˹Saul AlinskyҲһ꣺ԸΪ֤˵ɶԼһЩ棬Dzɡ־ԸĹһľ[6]Ȩ֮ƽ⣬Ϊҡ˻˽ޣЩС

ṹҪصĻ

Ȼ˵·ͬóĽҲͬ᲻һ鹹룬һʵʵڵʵ塣ýṹܷ⾵ĹһƶĻҪصϵϵЩṹҪؾۺŸˣҲΪṩάƽɵĻᡣҪ֮ṹܸ죬໥ã໥ǣơʹЩṹҪصĻ֮Сһ͸ӻչʾᣩֲź֮Ļ״̬ԽΪһǡǵǹΪԪصĺĻʡϸεĽǶȣλ᲻ͬλúͲĹӰ֡[7]

ṹҪ֮ĻֱӰḶ̌һǵӡڡ(civic)ֻǶԹ֯ҲҵҪӰá֯ɹԷ𽥻ڹϵʱsocial capitalƺѾΪ÷չΣgood governance,Чһǰ[8]ͨʵ֤оóۣܶ棬ȲһṹҪ֮ĹܻҪ

гľ

ڵ˼Уߣǹߣйעһ롪͹֮ľ롣ǵоĹϵʱȻȻӳ䵽ǵ˼֮Сѧʹýṹһ۷ʽӹĽṹṹȨṹȽǶʱʵϾŶ־Ŀ֮ľ֮ҪʵϳеŽռʹͽṹ֮ĺгpublic sphereͨijͨܵԹϵѹʵľ롣

̩ԣһ󣨻󣩣һǸ󣨻󣩡ǰָڹ͹ұֵĶʶȵƽӦľ룬ָҵѡ[9]ԾIJͲͬǵҲͲ߽ͬɡƣ18ʼѴʵչлóߵλ󷨱гádzԶ빫гãĽȻֿǵǣDZɵҪݡָΪƼǣƺĹܲɺӣṫ͹ҵĻܸΪҪӦùлĹᡣ͵Ĺṩһνһڹ񡢹֮仮ߣøϰƶȵġĻġĺ۵ģԽʹϸ֮·ָжϵϢ磬β飬Ȩƶ֮ϵ֮ͨͨ Ȩƽ⡢Ҫػгǹԭȫ֡ھȴ˹ǿҲΪͬƶĻµṩ1718ͣڳͺ󣬰ŵ˳ٶȸˣ˵һ㡣ڹھֲڹ-ĶԪȨϵ뵱ֶԪϵ𽥱-г-ġ֡棩˹ҵľ룬עȨεƽ⣬͹ԹҪصĻ൱ԡֲ޽ӻȲͬʽ벻ͬĹңԳƱĻִùĻĺġȫʱԲƶ£ܻܿ߳ԶҲ˵ȫ˳еĹܻϸ̶߳ȵ֮·

ȫ
һ˵dzϹƶãơֻͿƹȨʹúϷ淢áֻڹij漴Ҳе˼棬ǽΪעǣͨijɳıҺ֮Աȣʹ֮ķչӶʵֹ֮Ķ̬ƽ⣬ⱻΪǰȨһǿһ̶ȣͿΪάȨԹȨƺԼǣһȨ֮ߣһͷǹ壬һͷǹƶȣȨߵֱӾߵĽɫDZá[10]Ȼ80ǽ90Ὺʼ߳ҲţڽŲ棬⵽ȫ档Ҫոµ˼Ĺϵ

ǹעŲ湫ĻԼδٽŵγ뷢չ[11]ǸΪעȫĹᡣܹҽƵĿ˾֯ͻ𣬶Ȩҵġ繫򡱼ȫᡱظıȫΡáĻĴͳ֡ÿҶͬʱǿĹڹ͸Ϊǿȫᣬ˼һµȨṹϵ硣Ų桢Ҳ棬ȫĹᣬ⣬ȫĹĹϵսԣֵ˼

1961꣬ʩأCarl Schmittڡεĸ̸ս󾭼òһλ£ǰҵĴʽѾóϵڲҽξϵΪξʵսƻ衣[12]֯УWorld Bankһ֯International Monetary FundijּչʩصĻں̶ܴϱ֤ȷġЩǿĹ֯򾭼漯ڸеӰվԶԶԽҲȫͻϰͽִϢͼ֧£ȫĹΣǷһЩѧԤڵܷع鴫ͳֱΪעġ

