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һǹġڽ֮ϢϢͨ 죬һزٵȺܵвһ ˲ĸ壬һǰ˼ʹϵڵһȫгô νɣǸѡɡгеҵȺе໥Ž᣿

A.ִζ˵ĸ廯

һPȫгڽԶڴľΪѳΪ Ƕǹ˿ߣ۳֮ǻʲôгѳΪѧ ڽ̣ijЩ˵ζ"ʷս"ڵгڸȺ ƻΪ˽гֵԺǽܶгṩʲôԼ ʲôֵ

ͳͥȺһֳԱijɹһֳԱijʧҵ⵽ ϹҲʽ΢ŵ¹ͳһԭ¸Ůȥ ܽھҵгϲ뾺 չһǸеϲ׼һdzƶĴڡڶ ֮жӲԽ׳һͰļƶйƶ ֮Լһ¬ľ߷ζɣǷ񶨵ġ

ӦᵽǣĹʻʹȺ丣״⵽˾漰 εӺܹߣΨһĿǹɶֺ졣ڹҵIJ ϣDzܱԿƻθСʱĹʻʹùʩп òܡ෴ҲڣôʣѾʱ

ɵά

һ˫Σеĸһ棬ҿִ罥ĸǷΪ ϼṩ֧֡

1.ɵĵһ壬ϤʷԣΪ֧ɡΪΪֹ һ ʷԱȨijԼȨһΨһɳ ɵȨռ֧ߡʧȥȨ֧򱻳"""" ĴԴѧ֮һū᣺Уֻ--ū͡Ů뺢ͯ ɵġǽΪ֧ˣΪ۵ɡǵζŶ˵ ѹȣǵIJƸʹƶǵȨʹȨơ

Ϊ֧ˣʵֻ֪Ϊ֧Ե壬֮һֻ ǵIJҵ븽ɵĹDzƲDzýΪʹǽ ˵ܹϲζɣҲȻֻǽ Ϊ֧--˶֧⡣CB˸ɭָʲ׼Ľν⽨ ƶ�"ĸ"ģûκ˵ūũūԼˣ Լ

κ˶ͬȵؾɵȨɽɡˣκҪ Ȩ˶ͬ˵ɡɵı߽硣û֮ϣ ˽ÿɵģû˶˱Ȥǻ ĵһ--һ˼Įᡣɱˡ

Ϊһ˲һ塣Ǽ򵥵ģٱĺ壬壨 individuum˾Բɷ֮"ԭ"(atom)ϣеĺһһˣ ϶--ģ׷Ѷ͹ڸԼɶ֣--˴ Ĺϵ֮Уҡϵǡ-ԼԼ-ϵĹڴ˹ϵ У˳Ϊȡ롢ж֪Ӧ塣Ⱥ ĸԳΪϵˡֻеǴӸ˸壬Dzſ̽ 塣

Ҽĸ岻ܱ֤˵ɡ෴ִ᲻ĸ ¶˵ɵµūۡ"ֶ֮divide and rule"ҵ֤ʽͳ ηԡҪͳˣDZ뾡ܵؽ ԷֻķѲֶ֮һհǷֻ˲ٷֵĵزҲ ͰǶֻ֧ĸˡִĸ˳Ϊֶ֮ղ ӵеıһԭӻ˵еĸ塣

ڸ廯ѹ£ܹɣͨȺΪȺĵ׼ Dz˻صͳԤµϵȥĻǽò ҵӮõĸɣڴͳȼƶȵͳ֮£涨ǣ ǰһǾܱǵĸɡ

̵ضɵ"ŵĴ"Ҫһ㣺" ǣŵԵĴ"ͨҵijŵʹԼ--ȻǺ-- ˺ȷġͨŵDZ˶ԳΪͿȵģ dzŵˣͬҲŵҲͬŵ ҲӮ˵ΡDzŵԣ˲--ȷʵ ĻôҲɥʧǵϣղʶԼ ŵسŵͻǶԸɵơɲȡľ ʽҸܵ˵أѵҿԣҵľʵԣȥ ȴ֪ҡ𣿻һȺ֮У˰ұͬ ң

һִʵѡɡڶǽɵʵڡһ ϵһɣڶͬϵһɡ

2.ɵĵڶ壬ϤʷɶΪȺ ֧֮һǶ֮ϵֹϵ֮ Сǽɵĸ

һȺȺЩ߶ѹԵȺҪ 򲻵òͻѧʷѺûʴȣFreundlichkeitɣFreiheit ĴԴ塣³Դʵ䡷ᵽɵѺáʴȡšúͰ ġ¹νĺÿ֮ʿָƺʩ˲뵽Լ ˵ҸСϵ໥ءѺõģɳ֮Ϊ ɵġ֪˰صģôұеɣΪҿ԰ұ ǣò¡˳ңұǵϿǡȰ Ǵһữɿռ䣬绨š

һ໥أøС밮Ⱥ˲ǶҸɵһơ ɵ罻䣬һֶĻݲ롣Խ޵ ɵģ໥Ľǹġõǽ˳֮ΪȺ ữһ棬⵽ӡڻУǽ֮Ϊѧ dzΪŽᡣһɵ˲һ˽˵ġɸļϡһŽ ȺΪˡߡˡС˥֮˶롣

һԣɴͳεʽΪ˵ ԣɱ㱻Ⱥʽ

3.ɵĵdzԽ˶֮ϡĴԼ顣ɲ Ǿǡ֧λԵġҲλе ŽȺָδΪδſԵδ֪򣬶ں͹ȥ ʵϤΧ

ǵؽΪǰԸĺгԼʥԳǰЭͬ"ձ To live according tonature"Ϊʵ˼˹̵ ˵Ƕʷ"Ȼԣnecessity"ʱ塢 --insightʱǻһ۵㡣

