ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
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īӿ̣20й֪ʶӵԾ
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20й֪ʶӵԾ
һλѧߵĿ
īӿ
Ӱաй޹˼ҲߣΩһһ֮ ٴʣߣ̸ԹʵҲ
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*ĺͺ氬¡йĻʷ·һЩд۵Ůʿ ΪϵȨû԰ĵֽɫشл
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󵼵
ܵԾʶÿ֪ʶÿһ˵⣬ҲǹŴ νΡ֪Ĺ֪ʶӵĶ壬֪ʶܡΡ ˣΪ ֮Σ֮΢(ӡƪ)ԹŽ֪ʶӳ һ֮ڣǰԼеijЩ⣬ҲӦԵս Dz̸⣬ҳԼЩһ(Part of the Problem,not p art of the solution)ΪǵۻһЩؼԵһ Ȥ˵ҽûа취ԼIJκãôȥ?(Phys ician!Heal thyself!)ж˹̩Ϊͥвͥ죻ԾҲһĻʷ졣 Ҫש̸20й֪ʶӵԾ⡣
й֪ʶӵʶȻǿī졢īй֪ʶ Ӿӵ˼20й֪ʶҲ⣬˶ҲãҲã Ƕ20й֪ʶӵʷϵı֣۲ߣýйѧʻ ʱս20й֪ʶӶԼʧС
෴أǶ鼮־кŷʥΤްء޿סɭϣ ˹º٤֮ȴĽ֮顣ߣйѧ ߶ԣЩȨǵҪѧߣйĻ߷٣ǵ йĻļֵԼѧ20ǷҪȡǷ ܹŦԼ衢صй
ȻһеҪ̸߳ĵ벩ѧʣķ ̽޴ĻҪ˽ֻгͻķѧѧô Dzҳһܹ20й֪ʶӵѧ硣˭ܹΤͷ Ϊ?ʷѧҶԣ˭ܹ˵ȽǮ¸Ϊ?¸ ̸֮Ĺϵʱƾ?֪ʶŦԼйǣ ȡйĻδñδʱʮܸ?˻˵ Ļ߷Ӧ˽Ļй֪ʶӡܲ˵ʮߺʱ츴۸ʸ?
Ļݱ޸ԭһȡ֮ѡ̣ȡ֮ʱ˵Ȼֵ òοȻʹŷȽңŷ֪ʶӵ۲һܽйĻ ⡣οЩȡᡱĻ޸⣬ԭǹ淶Ե⣬Ӣ˼ ԽԽΪʽһЩѧԻձԵı׼ΪָϣΪֹ ԵָϣֻʷԼЩ˲ʸۡͬʱΪ ϰأҪ˽йĻʱǺ֮ǧ֮
й֪ʶôֵؿŦԼӳѻƬսڡС ܵijܡЩԺ󣬲ȥ޸ԼĻֹŽΪ ȻĹһ޵սŷ֮ϡĿ̬dzй ֪ʶԼ֮ʱ򲻼ɭܾǰע⵽й˼ ֪ʶӵʶҲеĶй֪ʶĽŦԼɼĪ˹̬ԨԴʲô͹Լ ݱ˵Ȼһ׵Ծ򡣲ԾĶ岻ԣǸ ⡣Ȼˣպܶ˵ĿԾ˻ᾡܰԼʶĹԤ ھͬʱǵһѴ⣺ı׼Ӧζ һһԭֻǸȻĹ淶Աһбص˵ һ棬ѧĽǶDzɻȱģһЩΪ쾭ʵܿܽijĻʱӦ
֪ʶӶԼɫҲҪԷûʲôֲڹĻȫ ġ塱򲶷׽Ӱа塣Ž֪ʶӶ˵ij ڵĿûеȵȣȻ֮ʣ׼ԭôֻĻ ᲻ص˼?
Ҹ˾õ֪ʶӵԾرǣ浽⡣һǹ֪ʶִе ɫйӢ˼еĿһȽֹ۵ һȽϱ۵ġһԺ˵Ծ֪ʶӲϵزһӦ ǵйɣܵһȽе
ڶ˽⵽ֹ뱯⣬֪ʶӻҪǵIJ νġͨ⡣IJϵĿȫʵʥҪܹ֮ ʵоεִͬʱִʥʥͨޡ ̫׵ġʼת׳棬ס롰Dzǡ뷨 ʵ¡IJ λ˼ֿ൱Ϻܶ˼룬Ϊٵ֪ʶӶ ִͬһ滷Ź()ʵҪһҪһ֡ ԡ(moral language)塱ΪĻĻȻǿͨIJʮ ˽⵽ѹԺ̵ֹѡ֮κ˼Ĩɱס һ桱һ棬ûа취ס
סȻȻѧʷѧ֪ʶ˽ִʱҪ˼ ׾漰һʱ˵ʱԭĻֵ벡̬⣬ʵ ҪĽǶ̸йִЩȳʵȷҿԴܶй֪ʶ 뷨Ȼ뷨һĪôܺʵҪ̸ִйӦ ġ·?粻̸ʵҪôܡס?οĻ Ǽ?
ڡסݡ硰סֱӵطӳ桱ôסķܼ ֻҪʵĹ򣬴˼IJνġֱͨȻʮʷȴ֤IJ ϡͨĿǺеģǡסֱӵطӳ桱һֲ ϡ桱ᵽֶԪгôֶԪ ʥĹ淶⵱֪ʶԵһ⡣
ڱ˵Ŀܼ򵥣ͺܶ൱й֪ʶӶԣԾΪסĹ ͬʱDzȡϵֹ̫̬ԼԼ֪ʶң䡰 ߼ϵĺйϵֹ뱯壺ֹ֪ʶӱʵ뷨ն壬֪ʶʹó֪ʶˣܡȫķ˼ߡȻ ˡһ˸ʹʽ
⣬֪ʶûбȱ˸а Եµ?仰˵һ֪ʶְԵµĿӣ ôûһЩ͹۵ı׼ȷһЩ֪ʶǿģһЩ?˰ ɡ֪Ⱦߣ֪ߣԼ֪һ?
⣬Ӣ˼Ƚϱۡʹʽ˲һܰԵ £ɡ(Raymond Aron)֪ʶӵѻƬ(The Opium of the Intell ectuals)ŷ֪ʶӺܼܶȨյġJohn DunnǿǺܶ౻ οѧһЩĹաDunnԹֵƽ壬Ŀ ӹ˵ȻԼ(John Mill)һǿк׷ ë(fallibility)ĿӲȷϡ˵еԵ⣬Ҳ ʵԵ⣬ʲô⣬ûп͹۵ı׼ϸȷһȺ˽һʸ񡣡10
й֪ʶȽֹۡɽĿ һҲдԡҶ֪Ҫԡƽȡԭᣬԡʥ ͡šǡƽӹޡӡһҪģй֪ ʶӺ˵ûа취ʵΪûп͹۵ı׼ȷ˭ˣ˭ 11й˼缸ûԴʵ塣û ֤һдԡ
άһӡǿйĽӦй֪ʶһеġȺ еʶŽڸ츴һμеʶ֪ʶ λ֪ʶ12һʵϿһλ֪ʶӣа취ȷһ һࡣ
ҶڵĿҲƵģһλѧңͬʱҲܵҵӰ졣 ֪ʶľӢӼ˵֪ʶӵġԴǡ֪ʶȨ ӵߡġԴǡȨԾӢӵġԴС桱Ķ 13֪ʶӵġ֪ʶƼ֪ʶ롰ѧʥ֪ʶ֪ ʶ ǡĻ14֪ʶǡ족͡ΡĻ
ҶϵĿ֪ʶȨ֡Դ ġ15ĻϣֵƽȡĻ棬֪ʶ ĻֻһЩͨס򡰴׵ġмĻ롰ͼĻѣֻ֪ʶ ӲС¡Ļ16ͬʱȨӵһᡰάȵȨ桢Ȩ ϣʶ̬17Ȼһֵ֪ʶҲǡȨȡЭ ȫ̬ȡƫһֱصĻ򲻹ġĮԡ̬18֪ʶ ӵȡԭǡ϶Եĸ塱֪ʶһ֡ǿҵ ʶĿܡ֪ʶܡ롱ά֡ԡ̬19 ԵԼĻֵı׼֪ʶĿӡṤҵ֮ Щ롰ĮԡЭ֪ʶӵıиı䣬ӳܶأ ˼룬ý𣬾óɳҪĹƲƶȵ20Ȼ ڹҵỹũҵУһֱ˸ܰԵµĿӣҶں ʵп͹۵ı׼ȷһЩ֪ʶǿģһЩǡ ȷĻԿ벻֪ʶӵķ෽ʲô?