ȫչȷʵԵ˻áȣȫչͬʱҲƶĴԼJohn KeaneԷ֯ڱͺȫչоһӰġȫԷ֯1900ֻ100ң90Ϊ10000ңǵĿѸ֯ķչһԽҽĹֵܳı־ʵijֻӦʵмǿƣֹ˵巨ɵij֣֯սǿһĹԼĽģձ鹫ԾסԼ֮е񣬽ΪҲǹ񡣡[13]ΣȫչʹǹעһԵ繫⣬Ⱥֻ⣬ԪĻ⣬Ǽͥеı⡣ٴΣԹΪȫġᡱ롰ᡱԵ̻Ĺ̲޴áɣLina˹ˣStepanѡһɶڻĹᡱΪɹǰΪҪһΪȫʱǿĹвѡpolitical alternativesල͹ҵ̵ÿһ׶Σȫ棬ᶼޱ󡣡 [14]

ȫΪĽ̿˸ռ䣬ҲƶĻȷսԴˣЩѧţδȫķ£ԵָտɴһЩѧֱʾɺǡȻǻܶϹ۵֤ǿ˵ȫäĿֹΪķչԸҲ͹еѺϰˣԵĽDZҪȡġDZ뿴

һǹİἸڸʷʱڵĸ͵ĹҡᷴȨ۾ơƻơdzڶձģȫеIJǿԴӵκһչйһδչĹзֹӰӣǹijЩҪijɷ֣簣Ű͡˹Ӿ÷ȨǶԭйǰŹȻֵģôЩӦóΪϵˡ [15]Ȼʵˡ

ڶȫŻһЩΣԵĹһͻֻ磻ΣԴΪƶȵĹҹĿȡЩ˵ĴЩòơ񡱹ĹDZ뵱ǰеĹڹϵĶԻ֮Сʣʹҵۿֱۣ͹Ϊܺͬһ¼ƻijеߵáرǵǰһЩҪľȫԾij֣ó׺ֱͶʵȫԼгIJƥ䡣ЩӾ˹Թҵų⣬ʹг;ԹҵңгԽ޵ơ[16]ʱǾͻΪеطֹɫҪԣع緶ΧĹ빫֮µƽƵԣԼ̽緶ΧĹϵıҪԡ Ľɫ빦ܲΨһģǿġЩѧΪǰڡȫ򻯡Ľ۹ϣ۵Դ۾ݵѷǰܵʧԵԹҵĹȸ棬ֻйʹֻܰһЩƻɵøáЩݵǻ޴ӷֱ档Ȼ˵ܹʽǻҵķΧȨޣᶼһҪĽɫһЩƶг־Ը֯вݺӵҪܣЩɫ͹ȴǿġ ֮ȫŶ˵һ˫нս档ֹۣû㹻ţδȫȻеĴΡȫ򻯽йԹҵ롢ͳνԶӰҪġҲֻDzȷʶܹȫ¹Ĺϵϵ

ġȫ򻯵Ľ
ɯᡤR.ŵIsagani R.SerranoԵǰȫƱʾȵǣ϶ǰȫ򻯽̶ġһḶ̌ʮ꣬Ѿ쵼ȫÿһ䡣ǣȫһκѵ˶ȥĵطǾȫıԵ[17]۵˵ǰû쵼ģʧȥϷԺЧֻһЩӦԵĹǺġŵЩԹʵˡȫеĹDZȽͬһǣԾǿͷȫᣬûԵλӦе确ʷսᡯ͡򡯶ڽµijͻʽʽֵԶԶ[18]ΪĻӦȫ򻯵սѧǷ׷Լţȫ򻯡빫ĹϵȫĽǡ

ŵɾͼԣcivicsȫĽǡһ֡ع塱ŷָһͳġȫ򻯡磬γһС硱УǹؼԵƶأЩִִĹԣDzŻһսĻȥӮøԵת䡣ǽԵָȫ򻯣ǵ˺֮ǰӿٶȽ̻Žһ𣬡[19]

֡ǶKumi Naidoo˹̹ǣRajesh Tandon˹ԼӵеϢڻӦȫ򻯵սеĵλáΪѾʼζ˱˴ڵ壬ԼΧỷΪһ񿴵Ƶ˥䣬ȴԼŬˮƽĽǾͻɹԹʵڵ롣Ҳֹ۵ضԣӦЩսʱǺˣΪӵб﹫ȨߡϢĻܹȻֻǻطչţȷʵ˴̸۵ļֵĿԡȨһߵýǵļҽؿCSO֯ȨϷԡ [20]

־Ը֯dzΪΪ˹˽ΪҲԽԽע⡣ձΪһɲͬѰĹڳɳΪʹᡢáκͻѵıҪءҪƣӦ÷ӹƺͽãһƺƴġ߹ԵĹ˶

ѾʶŲ滹ȫ棬ԵǰȫƣDZָǿ񼰹֯ڹеĵλ[21]ȷ񲻽ӦӵйеȨҪвľȨһеʵֶȡڹ񡣶ڹڹδеĽɫÿ֡Ƕ˹̹ǵĻ˵ǡͶƱߣҲֻһߣһ񡱡[22]