ǰϵδ֮У֮ΪǾǽ֮ʥ--̫ --"ϣԭprinciple of hope"գԼ δĹ룬УݴԤڡͼʵµĿԡ δΪµءǵ֪룬پʵ״ǽĿ ڸǵ;ϡжһĻ룬һõ ̽δĿʵЩ롢빹롣Ļĸ һδִ֮Ŀ-˼άѽǿij嶯ɵ" ϵۣһжǿܵ(With God all things are possible)"Լ"ˣһ жǿܵ(All things are possible to him who believes)"

ΪֹѽɻΪ֧--Ĺϵ--Ϊ彻ϵ ȺδĹ̼ƻϵԣһԵ˶κ˼롢Դ δԽ߶ɵġδǴ˼ά

"Denken heisstueberschreiten"--˼ζųԽڵٱĶ˹ء ĹԿġ

B. гǺһеij߶

гȫصвдͳϵȺӼֱͥһ ΪͳһȺĹҡЩȺҲԽԽܶȫг ṩ

1.ִ֮ǰѴг򣬳ͲͻΪСгĶչ гϵԭʼΪΪӯIJõ гȥִᣬһ㷢˳׵ĸı䣬гѳΪһ͸вŵ ƶȡdzἰгƱге͡͹гʳƷгҩг гȵȡǴһ"һֽǮһֽ"гȡƷ̸" ṩµ"onofferڽ̡ѧⲻఴҪ Ϊгڵ

ڹȥ20˻Ѵ˶תΪһҵ¼μ߱ΪĹ ͹ý壬Ŀɿڿֹ˾ݰ˻

ˣҪʵĵһǣгΪܿܿأΪг ڣڼͥȺУϵ໥ϿɵĹдڡ гΪѹһеô໥ϿɵĹϵᡣ˵Ͽ鵽 λڹгָɵļֵгѰҹ˺ܿᷢΪ빺 ṩȫǵļֵҪʧȥˣӸ˼ ֵиоǶֵͬǶڶ̶Ϊ߶ͬ ΪһǶ˷ҲһģǾʧȥҡǾӦͨ" ʵңfulfilourselves"Ϊ˶ԱԱʱdz֪ "δóϣӦеı"ֻӮңҲȡɹг ļֵĹ׼Ϊı׼ԼʧܼǮ--ֵ-- ١ֻӮṩ꣨ͣгᣬصĸͥ⡣ ѷеȼԭľᣬȥͨͥҶȷ ݣڣݱּɹ

Ӧòȡһٴ룬ҪʹȫгҲҪô²Ʒż Ҫô˿־ĶħС˵ijߴ硣ҵľгֵıƴ к׽Դ֡ŮھǰͿ֬Ĩһͬഺڡĸ߽׶ǿ ģһǴӾԭΪԭĽ׶ΣһΪԽгȡ һгɾ֮ϵɳĽ׶Ρʥַϵijʧҵߺ ֮ͥʡҵ߷Ĺ߶֪űгҪöĶ

2.DzٴڲǴⲿ۲ȫгʱͬȫгǵ ʷһ棬½һ档ڵңӣ֮ һյ㡢ĩյڷޣ˿ڵĴ뱩 ֮УݱΪ״̬ԴִĿʼ ڽ޻뿧Լ԰ƵūĿṩͶļ ɢأծֱӰ죬ЩȲӵעĿȻԴҲ ṩϣľ޴гֵĹ⵽Įӡȫг԰ƵΪ ˡû˿ϹӶǣ׵ΪƷ¬Ϊ̧ ͷߵƷ--Ű޵İ̲ˡ ƶĶ沢DzƸƶƸͬѡȺɵȺһ 뵽ǹҿܵ״Ĵ֮СЩңгIJƽ۸ ƻͨ"չԮ"ƽˡгתΪչԮҪ ijͶʡĿǰƷȫггΪһֶԶŷӡ ޹ҵķչԮͬıгĿ꣬Ϊչйҵķչʹ ȿѵǺ޵

һע̬гǡѡ񣬵̬ʩȲȻ ֺܵҲԱµƻȴֵĿɳĮӣ ֲпгյ»ΨƲ߲ŻѶЧ۹⣬ΪЩЧ ڱйġԴڵĻΪֹȫгֻˣ ǵӳ顢Ϊ룬תһ"ķ"ǵġ Ϊֹ̬弸ûȫгаκνɫԵŶ ȻԭϵľȡΪijĬĽߡڼͣǵξþ ǵķ棬򶼽ΪһòصأͬʱҲı ľ̬ȡΪһǼԦµĿ͹۶󣬽Ϊһò仳ų羴֮ ġһеĻԴȪԿ

ĽУһ֡Ծɴഺڽ׶ΣΪ ͨҵսǵпѹեǵĵĸסΪ ˱øӳ죬ճˣǿ԰Լ͸Ϊϵ͵໥ 壬ӶУǵķҪѧƻļΪҪ --ҪҴ--ǸΪǵضԴǵ֪ʶ뼼Ҫģ ͽһţڴȫг̬֮ʱĸǡţȻг ѱȫ򻯣ôΪ˰͵һϵȺĸΪΰļֵȥӦ ѹȻܹܵij̶ȡԴȷţǽͨͨʶ һ㡣ͬͨʶһ

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