Ȼֱ׼û?ȷ˵Ϊũ˶п͹۵֤ ũˣˡȻҪ֤ĿĿܲ ֿ͹۵ȷ?ʶ۵⣬ֹ뱯ԵĻشҶλ ڸܶй֪ʶһֹۣƺõԵְҵԵһ͹ۺ ԣӢ˼ȴ򱯹ۣõԵжۻΣգ ȫʷϵ21νһСӽǮ֪ʶ ӣһλûȤڡƪ˵úܶԣиʽijɼ ΩΣΩ΢֪ʶ?֮ӢȽϱ۵ʶۣ֪ ʶӵĵжҲ׸ɼ֯һ
ֹ뱯壺ֶ֪ʶ뷨ܵõ֪ʶйѧҲӢֹ۵ö࣬й֪ʶӺ Ծؿǵɡλ淶Ե֪ʶŽ֪ʶֱӻ ⡣һ֪ʶDzǰձԶԻϸĿ͹۱׼ȷһ ĻӦ÷չ·һ·ȷĻһһDz̬?ڶ ̸Ļ֮ʱʵĻDzǺĿ?йϵоĻķ ǣ淶дԵķһоĻȽ?й֪ʶ ⡣Ҳ˵оĻйϵиʽĹʶۡȻѧۡʷ ¡ȵȵ֪ʶǵ̶ֳܹЩԭ֧ ͨɺϵͳϵ?ģϵǷҵģĻ ҵĴǷ֪ʶӵĹ?֪ʶʷϵӰ󲻴?ʹǾܵسں⣬֪ʶܲܡȻΪΡ?
ĸԣӢ˼Ƚϱۣù淶Ե֪ʶܸѧһ ۣһĻı׼ȷĻǺܺĹһϵ ܵģ֪ʶӶĻӰʮޡй֪ʶ෴Ŀ22 һȷҲ̸ȻԾ֪ʶӵȻҪúÿǹ ɡй֪ʶûԾ?
͵һԣܶй֪ʶӾĻݱӦһȷġ ΨһķԺϸȷȻǽֿĻҲһѧ ˵仰˵ĻݱĿһĻݱʵȷ˵1935ʮ ġйλĻԡݵIJϸǿӦ ŷ֮ĻգӦȫ̳̬ȣҶչ ı׼ȻִйҪǡʱ˵֮ҪȻܶ˵ ʱ˵صҪʲôδ˵
ͬ꣬ž۽ᵽġĻѧ˵֮ʱʮӣ֮ Σӡ֮ߣĪĻ֮·⣬Ϊ֮ 壬Ϊ֮ ˼ǡ23ңΪֹй֪ʶӻΪĻ⡰˼ǡ
Ȼڡ˼ǡ֮ʱй֪ʶѰʲô?Ѱҵǹڡʱ˵ ҪһּϸĶۣDzѰҲܴڵĶ?Ļչ ̣ôԤͼ?οײĿͬȡᡱ֮ʱ˶ ij̶ֳȵɡͬʱĻݱĹʵԵ֪ʶҲй淶Ӧ ȻԵĹЩ֪ʶһܸȻѧһؿ͹ۻȷһ ôĻݱ佨һȿ͹ϸı׼ʮ˵ôֻһĻչ ķѡĻչҪһһԵķ񡰼ںšȻֱȽͳķ򣬲ʮڡɽ(ڡ˵)Լʤöٵ βǿ?֮ܶҪҵһּϸĻݱĹʽ ǺѰһҵĶ
˼ڶЩʶҲкֹ۵ĿŵرȽ֪ʶӹ ֪ʶҽڲ̬֪ʶ̸Ͻڵı֮ʱ˼ ˶̨Ӧ˵˵˵ԭּڼ̨Ს̬һ ҽﲡʱҪҪָﲡ˵ٻдĵطҪ ΣоЩ޲ĵطңڽй֮·֮ʱͽҲ ǿҽѧı24
ǵȻܴӺܶ෽̸磬ҽDzֻע⵽֢ѣǵ ?ʹҽֻע⵽֢֪ʶӦģ?Ӧð еĵʧܵÿ͹۷Է?һεķۿ Ľ?
ȻҪҽڲ֢֪ʶ֪ʶӹĻ֪ʶDzͬġҽѧij̶ ȻѧΪоĻѧûô͹۵ķѧ(methodology) ҽѧ棬֪ʶĶ֪ʶǷֿġ˵ܶ఩֢Լȱй ֢֪ʶܶа֢֪ʶҽԼûа֢йĻһλй֪ʶ ӹйĻ֪ʶôֿģ塣ͬʱѧҵ֪ʶ һЩĻijɼ塣
ͽڵҽҲǣ浽ôоһĻ⣬ǹ淶дԷ֮ ⣬ͽںͺܶй֪ʶһȫù淶ԵķǾйĻı׼ ȿ͹ԣȻֱӵȷйĻһСֵǡáǡ ǡĻľǡšģһǡûмֵǡáǡ̬ ǡ⽨Ŷǡյġ
Ȼֹ淶ԵķҶġ롱֪ʶһǣ浽͹ ⡣˵̬ȵֺԣһҪ ȥʵ鷳磬ǸûԵķ⽨ŶǸ ϶ڽΪ?
ԵģһĻһȷһDz̬Ҫʲô׼ ˣ׼ԶбصĻͲ֪һDz̬֪ һDz̬Ͳ˵ڲҪ̸棬ֻҪҽһ̸̬
ΪһĻôҪȫķ˼Ժܶѧߣ ӢѧߣоһĻֱӵù淶Եķǿ׷ӵ йϣյĵ¹ǻѧĽǶȣܵ׿Լĵд оед֮󣬲а취ǵһһDzɱ ëһǸdzȥɵIJ̬οΪһܹĻϵô ӣڻûгЩϵǰ̸̬⡣
Ȼܶй֪ʶȴŵù淶ķֱӵȷһĻһֺã һֲãȻֹ۵ؽһĻĿꡣ磺ά˵йˡҪ лĻͬͳҪйΪķ⽨ŶҪ Ļʡ̵ĶͬʱҲҪ֮һЩһЩ ġȾ25
ȻĿһȻ֮⣬һмֵΪһǣ浽Ĺ ڹ淶Է⣬һа֮ӡ
ֺֹ۵ĻĿԼλ淶֪ʶֹ۵Ŀ⣬ܶй֪ʶ ֪ʶĹбȽֹ۵Ŀά̸ҴͳĻĶ֮ʱѾע ⵽ҵĴͳУۡʶۡǺ϶ΪһġҶŽں˽ ֡϶ΪһĿӢ˼гͻ26ȻԾ֪ʶô ͻ?֪ʶӦʲô?ⷽĿ?Ӣ֪ʶӶǿ űĹᵽİдĻܵطֿǸţҪֱ ҵ֪ʶ˼ġͷԴ򡰸족Խһϵʶ۸йŽ ˼벻ͬ?;ͬ?ͬĻһǶȺ?ʲô?Ծ ֪ʶӵȻҪ⣬ֻϵ֮ĿΪ쾭
й֪ʶӶԼĽɫлӦеӰҲʮֹ۵ĿȻ ֹҲǺܳ⡣磬ҶھùŽ֪ʶӡԴˡĻ С(legitimization)񡱣ǡָʵı ǨСžԵĵλ27ȻĹ̲һˡ ָһЩƶȵĹоЩײ졣John Dunn ЩԵ˼ֳ֣ۡٷ(ٷ)֪ʶӵ (ά˼Ҷ˼)Լϰյۡ(С˼)28 ôĹ̺ܾܿۻӰĽDzؾ ֪ʶӵһӰοžԵĵλ֪ʶһ? С֪ʶ?λ֪ʶ?ߵӰôκĵӰ ?
