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1 ϸ˵ĶԹʶۣconsensus approachУӦñΪϿijЩִ˼ҡձ۵㣺Ӧñɡ޾Ľ̸ӦòϵسԽ뵽롰ߡĶԻϵ֮СȻЩᳫֹ۵ˣͨһţҪϡ족ȫߵIJԡΣΪͬЭ̵ģʽDzܴܽڶԿάϵġΡⲻҪǵҪ硣ǿͺĹʶԿµԵĴʻεĿʱһֹ۵ܿձµԣΪ۵ģΪҵͶʶIJͣ׷󡣸˵ǿ̸ձ֮ĶЩ绤۵ʹõĴʻ㣬ѧԴŶԣά˹ء¸ɣ֮дشIJЩȱٵ--ķһ--dz׵ط˼ЩġҪءصĺΪЩ--ڷǾ--쵼ȨϵҪһЩԶĶҲͨΩһԱͱҪεij׷˼

ӦǣҲӦ¹ػ뿪Ϊ֮ĹϵҪԲͬķʽҾãûжԹ󲿷ִ˼˵İʱԵĻɣDzġΪץסҪ۵ȱݣҪصԴ֮ʱڡһʵָƤʥâڡжԵķɡṩģڴУɵѧ1ͨϸĶϵ˹姬̩¬󡢵ҵ޺µƷͨڡչĹ۵㣬ʹģµ߼ݵĽɫĺýдҪĵλͬʱֽʾıѹƵάȡ֤ڰνԺȻ֮ϵͼУɵѧ˵ǰֹ۵˵ĺýʵĹ۵㣬ֹ۵ѱΪ౾ʵĹʱ󡣸˵ԿΪıʽΪԿıֵÿ飬ڽĽͽʵķչԱǵĹ۵һ뻯İʵĹ۵㣬ֻϹģԭĶһ档Ƥʥâָڡٿȫ顷໥ϵΪȫʵΪĿġ֮ǿܵģֻһͬйϵĺģµеõ˿ǡȻģ¸ìܱʣĶԿάȾͿԱ֣ǵõ˶ԽʵIJͬļֵʾģµijͻʣһ˫ΪͬĿĹͬԸаͬһ˶ҲǴĶԿԴġȫǽⲿĶԿͱľڵĿԡݺͶԿܱ룬DZʶԶܵв ھܾģµĶԿάȣʱڵѧҲû໥ϵıʣǷϽķ񶨷棬ķijԼ񻰵񻰳͵ƺˣ໥ϵȡ֮͸ĽʽǵƷ˿ûȫģµķ񶨵ĿԣǻDzڸϲìƵʵ--ṩԼƽȵ--ȥ绤˹ཻʵ뻯۵㡣

Ȼʥâ˵ֹ۵½¶ˡǴԼĹ˱ԱΪ塱˽ձĶ²¬뿪Էʽ¬͸ͬձ־ɫԸҽֱԱɶֱԡ 2ڶִ۵Ŀеļ̻عеóҪѵǣ˹׷ŵ෴ɵʶ۷沢ᱻΪη棬ƵǰᡣԹۣڽеķ񶨷ķ񶨣ֳ㣬ȫûгΪıҪͨѱǸٹ̵һʶų⣬ʹ۲ڵжԺͶԿάᡰΡıʡ

ȫûṩһֵѧ۵ĵ壬ijԸġڰķ桱ģִķչѾԵؽˡֵǰᣬУڹͬĵľɺͲĹвǵ˵ȻеΣ޶˹Ĺ۵ΪǺĹʶͨԵõԽ򣻻˹δĽ½ǰ˵ǰΪеµıʲܵķĿҪԱ֤ù۵ij

Ϊ˿ʼԲͬķʽ˼Ǹʶ۵ввִƵʱˡӦôӺ˹³űԼķڡʱĺϷԡɵͬ棺š͡ṩ2Ϊʷһֱһ𣬵ǣûбȻϵǿԱġпԴΪִġšһֻռŵġṩͼȻǰִִĻش Ų³űߣǾͿᵽŵĹ˵ȫDZģʵڴ۸ӵ;ʣѧͶŵġΪԼṩĻӦñִҪ޶ȡǽͨԶԪֵǿҵɺΤʽУļۡгIJòִԲʹԼǰִͳаѳ

3Ե޶ȺͼֵԪԵĸ˵ġ۵--DZڵ

--Ǹдģҵȷеԡʽǡ¡ʽ˵IJͬȻǵǣͨڽ޴Ǻ˵Լ족ҪʱDzǻرܾû㹻ǿҪԶԪijЩƣDzÿһܵһеİȨԼζĸٹ̵ı

ҲָΪǰִʽͬᳫʿµƣDzʤڡεĻع顷3ѾִԪǵǶÿһ͵ͼǴġִġ̬ȡҵûεΪͨһϷϷΪʲôǵġͻagonism--ŵ෴--ѾųιеĶԿάȡֶԪζûжԿĶԪԡûΣѡûжԿľĿԡһҪеߵβIJ콻սųͻʧҪȥпܴһ㣬ܹﵽһ¡ϵģΪζĨȥڽеıһԼͶԻΪ˽ʵһάȡ룬ͨһ񶨣ξͻõ֤ǿ෴ƾճìܵͨύĴʼãDzܹŵĶٵϵDZڴڵĶԿתɳͻagonism

