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˹Τ䡶ڽѧۼǰѧֵ̽ġʷ⡱ΪʲôѧġġεĻ򾭼õķչûŷ֮Ҳ еԻ·Τִ˵֮ ϵϵżȻֵģDzԶġΤֽصĹ ˵ǡԵġùŷ޵ڽͼ߽⣬вĻ ִѧɵԭԵĵۺͷ۵ij֣γ˲ͬ ֵ򣬴Ӷʹܹ⡢⡢¡ʵĸ߼ѧϰ̡

ΤԻǶIJĻ׻̣˵Ҫ ִķչ̡µṹҪڣΧʱ ҵ͹Źһ֯Ķγɵġֻϵͳ˷ֻ ΤֻΪĿԵľΪΪƶȻʵճҲ ĻԻĸšʹ˶ԣͳʽǰ ҪǸÿ˵ְҵȷĸʽʧˡ ִֻĿԵĽṹġE.ſ˺ķG.H.׵ΪԻ 磬صڶɥʧ˱ԵĴͳз˼Ϊ淶ƹͰѽΪ ᄈнųѡռļֵռջ ͬһΪĿʹʹ˸廯ữģʽǹŵۼյ ͼ(das Bild der Moderne)

죬ΤΪһ׷ŬĽҲ ɵġִ(Modernisierung)һֱ50űΪһ㷺 ˺ԱʾһʼΤ⣬ ѧĹ巽Էӡִ漰һϵеḶ́ʱ ۺԴãķչͶʵߣȨĹ᳹ͬһ 죻βȨʽѧУռԼֵ͹淶׻ȵ Щ̼໥ۻ໥תִ۱Τġִӳ Ҫ棺ȣִӽŷ޵Դз˳ִ һһϵᷢչģʽʱնԣģʽԻġ⣬ ִʷᄈ֮ϵˣִٰ̿Ի ̺ԽṹĿ͹ʷղķ˹Ϊִ۵ijڣӽ ۽ǶȹɳִپйִսĹҲ˵پִ һռ״ִ̬ȡ֮۵ʵϣ塢ʮִоʹáִ˵ѧмҲ ԭڣִӽ۽ǶȿɵģԵǰչˣ ֣ѧоװΪִԴȪǣִ ҰӮõִ⣬֮ϵһʧô ԴӺִоߵİƺǶչִ̼ơŵ װֹ۵򵥵ظΪɵǰѾȥΩɵĺЧ㷢 չִǴǶȰԼͬѳ¾ɲĻִ оݳһϵͳľú͹ҡͿѧķְܡˣ̵IJ ٣ƺһֿݽߵġ״̬Ļķ档̻Ǹƺ Ļġڸ׿ִĻеĿԶѵõֵķӡ䷴ ͷѱھͽڴʱıǰԽԽ󡭡Ҫ ӡִ滭һ˻Ծ͸ӵҲо̻Ĵ ڡʷǷյġԸײ׾ٵ϶Ѿ˺ʷ(Posthistorie)Ϊˣ׽ظ¡ʫȰ˵Ǻǵ 衣ɴ˿ɼ׵±׿ִ ҪִĻǡ෴ִһЩۼΪһ̬Ϊ ЩۼҲ˼ִ֮Ѿķ롣ҲԹɵսᣬԽ ŷִ԰Դͳ仰˵Ҳ˺ʷ֮С± 岻ͬҪִ˹Τ Ǹϵͳʽ΢ͬʱȴԵıĿ ԱҷΪԣߣdzߡ⣬ǻǹԵ֧ ־¸Ͱҿ˴Ȩ־ϵɴǵӵĵ߸ ͬʱҲӦҡִǶȼԿ͹ۻʱġͭǽڡɴ˿Ļ ִս֮ԴеִҲ޷УΪܲסԶʱ ѴڵĹı£ִīdzˡ

йغִ۵ֽͲǶԶŷִγ Ļϵͳִֺ۶Ҫ߳ϵͳΪѹʱ ǡڸǵһλִѧҡΤΪִֹ֮ ϵһֱDzԶģȴ⡣Ҫϵ صڸȥҲ˵ȱصڸִԱܹжϣ ǰзЩ˵ҪǷϷǣҲΪִ˼ֻΪڳԽλϣʵȻɺڸ ִǰ֮СҲųĿԣ± Ÿִţͼٴηִ˵Ҳֻ ڸźµķɵƾôͳ֮ͬıϵ