˵ǨĶʲô?ҶǰֳȺ塱֪ʶӡ ľӢ(Ȩӵߡ)͡ձڡ29ǰ£ ǨУС֪ʶ⣬˭ûдԡ
ʵǨҲãδĶлҲąִ̃ҲãǨ֪ʶ ĴԶҲҪܻ˵Ȼʵ֪ʶĶҪ СĻȫط˼֪ʶӦážԵĵλ Ȼô֤˵?磬άһǿйĽ֡ط˼ ֪ʶӣһĽձά¡Ժķչ30ôʣ ձʱijɹ֪ʶ뷴˼ձĻĽ?οѾ˵һ 棬ܡ뷴˼IJһܰԵµģԵҶǣ ܶʶ⡣˼Һܻط˼ǵа岻һʺ ķչ
Ϊ֪ʶϲǿʵȻĻӦȻӰҲϲ֪ʶ dzΪΪ˽Ҫ⣬ķ˼ҪġȻֻܶ ֪ѡ⣬༴һҪܸѧʣֻҪ¾ȥˡ磬 ĽҪܸ?ҪȵߵЭ?ɫи ҼԹޱɺгǷ뷴˼֪ʶܽ?Щ˲֪ʶ ܲ˵Ⱦҵң𾴴Ȼ?
άھ20֮󣬡֪ʶȺеʶѧ֣ һҵ硢ڴ硢ӡȸط֡ΪǸʱǡ 㡭ӡ֮ʱǡ֪ʶӡԽԽ֪ʶϡ֪ʶϢ֪ʶϵ ͳǻۣҲ˵ϵͳ֮ʱ31Ȼ̨ġ ײ㡱Ѿܴ󣬶Žںǿ̨˼ġλ롰ӹ׻32ο ķײ󣬿DZ(Robert N. Bellah)ѧǾڵΣ33仰˵ն壬֪ʶӵȻ뷴˼ģǵѧʲһ ʹĻͽһЩԣǸѧʲһа취

֮ܶй֪ʶӵԾdzһֺбصֹԿ 쾭34ǵֹµص㡣Ƕù淶Է ĻᣬԼҽһֱӵָһĻһһDz ̬仰˵ǶԻձԵĵ֮׼е Щ׼ȿ͹ϸ԰Щ׼ĻݱΨһ;ԣݱĿ ǸĻ༴ͬйҲӦа취й Ļݱ֪ʶͨǰԭ֧֪ʶһϵ Ҫǣʵ֪һЩǰϵ֪ȾߡңЩ ӦþһСƽȡ֮ߵĵλĻݱ䡣⣬Щ ʷѾĻݱߣٵʱһ
ЩԤ費һȫʵһҲϺԼյ˼35Ȼ ̸ģֶ֪ʶԼ֪ʶӱֹ廹Ǻܳ⡣֪ ʶҪԾؿǵЩбȽϱ۵ķ档ûп֮ǰֹ ǵ塱֮ڡ֪ʶ뷴˼Ҫ һԼͱһгɼļȵߣһֲǵֻȻ ԼܵӵľӢӡν֪֮Ϊ֪֪֮Ϊ֪Ǻܸ 룬20ѧ֪ʶӵȻҪǵܶԼ֪ ʶ⡣
ʵʵѣֶԪЩµ⣬Ѿ۵ֹ뱯⣬ҲIJν ͨ⣬ôסôһĻһ潨һ ŹԵִᣬҲ˵ôһּˡ롰ᡣ֣Ӧ(1842-1923)ܶй֪ʶһйڡ棬ŷ ڡ36˵˵Ļûнͨ⡣Ȼ ˼ڡر󣬼Dzע⵽ִʵҪ˼Ļ ȫдԣʵҪĽǶ̸йִdzϧģĻ ޱȴûӰܶй֪ʶӡ
й֪ʶ̬һҪıּǵ͹̨ھϵijɾͣھ ǡ١ġһƪᵽܶ37ֿ̨Ϊ »ûͻƣʻƶϵĽ̫ҪĽû ĺڰαԴǼٵġ
1985̨֮ʱһλѧ˵ⲻһᣬô ˵ǵн?1989ٰ̨һ̸Уһλ˵̨ Ρõķչ̣Դ½ʾ--һ̨ξóɾȻ ˵ľʵ߷ȴҲƿɳ--Ŀǰ½ϲΪ ɵɣͿԽõĻף뷨ʹѾȱȫ˳Ϊ ˡ38
ҵĽǶλдԵĿdzȻйǺܿ ͱ˵ijɾͣλǿȴ̨ȱ㣬Ǹһ̨廹û ҵ취ȫؽľô͹ϽΪͬڡӸƿ Уǿʥ֮ĸãʱ֮Զѡοû ϵĽôýƶȷЩƶȲĻôؽľ?û ϵĽôжлԼв׼?ϰջǿԷô ɼҵļֵ?ֵǣλĿȻ½ξУӦа취ҵ̨õֿȫһ ȷĿԣΪպԶʷɳ֪ʶô˲Ľ ë󶫵ġԾһDzеġ
Ҫ˽й֪ʶô͹ijɾ֮ƫ򲢲ףѧǴͬ⣺ йеĻǡģӦúʵʵ39ΪĻ ӡҵġ񡱾ȻǿΪ츣ľ巽С֮ ֮ĻҲָ֡ӡīӡⱾԺʵСҲǺܶ ˼ҵһĿ(ӡһ)ڡ׾гֵġáҲ ò̵ֹġ֡һѧġĿľǾ Եļֵǡƽ¡ҴͳȻǼˡ롰40 츴۵˵ųաҡĿ˵ϵı׼ ȻdzϵԵı׼ֻǾڵڶĵλȻҪڵ һĵλ˵ϼֵҪȻҪ֮ϣֵظ ڴһֵʼֵ41
ѹĩ֪ʶôܹйǿƼǺܿ趨 Ŀ꣬µԱ㷢չãҲǰѹ(instrumental rationality) Ҫֵ֮һͬʱʵǿѧߵо൱֤Ժܶĩ ҵ֪ʶӶԣ϶ǺȻ42ҵĹ۵ ƽ ȡ̼켺֮࣬ļֵǽڵģȴ ˼벻ԶǣҲС񱾡ţϰΪְʾ
ְʾΰ˼֮(˵)ҲǰȽͨ 磬DZΪʱǿﺦ̣ʥ˳Ϊ֮ ȺȻ֮Ϊʦʾ֮֮Ҳ֡򡰴֮ѡپ ޹ϵ͢ҲƵĿ--ҲҲҲ ΪҲ֮Ҳ43֮ġȻһȻΪ õĻDzһȻΪġ͡44? еרƶȵȻͬרƸҺеҲͬе˻ ܼйĻһֲ֣һ֡ԴͳйΪһܹͨԻ ͳһԵϵͳȻܶѧܴͬԺйǸ(axial civiliz ation)صʵƶȼijͻ(tension)Ļ йʵƶгͻǸһЩı֮
ΣйеĻԼһƫķȻںЧش ִξõʵʱй֪ʶǷ񷢻?ǿ԰ ⼯ֶԪϣΪԽԽؿҪʵϽһִ ᣬֶԪ򲻿ɻȱġԵĶԪ塱ָҵʱ( ij̶ֳȵĸԤ)ʷ֤Ү(F.A.Hayek)ʮǰۣ dzҵƶ⣬ûһܾܵӸ˾ԵĴ̼(incentives) ܵó׻һӳɱĻ(reduce transaction costs)֮ ƶȡ˼ԵĶԪ塱˼Եг֪ѧҶ(Karl W. Deu tsch)ԣһ˼ͻܷ硶缰ʷе˼ѶŹ֪ͨʶϵ ͳԵĶԪ塱͵ı༴νгг һ͡εɺϵͬ壬ԲúϷֶΣﵽԼ Ŀꡣ