4.Ϊϸ˵ġԿĶԪ塱ǰе˼ۻ֣⹹ʽĹʶ--ġԼ·--ƲĶԻ÷ǿƹʶġųĹĿԣرаġȻ˵ģڹ͹ʽõIJжʹһֲƫеڽṹDzܵġΪ˰Ѳ쿴ǹͳһĿͬʱǹǵĻ޶ȣDZȳϳΪһҺDzɻԭġ⹹ķʾµձ´ʻ--Уձͨǵĺʽ֤Ϊ--˼ȫDzֵġǿϸ˵жԣͲ˼ξεĸ4˵жԲһҪԷԻ˷أεijͻûֹġԶȫѾһõѡΪijЩѡľ𺦵һϣ⹹Ա˵ǡλģhyperpoliticizingλԶֹͣΪжԲϵش֮СÿһֹʶΪϲȶĺͻҵȶȶĺͻҶDzɻԭģͬʱһպͻᣬΪȶζκĽ

ʾһԱҵijЩԽ⹹ĵֵһ淶ĶδߡӦԱһֻϣΪڡѧϸ顰ꡱ֮ʱ˵ĻӦñ5ƵԪġδ԰ǰ˹ķʽŵδķʽ֮IJڵһУĹʶΪĽĹ淶𽥽ӽϰΪ屾ʵĴڣڵڶУdzϣһ½DzȶϵIJԣȷʵݻԼΪʲôӦñΪԶܴﵽơ

5ǿһڸϵIJԾԽܸٹ̵ĶԿṩ˶ԿҪ۵𣿽мһֱ˵ſˡϸġѧṩҪġ͵ѧ˹ȡѾ˵߽ǿȺͱɽĻ֮еá7ȷʵʾ˻ﱾĻṹõģΪƯָIJ֮⣬ǽͨҪָĵڣһµܳ֡ҪָĵλķȨָҲĻУȷʵdzԽģŤġͨûлıռķʽȷϸϵζţҪӻŤͻȥ֯de-quilt

˹˹˹ָ˵µľһҪ񶨡ƱƱһֱѧѧѰ˵dzƵĸʹͳ˼ʽ֮ģյʧܡΪĵIJϵܡྭΧ֯ĸȱ8ֲ˵ġʵҾԴڶʵIJɻԭԵķʶ֮Сѧ˴ͳѧƵľԹ֮УǴﵽһƵĸĺг

ԼƵķʽǿ˵ġθǸ뵽ѧеġȴĹԵĿΪĵĹŴѧ۵㣬ִ˿µоһоʹΧεԭתµóעͣʵ ܱͨλֻƵ棬ǷѹƻɵĽṹÿһʹԼȡżȻ--ȥĵ塯ĽṹʵķӦΪֿܹʲôĹͬ壿9

ģһϵη˼⡣Щ봦ŵĶԿԪ֮ԣ磬ʹȥ԰ʵתΪηҪ⡣ʵûбΪĻĽṹʵеĻıʽ--Կ--Ͳܱԭǵʵҵ۵кĵĸ--DZʵ--ġһ˵ڴͳ۵ķУʵĻ漰ҪûµĶԼ֮ĹϵÿˣڷʶҪ塣

ѧŬ֮䴴µʽǷѵ壬ԣҿġʵˣԪرơǹڲܵĺͽ룬ΪƵĹĶDzɻԭģһ϶ԿͱǸٹ̵ġʹñӦԿǶԪԶҪԶԶմ𰸵⡣

ܾС֮ȻѺۣҳƽ֮䡢ȨҪǰı߽߼֮䲻ɻԭҪϣܻԭΪĵۣrational moral calculusҪϵġΪοܺͽĻþϵͨ̽Σ⵱Ȼdz۵Ψһʽ

עͣ

1. Pierre Saint-Amand, The Laws of Hostility: Politics, Violence and the Enlightenment, Minneapolis 1996.

2. Hans Blumenberg, The Legitimacy of the Modern Age, Cambridge MA1985.

3. Chantal Mouffe, The Return of the Political, London1993 Chapter2.

4. See for instance his Remarks on Deconstruction and Pragmatism,in Chantel Mouffe(ed.), Deconstruction and PragmatismLondon,1996pp.84-7.

5. Jacques Derrida, The Politics of Friendship London1997pp.221-4.

6. This contradiction arises from the fact that one must want the greatest good for ones friend, that is, that she or he becomes a god. But one cannot want this for at least three reasons: (1) there is no longer the possibility of friendship with a god;(2) friendship commands us to love the other the way she or he is by wishing her or him to remain as she or he is. So one cannot deify a friend;(3) perfect or true friendship, that of the just and virtuous person who wishes to be like a god, tend towards divine autarkia which can easily do without the other and has no relationship to friendship.

7. See for instance Slavoj Zizek, Enjoy Your Symptom! London,1992, Chapter3.2, Identity and Authority.

8. Yannis Stavrakakis, Lacan and the Political, London1999p.129.

9. John Rajchman, Truth and Eros, New York, 1991, p.70.

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