ע


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[1] [߼] ӽѣ1976-УˣʦѧѧԺʿ˼ʷѧ۵о

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[1] ӢCivil Societyж뷨һ̨ѧΪᡱ˳йͳĻС񷴹١˼άϰߣ½һЩѧΪᡱϮ˼еijνһЩѧȡ֮壬ΪᡱҲвѧΪᡱᡱԭ£1뷨ȽϷϡCivil Society206070ʱиʹԡᡱС񡱵ĵλԼִеã2롰񡱵IJص㲻ͬǿúݣ񡱽Ϊνɫڹķչ̶ԣ壻3ԡcivil societyӦԴһЩ˼ȷʵcivil societyᡱᡱ֮壬ҲáᡱһԸ֮ڵζԣ롰ᡱأᡱŽϴĺԡ

[2] 70ĩǰŷ80Ͷǣ80ĩںڷޣ90սжѧĹоȳ֤

[3] 90󣬹ںϲչоϲڵѧл˲ݺӵĵλĸˡ塢֯ڽԡ John Keane, Civil Society: Old Images, New Visions, Combridge, UK, Oxford, Ox4, Polity Press, p.32.

[4] Brain O`Connell, Civil Society: the Underpinnings of American Democracy, Hanover, University Press of New England, 1999, p.10.

[5] Brain O`Connell, Civil Society: the Underpinnings of American Democracy, Hanover, University Press of New England, 1999, p.14.

[6] Andrew Arato, Civil society, Constitution and Legitimacy,Lanham, Boulder, New York, Oxford, 1989, Preface.

[7] Brain O`Connell, Civil Society: the Underpinnings of American Democracy, Hanover, University Press of New England, 1999, p.24.

[8] ޲ءDС룺ʹתĹͳ磬20019°棬116ҳ

[9] ̩Ϊָڹ͹ֵ֮ĶʶȵƽӦľ롣ĸָҵѣ빫ҵļֻʹҷȨԭȨĵشṫҵ˹̩գ֮ľ롷ࣺ͡Ļ빫ԡ顤֪꣬19986°棬199ҳ

[10] ΪֵùעһǴͳƶڶ̶ϿΪķչṩڶڶ̶ϲȡ򲻲ȡԿҵȡ򣻵ʹҷɶĿơܺ룺ᡢʱͷչһָӻࣺšйѧ׳磬20008°棬106109ҳ

[11] ɴˣγԹɭ˹ȡΤΪ͸ɺ޲ءΪ߸ɡܴŸϵķ᪣ǵĻʶǣеŶԴٽ׷ݡЭ෴ļֵۣܿܳΪ׷ijΪ´

[12] Danow Schecter, Sovereign States or Political Communities? Civil Society and Contemporary Politics, Manchester and Yew York, Manchester University Press, 2000, p.15.

[13] John Keane, Civil Society: Old Images, New Visions, Cambridge, UK, Oxford, Ox4, Polity Press, 1998, p.32.

[14] John Keane, Civil Society: Old Images, New Visions, Cambridge, UK, Oxford, Ox4, Polity Press, 1998,pp.48-49.

[15] Li Xiaorong, Democracy and Uncivil Societies: A Critique of Civil Society Determinism, Civil Society, Democracy, and Civil Renewal, Fullinwider, Robert K., Ed. New York, Oxford, 1999, p.414.

[16] John Keane, Civil Society: Old Images, New Visions, Cambridge, UK, Oxford, Ox4, Polity Press, 1998,p.33.

[17] Isagani R. Serrano, Coming Apart, Coming Together: Globalization and Civil Society, Civil Society at the Millennium, West Hartford, Conn., Kumarion Press, 1999, p.164.

[18] Darrow Schecter, Sovereign States or Political Communities ? Civil Society and Contemporary Politics, Manchester and Yew York, Manchester University Press, 2000, p.16.

[19] Isagani R. Serrano, Coming Apart, Coming Together: Globalization and Civil Society, Civil Society at the Millennium, West Hartford, Conn., Kumarion Press, 1999, p.165.

[20] Kumi Naidoo, Rajesh Tandon, Civil Society at the Millennium, Civil Society at the Millennium, West Hartford, conn., Kumarion Press, 1999, p.202.

[21] Michael S. Joyce, Citizenship in the 21st Century: Individual Self-government, Building A Community of Citizens: Civil Society in the 21st Century, Eberly, Don E., Landam, New York, London, 1994, pp. 1-10.

[22] Kumi Naidoo, Rajesh Tandon, Civil Society at the Millennium, Civil Society at the Millennium, West Hartford, Conn., Kumarion Press, 1999, p.202.

ķڡίУѧ20036ڣΪйѧס20043ڣժ¼Ϊѧӡϡѧ20044ڣȫתء