죬οѧţгDZġǵĿ ôҿ͹۵ķϵۡǰѵԵı׼뷨ɻϵı׼һ ϣú߱ȽϿ͹ۣȽױʼǻҲִȷ˵ijѡ Ǽٹ˽ģҾܳʵǴͬõƱǶ١仰˵ Ƿ֮ʱб֮Ƚ֮ʱöࡣǸ˼볣ע⵽й˼ȴ ȽϺԵĶաdzպҪôǻͬǵԵ۷ һߣƱֱ׼ijԱ׼һ˵ѡӦôƶ45
гУطıٳɥͻܶࡣһ չij̶ȻܱǮѡ٣˵øԸǵ֮ Ȼŷ˼רƱԸDZ͹۵ı ׼ԷȨԵı׼ԾһǷϷŷѧǵ ûһȫ͹ûƫλһ˽ һûСһҪֻƣϾԼƫϵй ijʶȻͬǣӢɽҪʵûС͡ġ 뷨Ȼй˺ͣûа취ʵҼ̸֡ ʶĻĹ֮νҲңĵ»ûпܣôɽ ġȨܡҲûа취Ԥ()仰˵ΩΣƶԵ ䷨ģҲ⡣
ôֶ֤Ԫ뾭ִвɻȱ?Ҳֻ Եġʷɳ֪ʶ֪ʶͬһֹʷе뷨ǰ ʷĹɴһЩĹ˵ҲãΪ Ҳã˶İͶ䵽ĻҲã˼ìԭ ʷҲãĸʷ뷨ǻڳ֤ݡ
뷨ʷԱǶԪԵġҲ˵ʷȻͬĽ ΣǵйǡΩΣСʱŴİʶ ᡣ
ǹʣʷҲһһԪԵʷۣȻʷнޣ ΪŽ˸˼ƷϣǴͬС죬20й˻˵ ȱ21ͶٵػڡйȱһԪʷ˹ǿ ģҲ尽ᵽġİʶǷֲġ
ִ֮ܶĿչֶԪۣʷ(̨ 塢ŷľ)֤ģͬʱҲӳİһ棬 ˸Ĺ֮˽ûа취ȫΡõĽܸ˵Ļ תԡҪ۱ʷ֤ݡ
йֶԪijͻǿ÷չƽȡ켺ȼִֵкܻӭķ棬 ҺйеۡȻֶԪȴй˵ļֵ൱ ͻһֶԪִɻȱģôִͲйе֮ۡй֪ʶӳйĻִ֮ͷӳй ȱ㡣ȻֶԪܸܿеĵ´ͳгͻΪЩͳ ǿһֿ˼ľ񣬺ƻκа˵Ըгòij ̶ȵijͻǹôͻִкձԵ⣬йȻ⡣
̸ԵĶԪйе˼ijͻйɵг ѾãйĻܵ(legitimization)һ֡Ȼˣ ҶڡһֱĻìܣܶ20й֪ʶҲ̬ȡ۵㿴 һǿ׷˽ʱDzµģΪƻ˵ĵҲ ˼ȵߡȨ߼ֲƽȵ󡣵Ϊֹܶй˲ԸЩ ʱ岻ɱĴۡھɽɽһλӴ½ѧ˵Ͻʱ ôDzҪȱ㡣1991̨֮ʱ̨һλѧ˵쵼ΪǻûʵСߡλѧйӦа취һЩ Ĺһûʵеʵ˵СʱĿûȫ ϶ʱ壬ο½˼

˼ԵĶԪгеĻĿһųа˵ţ һȡݾгͻ˵;ͬ顣˼ԶԪȽΪ ܡȻˣ;ͬ顱лǿͬ顱ţ֮ͬ ģͬйҪ롣ѹֵйа취һʱڰǷԵ ̬ ƶȻڶСҪģС塱й֪ʶ Ҳһӭûϵͳ˵ݬ˼ʹǿԪ͡ šڻҪһ֡ͬģͬŽ̨46(˵)ͬģƾڵйѧһҪȥ˼еġͻŽ еѧҵͨ
ô˵IJͬ(diversity)˼ԼҲǿҪĹʶ Ȼÿһ˼֧֪ʶ뻥಻ͨۻ߻෴ ˵ԼĿӢ˼˼ҵľΪй֪ʶӱ ҪҵһܰйŽ˼ϵҲǷӳ˼ʶϵ ͬ47
ΣйеĵĶԪԵĶԪ壻ɽ ĿдԡҪıdzҲӦ ǸûС˽ıǡı˵úҪ ԡ֪Ⱦǻһ֡áۺ뽫 ҪֻȨӪ˽DZԶϾ48ʵҪ һ͵˵ͲҲֹԺΩȫΪ˽ ıٳթʩɥȫޣ޿ɳߡ49
仰˵Ҫľһʷܿɱг ̨ҲãҲãʢҲãһ?οЩ ססȻȴֹ۵ؾйһʷϵΪֹû ֵŷ֮ϡΣͶͬĿй ˶Ҫгǻ϶˵ǹֹ 50
֮ܶȻܶй˾öԪ룬ȴٳ϶Ԫʷϲ һЩʱΨͼ᲻ƽȵг ıٳʹֶΣԼ˼гݬѧ˵硡ܶй˾ֻ ԪףDZʡȻԪ岻һֳʷʵ壬ǸʷԵ ̡ʵʷԵĶԪ嶼ġסǷֲġ
֮ȻΪ֮⣬٣С˶࣬ΪҲáҲá˼ ҲãгԵļܹǿ˵ɣǿһЩ͹۶˰Ĺ淶Ȩ ֮ԪĶҷɢͬʱûһԵΪ쵼 ĻȺ塣˵øһЩ˽ʿһγһμα ôͲάִ˽ʹά֣ҲܻĿ϶
ܶȻΪԪỹһԵΪķΧȻΪ˱ר ˼ĽԪصǾܵؼַΧ
һԪĵ̫ԡΪԱ뷨Ϊв죬˴˼ иĸоҲͬ͡롣仰˵ԪǸ ֮ᡣ
ҪһĻԪɱ̨֮Ľͨʵ̨ĽͨھԵĻң вٹеĹأԼЩ淶ˣң˶вٵɣҪɢɢ ҪӺƽ··Ҫɽ·ȥ Ҳǿ㡣Ȼ̨ĽͨǺľ顣̫ã·ܳĦ ˺е֮ϣ˾еIJеĸûʸ񿪳
ܶйѾЩѾ̨ͬͨףŦԼĽͨûף༴ ǽܷͨ㣬˶عأ㡣ʵŦԼҲãɼҲã ٵִ޷ġͬأʷԵĶԪ᲻һ 䱾Ҳйֲڴͳĵи֮
й֪ʶųֶԪƫǹʣйִ˼һ⡣һ棬ֶԪгй ĵ룻һ棬ʷԽԽ֤ھִԼĹ УֶԪDzɻȱġй֪ʶδ?Ƿս˴һ⣬עԼĵϣҲִʵҪϣ ѰִܽķIJνġͨ?Į ʷ֤ݶûгִԼ?
ҵǣ𾴶Ӱй֪ʶӶѡ˺ߡѾӳ ʵȻҪһ̽֡йвŻ𾴵ִ֪ʶ֮ һ̫(1868-1936)Ϊ̫쵼ɹ֮ͬ˻쵼֮һ1906 1910굣ͬ˻`񱨡ࡣҪ˽һɲĽ尡 ߷ɭԴε˺мֵо51
̫׵˼񴦴ìܡзҵ˵Ҳ𾴿ӣм 徫ͬʱֹ֧干ͬΨĴ˷Ψʶۣ һĴڣǿйϵԵصȵȡȻЩìܵ һԵľҪѳԽζµIJξԵΪ ͨνġסľ񣬼йеġӹ ˵ҪִĻʵйʥ롣ԣȻܸʵҪЭ ܿ϶ֶԪ塣
ķ̱Ϊݣ̫Ҫһƽ(񶨴ͳ)룬һ ߱ɣ˽ĵϡȻȫձԵĵ¹һȫ ԵĹϣһлʷϵijɾİ塣ˣ ʷϸŵIJѧͷͬijԽ廥ڻˡϵĿո¶ ѰյľӦΪл干еʶ̬ŽĻԸʱ ֪ʶһϾйĽһʶǹʣȻϸ ܵĽ52ȻܿΪۣʷȴй20͵һһתԵĽۡ
ֽۣʶΪй˲ϡαԴؽй ֪ܽʵЭϰ׺гദбҪġ˵һԭ˼ ϼб뼤档Ȼ̬й˻Ʒܾ 壻͹ʹе߶ɡ⡱ȫ⽨ȵ ƵĴƶȣǽһֲǴƶȶܱϵͳϸķ ĹԴˣ׼IJԴﵽƽȻγһֲܵʱ¢ ϵľüܹ˼뵱Ȼгϡ
˵̫һܴ͵ִй֪ʶӡȻҪںϿ ̫׶Ϊ֪ʶеӢԴԣ̫׺ɽ ͨƩ磬ǰ˵ɽȻŴƶȺҪ Ҳϣ˽һִ˽ңνġʱ רơһҲʮֽ塣ͬʱ߷ɭ̸̷ͬ(18 65-1898)Ӱ֮ʱָģ ë󶫵Ĺڵ´ƽȡٶҪ嶯Ա֮ͨ53˵˼ʽִһûгִôй֪ʶô˼ԭ֮һΪôҪҵһ ûгִ
ңܿ϶ʱ壬Ҳг̬54 ̬һתߣй֪ʶӾԽԽܾӰ졣˶֮ʱ ˼ҲãҲã϶ֶԪ˼ΪңȻ ʵij̶ֳӦʱ壬˼뷽ȴųģԭ˵սع ҳʱ壬30Ѷ졣䲻ΪȻ55 ̨⸴гԽԽ(legitimized)Ȼʹ̨壬ʱǺǿһӾǿľ壬ڷʱDzҵӪ հٴ56԰շѾڵоӪҵ̨ӱ ǸܲʵеĹ57̨˼Ҳųг£Ϊ˼ܵ ԪĻӰ졣Щ̨һĽĶԪĻһ ȫԵĶԪĻʷԵֿ
ûʲôáڰʷȻĽΪһ̸ ̸ôʷԶԪһס֮ŽĶԪ һȥеĶԪûбסӢ(The Federalist Papers)ĽôЩȥɱף̨Ľ дһû׵ĶԪᣬ֤Ҫʵ֡Ȼ̨ ֤ǴӺܳģʷԾʵ֤֪ʶûл
дԵ̨֪ѧڡȻѧĻ ѧôԨڶԪоôϵͳĶԪȴǸԵ ʷԵĶԪ᲻һ֮ԵĶԪȫûг һ棬ϵ˼ɽĻ̫׵ûǶһֶԪԵʷۣ йһʱʷеΪֹôе׾ͻ̭磬 ʷԵʱ嶼ΨͼԼ᲻ƽȵ򣬿ĶԪ ȴûСĶԪУеľǡľ˵ᡰ롱 ᡰ򡮸塯ǡ˵ĸ壬ָ˽˼˵ Ӹ˵ļֵ˵ϡǹĶԪûһ׼ռˡ һ׼Կܰÿ˶ܷԼDZ˵ λǿԼŬɾ(Ҳ˵Ĺ)õġһ ķȽϹȡھϣɷֹ¢ϡ58
ʷԵ̨һС˽Լıٳë ĶԪᲢûСڷԪ֮ʱһ㲻ᵽЩ⡣ĶԪᣬ Ϊ塱ᡰֹȨ塱⡰ȨļС롰ȨΡ ΪڶԪУڴͻᡰϸ壬棬ֹ۵ ᰴһЩȵ߻ʱ˼ĿĹͨ59
ÿһʷԶԪУ֪ʶӼϵ˼ݬ硲ѵΣ ĶԪԵ̨壬ûΣȫԵΪĹʶ ʶкܶΣͬĹ淶롰ϰסԡ塱Ϊġɡ ܷ϶ľԼһȫСԶġѧ˼롱 ķͬʱйĻڻõIJ֣ҲԻᱣһ ˼ԡɼơһ˼DzõģȻܵ ̭60ԣ˼IJᡰͶͬ61˼ 绯ȵƺ˼ϰŻ˼Σ


һһλرоԪѧҲûӶԪʷϵ࣬Ȼ йִһгļܹ
ôDzòʣΪʲôй20˼ֹеص㣬һҪ һһҪųһЩʷֲִĶ?
йʽĿֶԪijͻһڵ˼Ҳã̫׵˼Ҳãӳй20˼ ˵ǰֳĸ(йʽ塢𾴿ӵ塢 Լ˼)ĸһЩĿԤ裬̫׻ ˼Ҳ⡣˵Ȼй20֪ʶ֮ôۣܺ ǹеЩеԤһֹеĵԻ(moral language of discourse)һȽµĹָ˼кҪһ࣬磬 ͬ˽ǺҪ룬Ȼͬһ룬 ǹеĹ淶֮һǹеһֹ֡еĹ淶ͬ СĻдй˼ЩеĹ淶ֻ˷ʱ䡣ʵһĻеĹ淶һĻĹ淶ͬǣʾǵĸʶ֮ͬ
ȷ˵й20˼빲еԤͻһԪʷԼгӢ˼Ȼ ͬһΪĻеԤĻв࣬ԼĻijԱĻij ʶ뷨֮ʱСдĸо(ɽ˼)֮ ûе𣬳Ļ죬ǹʲٵѧΪձԵĵ ƺûСȻѧʣһϺȻûʱ ̸Ҫ̸ľǽй˼һЩеصԼЩصظгijͻ ΪͻԵʣй20͵˼г
֪֮ܶʶΪйٷ˼붼Բ ijɼΪй֪ʶӡ˼ܺձԵĵ ΪǴΪٷ˼뷴ӳܶѹȻһ ֮ڣҰ˼붼ȫĻԤֱӵؽһձ 硣һй˼֢᲻һȫڹٷҲҪӳҰ˼빲еԤ衣ҲҪָЩԤΪһ˼Ĺ죬˼ߵijⲻ һ⡣
˼빹ǹô޸ĻʵҲãձҲãҲãйҲã ÿһĻһֱ޸ĹУ˵Ļһ޸Ĺ̶ѡô޸֮ʱ ҪһЩĹҪ޸ĵĿ֪꣬ʶıʣʷķӰ ʷȺ壬ԼôĻ죬dz ͬĽǶȣһȽϽģӦԵģԼʵʵĽǶȣһȽϴ󵨣ת ԵģԼаʽĽǶȡ20й˼ںߡ
Ŀ귽ǿһȫ⡱Σλ᳹ĵ ºǻΪ塢º֮⣬ûκȼƽ֮֡ ޸ҵŽһȫһĿꡣ˱ĸǿ֮⣬ Ҫŷ֮ϡԣĿڹʹϵ治Ҫڵ۹йİ ҪʹйܵӵĹ֮һ˵й˵ĿֻǴһԵĹ Dz̫ǡΪΪ̡()ͬڵؾܾ۹塣
˵Ϊ̡ôԶĿ꣬ӳ˴ͳһЩҳ˹ ʹϵĿ⣬й20͵ĹڷĿ꣬ǼȸԶַӳͳܴ ڵĿɽȨ˼룬ΪԼġȨ͡Ȩܽ ˵Ϊֹܽ⣬ôѡȫΡ롰ߡ ͬʱȫʵСӢ˼ аʽģй֪ʶӺΪ۲ʵʡܶ Ϊ̨廹ûʵ۾Ϳ̨֤λȫ62֤ Ƕ϶Ŀ꣬ΪDzʵʣΪ䲻ʵʵʿҲ ҹȽʵԵĿ꣬˼롢áг仰 ˵й20͵˼볣йҪʷ޷ס
ڶԤһַdzֹ۵ʶۡŸعνġ֪ʶ塱ij ̶ظȻֽڵġ֪ʶ塱رָһ֪ʶӵۣȷ DzȷӰʷĪֹʶָһԤ裬 оҵȷֹ壬»淶ԵѧԵһ п͹۵ȫЩЩγһֺ ϵΪйеʶϵϵûнǰйû 취ҵ·63Ҫģϵ˼ᵽġĻ֮· ⡱ҵϸֿ͹۵ı׼ԾйĻΨһ·Ȼһ ȻǿйҪϵ֮Ԥ費һ˼ͻ硵˼ гԪ塣ͬģĿ굱Ȼ뾭гIJƽȷ治ϡ
ϵ˹ʷ֪ʶǵԤдʷıʡԤ裬ʷ ǶԪԵġ̸йеĿָŴйˣй 򵱴ˣʷһڵ֪ʶϺĽ׶ΣĽ׶θ йȫһΪĻȽԣ֮еѻȱ㶼 ԭǼȵ벻˼µġ
Ȼٵѧ߼Ļ壬Ƚļֵжϣ ܶѧȻǿŷʷϺͻijɾͣйҪȡĻ ޸ԼĻֽ˼еĶԪ岻ǴȻˣ ֵ̽
ܶ˻ͬ⣬ÿһĻףҪϵ޸ģң޸֮ʱӦÿǵ Ļص㡣ȻʵԵ޸IJͬھ÷һ浹ǿйĻ գ˵йĻĻѾȫԵΪο˵֮ й˻һָġ̫ͬƽʱ
йʷ۲ƫֵֺܹĶԪ壬ҶõʷиԤķ 򡰳ǻĿΪͬʱȷϵ˼Ŀӻ ˽⵽ʷijʲôǹʣյڶԤ裬˼粻һִӺܶ෽ ˼гǸ벻ӵִȻ£ַ ̬Ⱥѱ⡣
յĸԤ裬Ϊ˸糱ﵽĿ꣬ȷϵĿҪŽ ܶʹʷø졣Խǿ֪ȾĹ򣬼һ϶µι ҲãҲã֪ʶҲã϶µĹ̸ֶԪ岻 ̫ϡ
ԤָһСȻʷij ûʷĻᣬΪ谭ԼȱԼȵߵ йѶ벻һЩ򿪷һִԱ ѣһЩdzҪĴĻ(磬Ǵһ)ҿԭ£ (磬ʱرҵС㲻С䵽 )ô?ͬģ翪ִûȱ пԭĻܶģһܷŭطһûоһܲ(Legitimized)ǿΪ ȱǷ еĹѲ仰˵ΪΪʷ ΪʷڰƵʱȥԲͲֵô ڡ
Ȼ̨徭ͻ֮󣬺ܶй֪ʶȴΪֽǡ١ĶȻ ʲôйʽִģ1980ҿ϶ģĿ ġοοѧҰжŷޡ70ԺʼĹ ұȽ֮ʱǺٿ̨ôȶֽȫĹ̡ʵϣӱȽо ÷չҲãηչҲą̃ijɾͺ׿졣Ȼˣպܶй֪ ʶӵĿ˵̨ĹҼIJֻͬʮЦٲ64
иаĿǷֲġһ̨ʱгᵱ ȻȫΡĿꡣ˵˼ʽӳ͹ Ҳӳߵı׼
ֽйеԤ򿴷ȻܶıۣȻ۾ͷӳһֹе (agenda)һй˼ķչһѧɵijͻһ ȻйеԤԼ⡣ȷ˵ĸԤǿӵĽɫ˭ǿ ?һеġеָijеָһʶ άġй֪ʶһеġȺеʶԭġһ ѧ֮ܺ͡65ۿ˭Ӧʲôϡϡ ȷܶ?ǵϵӦòʲô˼ҵıۡʶֻʷ?Щⶼ һЩеġȻ۽йĸ˼ô⣬ǹ ԤȻг롣
ԤԨԴҴͳ?Ǵӹ?ѧȻΪ۲ݡȻ ؿ20ͳڴйۣеĸԤر еԤںϡǰˡߡ(The Federalist)Լ ԼΪʹ壬¬󡢺ڸԼ˼Ϊʹ ˼(¼˼)
ǿġİʶ϶гͬʱԽԽ 彻֯һ𣬶ûийϵ֪ʶһֺ ϵ˼֮෴ܶй֪ʶһľáȫΡ롰 ͬʱʵ66ѹй˼ƫ˼ ¬ķһųгƫԽйķչĪӰ졣
ʵڴͳĸԴԤҴͳ֮Ĺϵ̫ӣﲻϸ̽֡Ȼ ԤΪ˼аʽģȻҪ磬ҲҪ̫ʵ ⣬һֲʵۡ
ֲʵ۵ȻдͳĸԴſƵζµĿ ǶȸѧԼҵӰ쾭֯һ𣬶ĩʱֿʮС̫˼벢ǹӹӰǿй20аƫͬʱ,˼ֿڸۣǶ(Gemeinschaft)(Gesellschaft)Ŀ67˵ ָ˼еһգǹŴᶼлӻԺ󣬺ܶһ Ӧº˼硡鵭ͨҡ֯ӵ ()һع뻯ᣬǸܺ񡢵ºԣũҵΪ С˵лǰ˵ûôá ̸ֻǶлԺĹŴ뻯ʶ̬ʶ ֵԵԻ(tension)

ôšΪỹִĻƹԵᲿ ţôѽҲôѽἰгΪ ԼĶ仰˵룬Ľûе һѽȫҪҵһЩµļֵһ µĵ룬˽вƲıɵ𾴣ɵķҵijɳԼ ֪ʶΪмֵĻԵij̶ȷ롣ң ־ǣ浽һֵ¹ıͨdzϹĵˮ׼ȸ˻ͥСߵĵһ㡣һ᲻ûе򣬶DZ ýȻܰеԴķĿꡣ
Ȼ۵ɱ䲻סߵ˼ڵĿƵģΪڽ ϣҲΪĻйĻй˼ҲDZȽų ᣬ̨һֽᡣѹôй֪ʶӻΪ̨徭鲻 йִӣ̨ᵱȻеᡣԺ й֪ʶӶԣ̨Ľǡ١ġ
ĻҲӽ˼˵¬Ժ󣬡(bourgeois) С(petty bourgeois)˵Ļ¬ܿԴΪƣԻΪ Ϊ(ԡӡЧƪ)С¬󡢺ڸԼ˼˼ ӡȻĻѧڽ̣ԼѧҲиֿ϶ ֮Ϊ֮׻ΤͽԼʱо̸ֽذѽ ῴΪý֮׻ɱ䡣ѧҲܶ෴ӳת䡣ȷ˵Bern ard Mandeville\'s The Fable of thd Bees(18)DZһ̴ַͳľ Ҫ˽еĵ˼Ҫij̶ֳȵıͨ68ʵ˹ʥ ˹ܾǰǿĵˮ׼Ųߵĵ롣仰˵ ĻĿʥǸе69
й˼ȱ׻϶˼йʷҵԼ ᳣ܷֵȡҲܵij̶ֳȵ70Ȼij̶ ޡ˼һֱǿǿѧߵĸ֪ιƽµĹ ǿķһ˵ĵλѧƽȣ ܼʹᾡܷĿ֮ϡʵй20֪ʶûа̨ йʷĴֽķӦ
һǶʱǸ⽨ƶȱҵвˣʿ˽׼֣ϵ Ĺʱپƽڵ˵ܵǴӼ̬ͥԼ̬ 71ȻԼս˼ûлӭת?
ҡλְһЩȽµܹȻȻ һ֡ĿҪؽһΪᡣ˵ܹ ı仯Ǹӷ⽨׶εؽ׶εǰ̣Ǹƶȵ·˥ʱ
йᷢչڶԪʱٻɵձѧңδִй ѿʱӢѧMark Elvinǿδͻƻ򡰸ũҵֻ ͡ʡгܹ붼лԼѧƼͻơҰΪ ˲ķӡˢҩԼ̡ȻѧҵĿ ЩͻƲ̫Ҫ˵֡ڡġû顢ôҪ ֯棬ȻǿšԾ⽨ڷΪᡣ ֱӵǿ˵ûа취ͳ˼롣ӡˢķҲһ Ϊӭġա̷䡢ʱ߻ʱģԼʷ飬 ֹӡ72δ˼кٿ񺺴ڡۡ ̡̬֡ȡȻѧȻ˵Ϊ㣬ûֱӵǿ ļֵοҵлļֵ
йᷢչʱ˼ѧ˵ʱʱѿ ʵǸʱľ˲𡣸ءصóסе Լ˿ڣӡǬ¡ʱйл˿ڸ˿ڲ( ǧ)ö˽вƲΪǿ̡ͨߣ˶Լְҵ ʼ񡣻ƶȡռйϵ˰ƶȣԼײƶȣת䡣 Ҫ˵תԽԽѾûԱȨĸ档ʱľ˼ Ӧת̬ȡǻޡ̡ǽԱĻ73ͬʱ ޵˼ҹȨܹĿij̶ֳ20ζ74
Ȼ˼δһӦת䣬ûתΪһǰ ѧҲã֤˶Ҳã˼룬˵ѧķ 仯ʵ֮֡ʣžǺǿҲҪظƶȣ ĽȽϼ򵥵ᡣοҪظƴӹƶȣƺҪ ũҵҵȡһᣬΪֹѧ ֮ܵй𾴵ģǹ䡣
֮ܶʥǸֲģйʷÿһн IJˣ֪ʶӦµܹûЩڡı仯зֽ ļֵѹ20еԤ費׸ϣܶй֪ ʶӲ̨̫徭εͻҲӡͬʱй֪ʶǰܶô϶ ë󶫵ҲΪ档һй20֪ʶųֶԪ гƫֲҡ̼ҵһЩܸĿ
ЩԴ֤й20˼ĻԡǰܶѧΪѻƬս֮ й˼ԽԽ󻯶봫ͳȻѧ߲Ѿ˽⵽˵IJ㡣 ĩܶйҪúõ޸̳еĻdzĵǿ ڡȫȻĻһЩеԤ 塣һой20˼ڴͳĸԴ̸˼ĸԴ οʲô⽨Ŷ
շĿйе˼붼ǻơӹ۵ĿꡣȻ ĿҲһû̸ص㣬Ǹֲġ仰˵ йͳ˼ļֵ(˽вƲıɵ𾴡 ɡҵķչԼ֪ʶӵ)ûȡIJ̬(׷ ̬Լº˼硡鵭)Ϊҵ˵ļֵ ǷֲģԲԽijΪļֵ
ĩ֮ûиĸı䡣һ桰ӹľչ ̫׵ġʼת׳棬סIJġͨһ棬Ϊ ֪ʶӺܶ໹Dz϶ļֵ԰ִ뽻 ֯һΪôԲܿ϶ԽΪ ԪгοdzǿҪʷ׶ξһгĴͬʱ һȻʷ̨徭ԽԽ֤ʵʵִгĴ ۣܶй֪ʶ̸ִ֮ʱȴǰʷ֤Ĩɱа
ѵⲻһֲʵ?
ۣʵ֪ʶӽɫֹ
֮ܶҪ̸й20֪ʶӵԾڣһᵽʵ ۣһע⵽Ƕ֪ʶӽɫֹ壬ǾҪ ķмȿ͹ϸı׼ͬʱذЩ׼֮ɺ ϵңа취ܿ͹۵ؾһЩ֪ʶǰȷϵһЩд ˼롣
ֹνʵ۲һǴ˼롣Dzжһ ˵еһûСֻǿԾĿ֪꣬ʶӦÿǵй ˵ҪϵزеһҸ˾й20͵˼ܶ ȱԾ
ңԾǷֲġ仰˵Ԥ費ֹ壬 игϵIJʵۡ˵ڶԤָʶ۷ֹ 壬ĸԤָ֪ȾʷеҪɫһй֪ʶӶԼ йĿꡢ֪ʶıʡʷĹ죬ԼЩԤǽ ֯һġԾĻDzҪЩԤھܲ ʵҪ(ֶ)Լ֪ʶӵִʷʵ֮ ܰݵĽɫ?
Ȼй֪ʶԾĻⲻ˵йĻĻִ Ҫʷġ̥ʵʷϵĻһǹ̥?Ϊֹ һܱԾӹĻǰг ʥļֵ?йԾⲻDZŷأֻǸŷIJͬѡ仰 ˵֤ͬءûа취֤
Ҹ˵Ŀй֪ʶؼԵԾĸֹ εĿѾ˵ӢۼJohn DunnǰЩֳ֣ٷ Եġۡרһ֪ʶӡۡ(رָΪѧң ָκ֪ʶӣԼϰյġۡۻʶô ?Ӧʲô׼Ϊ?е˻Щ׼̫ԣԲֵۡʵ ŽԵĿܶìܡȷ˵DunnԼѹٷר۶һ ӣȽ͡ϰۡй֪ʶһѹٷԼϰ۶ӣһΪԼһ֡վΪһȺʶ75
ҪǿľйʽǶǣ浽⡣ӡϰۡ ˼ô?粻ϰտĻô?ͬʱ ҪģôмְֵҵһôйٷԵ˵? ٷԵ˵һᷴӳһЩɼȻѾ˵ղѧߵ˵֪ ʶҲûа취һֳԽɼľ硣ѵԤ賬еijɼ?ο ЩԤ֪ʶΪйӢۣʹǵ͡Ҳһ Ӱ˵ϵˣҪôһ˻ϰڻũ˻򲿳 ?˵ûеǿ˵?еĽɫ?֪ʶ ӵʶҲǸɼ֯һ20й֪ʶӵЩɼ?Щ ɼ֮ʱDZ׼Ӧô?ǵı׼ӦӦǿִԼʵҪ? Ϊ˽ЩʵҪӦʲôĹ?Զʷɳ֪ʶ?һ ֳʷ֤ݵ?ûпǵ֪ʶӣûԾ?ûԾ֪ʶ ӣܲܡй硱?

׾ij˻ƿĸشлȻΪʱĹϵܰ ȫ޸ġԭ¡
ڶάҵڷչǰ⡷(̨湫˾1989)ҳ24-25 454768
οRichard J. Bernstein,Beyond Objectivism and Relativism(Philadep hia:University of Pennsylvania Press,1983),and John Dunn,Political Oblig ation in its Historical Context(Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,1980),PP.14 3-299.
ܹοά飬ҳ33-34
ݶά飬ҳ21
IJε(̨ѧ֣1980)ҳ51-56
߷ɭ̫׵˼(1868-1919 )ѧͳij(̨ʱĻҵ޹˾1985)ҳ15-17
˼⣬̨ġۡ64(19918)ҳ149
ҶᡢĻ֪ʶӡ(̨ͼ޹˾1984) ҳ91-92
10John Dunn,Western Political Theory in the Face of the Futur e(cambridge:Cambridge University Press,1990),P.133.
11ȷ˵۵˼һ棬ûʵʵķ 棬뿴ϵġɽеִйʷݹݿʮ(̨1991) ҳ16һܶй֪ʶӲֹǺġ֤ ЩûĹдԡߺԴ˼벻ʵʵĿǰ £ûаġûаġȨ Ȩ뿴ߺԴ顶ͬ˻ ۡ(̨оԺоרʮţ1985)
12ά飬򡷣ҳ51091
13Ҷ飬ҳ107-109122146
14ͬϣҳ146-148
15ͬϣҳ109
16ͬϣҳ146
17ͬϣҳ122
18ͬϣҳ126148162
19ͬϣҳ124-125127ڶ֪ʶӽɫĿƣƽ ʱڣ֪ʶģ׶Σ֪ʶ뿴ࡶ ŵĶԪᡷ(̨ͼɷ޹˾1985)ҳ150-151
20Ҷ飬ҳ155-168
21ӢʶۣοעᵽԼ׾Some Ancient Root s of Modern Chinese Thought,in Early China,vol.11-12(1985-1987 ),PP.61-117.
22ο׾Continuities Between Modern and Premodern China,in Pa ul A.Co hen,Merle Goldman,eds.,ldeas Across Cultures(Cambridge,Massachus etts:Council on East Asian Studies,Harvard Universiy,1990,pp.263-292;Լֶۿ̨ۡ24(19884)ҳ78- 95Լעᵽ׾
23ԭһʮй˼ʷ١(̨ѧ磬1980)ҳ142 -149
24˼⡶̨ġۡҳ148Լ˼⣬й֮· ( dz磬1981)ҳ5-6ʵй֮·򡷵ҽǡ˽ߵ ״Ϊݡֻѡ
25ά飬ҳ66
26ͬϣҳ120뿴桰йʽĿֶԪijͻڵ Ԥ˵
27Ҷ飬ҳ9290143
28John Dunn,Rethinking Modern Political Theory(Cambri dge:Cambridge University Press,1985).
29Ҷ飬ҳ143
30ά飬ҳ67
31ͬϣҳ178-179
32ͬϣҳ112-113,52,14-15,46-47
33Robert N.Bellah et al,Habits of the Heart(Berkeley: Universiy of California Press,1981).
34οע23׾
35ο׾John Stuart MillsOn libertyand the Conceptualizat ion o f Democracy in the Three Principles of the People,paper for the Conference on Eighty Years History of the Republic of China,1912-1991,sponsored by Academia Si nica etc,Taipei,August 11-15,1991.Also in The American Asian Review, X:1(Spring 1992),pp.-41.
36֣Ӧҵйѧʷѡ֮( л֣1959)ҳ104-106
37Thomas A.Metzger,The Chinese Reconciliation of Moral-Sacred Value s wit h Modern Pluralism,in Ramon H.Myers,ed.,Two Societies in Opposition (Stanford:Hoover Institution Press,1991),pp.43-51.
38йʱ19891219ա
39ǿйĻ(this-worldliness)尡ӢʱS.N.Eisenstadtȡ
40ⷽBenjamin I.Schwartz,Some Polarities in Conf ucian Thought,in David S.Nivison and Arthur F.Wright,eds,Confucianism in Ac tion(Sta nford:Stanford University Press,1959),pp.50-62.мֵ尡 Ҿ˼͡оԺʷоࡶй˼ֻļ( ̨1984)ҳ3-19
41츴ۡѧ֮䡷(̨ѧ֣1980)ҳ299
42뿴ǿҴͳά(1839-1911)(̨˾ ӡ1976)Сй˼ʷۡ(̨磬1977)Լ лƿ䡶ĩ˼룺ԨԴоԺʷоࡶ йִļ(̨1991)ҳ363-398
43سʳıࡷ˲(̨֣1964)18b 11b
44ھá͡йͳԵܲͬDZ Ϊб ء뿴й֮͹Ȩ˼롷̨1991ꡣ
45J.R.Lucas,On Processes for Resolving Disputes,in Essays in Lega l Philosophy(Berkeley:University of Califormia Press,1972),pp.167-182.
46ࡶŵĶԪᡷ(1985)ҳ13-14,16-28
47οע36ᵽ׾Լ˵ġA Confucian Kind o f Modem Th ought:Secularization an the Concept of the Ti-hsi,оԺ ʷоࡶйִļ(̨1991)ҳ277-330
48ɽеִйҳ1020
49й֮͹ҳ10
50磬עࡢ50¡
51Hao Chang,Chinese Intellectuals in Crisis(Berkeley:University of Ca lifom ia Press,1987);Shimada Kenji,trans.J.A.Fogel,Pioneer of the Chinese Revo lution;Z hang Binglin and Confucianism(Stanford:Stanford University Press,1990), ע߷ɭ飻 Դͬ˻ĸۡ
52߷ɭ̫סҳ109-115
53߷ɭʷ˶(̨ ʳĻʵҵɷ޹˾1987)ҳ1-19
54ߺԴ飬ҳ188-189,199,199,332,3 34
55ԭ飬ҳ221
56հٴ̨ܸ?(̨Զ磬1980)ҳ220-221
57John C.H.Fei,A Historical Perspective on Economic Modemiza-tion i n the ROC,in R.H.Myers,ed,Two Societies in Opposttion(Stanford:Hoov er Institution Press,1991),pp.97-110.
58ࡶŵĶԪᡷҳ284410-11,32
59ͬϣҳ1020
60ͬϣҳ6-7,13-14,18-19,24-27
61ͬϣҳ42
62ԳϽ¬ʽ˼̨˵ձ ˵ľ飬½̨ѧдԡ
63οע36ע23׾
64Ϊӣ뿴λ˶ڡ29ڵ(19889)ҳ147-148 οѧԱȽԷо70ԺLary Diamond, The Globalization of Democracy:Trends,Types,Causes,and Prospects,to appear i n Robert Slater,Barry Schutz,Steven Dor eos,Global Transfor-mation and the Third World(Boulder:Lynne Rienper Publishers,1992).
65ά飬򡷣ҳ5ԭҳ208
66οCharles E.Lindblom,Politics and Markets(N.Y.:Basic Books,Inc, Publi shers,1977),pp.247-260;David Held,Models of Democracy(Stanford:S tanford University Press,1987).
67ߵķǴҶ飬ҳ2ġFerdinand Toennies ǿġ
68William Anthony Stanton,Bernard Mandevilles Ambiguity in The Fable of the Bees:A Study in the Use of Literary Traditions(Ph.D.dissertation for the Department of English,The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill,1978) .
69For this point about Aristotle,Augustine,etc.,see Thomas A.Metzger, Dev elopmental Criteria and Indigenously Conceptualized Options:A Normative Approach to Chinas Modernization in Recent Times,in Issues and Studies ,23:2(February 1987),pp.37-44.
70Ӣʱ˼뾭÷չйڽ˾񡷣in The Chinese Intellectual,vo1.6(winter 1985),pp.3-45.
71Cho-yun Hsu,Ancient China in Transition(Stanford:St anford University Press,1965),p.2.
72촫δʷ(̨йѧίԱᣬ1967)ҳ180
73ʱľת䣬ܶࡣRamon H.Myers,How Did the Modern Chinese Economy Develop?--A Review Article,in The Journal of As ian Studies,50:3(August 1991),pp.604-628.
74ܱ桶ʮй˼зǴͳɷݵķоԺ ʷо 15ϲ(19866)ҳ1-31׾桰ʵʵѣ ֶԪ塱Ҳ̸⡣
75ά飬ҳ91öŽڵĻ֮ʱΪ׾ĵ磬Ϊı ľӹ졣