ڸǰִһʷʹõģִΪһʱ ڸµʱ(neue Zeit)ǡִ(moderne Zeit)޺ڸ ֹͬӢmoderntimesԼtemps modernesʵ˼һ ģָĶǴԼ1800֮ǰ͡1500ǰ£´½ ķ֡ո˺ڽ̸ĸ򹹳ִ֮ʱˮ롣ڡʷѧһ УڸЩŷ̵նȷԣ ҲǴϣĹŴвġ죬ͨʷΪִͺ͹ (ִʷʷ͹Ŵʷ)ֻѧУĿγϱȽϳáǣֻ еµʱִ(µ硱ִ硱)˵ʧȥ䵥ı 壬һͻʱ֮¡ķ˼ʱ̵ֲܳ µʱζżٵʱʱֱĩղŻ֡лֵ ʱѧУйִͨ׸ȴΪδѾʼ仰˵ ΪִδڵģδµʱִĿ˱ תƵ˹ȥתƵִ֮ʡ۹18ͣ1500ʱˮһ ֱ׷ΪִԴͷΪ֤һ㣬R.ɪտ˿ ǵʱ(nostrum aevu m)ںʱijΪµʱ(novaaetas)ġ߿ɪտΪִµʱʷʶѹһʷѧ ӽǣһ˱ʷӽԼλ˼ʶʷ(Geschicht e)Ǹʣʾ塣ڸʹʱֱ׳ʵһ18 ͵ʣִȥһʷ(Weltgeschichte)ļʡµʱ ķͶԹȥķһµġࡰGeschichteӦйʷ ¶˲ϼٷչ¾ԼԲǹʱʷչĹʱʶᵱʱ һֹΪʷһͳһġḶ́ʱǿ˷Ч ʱ䵱һѹʱ(Zeitgeist)´ڸԣ (Gegenwart)˵ǹʱڴڼ䣬ǼϣʱЩȥδ ٣ˣڸ䡶ѧǰ˵Dzѿʱһ ʱڵĽ͹ɵʱ˵ľѾյѣʹյ һڹȥֽҸ졣ִ˵ִʺģԼ ijδ֪ĶģģУԤʾʲôĶڵ ǷϰܻͻȻΪճжϣŵ̫һ½ࡣ 10

缴ִdzδŵģˣʱƳ³µÿ һ»϶¿ʼɴ˿ɼѡ(die neueste Zeit)ӡִ(d ie Neuzeit)жҲһִʷʶִ(Gegenwart)Ϊʱ ʷгߵĵλڸҲѡǵʱɡѵµĿʼ 18ĩ19ͳһתʱڣͬ˼˵ζŷ˶ ͷʷǸʱ̡ˣϺڸΪͻȻ̫ ǵˡʷ׶Σǵǵʱ11´µʱӽԼʵ֮еĵȥķΪϵĸ

ͬ¡һšչΣԼʱҲЩ̬ Щ18šִµʱ˵һֵģDZעµ 壬ЩһֱЧ12⣬ЩҲ˺ڸѧĹؼ ӸʷǶĻִʷʶֵ⣬ִܻԸ ٴʱ䷢չ׼򣬶ԼԼƶ 淶ִǸ߶еġ⡱Լֱǵʱڲͣ Ŭȷ֤ҵĶǰH.¬ű񻹾бҪʷۣ ִĺϷԻȨ(Legitmitaet oder Eigenrecht der Neuzeit)ͼ Ի̺͹Ŵ(Erblasser)еĻεĹ롣˵һʱ ӦʷϷ⣬ͬҲܾͰԼһʱִ˵ Ҫȫжϻܹȫж봫ͳϵҲڶҪ벻ȫ ¿ʼʷʵ֮Ĺϵϡ13H.¬űԮڸһ λ֤ǰŬǽȻҪ⣬ ϵIJƸIJƲǣĸʱʵȨ? 14

ҪѭŸʷ조ִһʣͻִ֣ᷢ ȷԼġ1518ͳĹŴִ֮ҪѹŴ 16ִһɷԷŵɵ⣬Ϊˣİʿµġơ(Per fektion)ʹִȻѧӰ֮µĽͬǴʷ۽Ƕȶ ģ¹ŴɣӶͻһʱ޵ġԵı׼Է ֳԽʱġԵĹ淶˰ѷ˶˵һʱ ¿ˡʡmodernitas(ͬʾ෴˼ĸݴʡantiqui / moderni һ)ڹŴڼѾ߱һֱ壬ִŷеġmodernһʺ(Լ 19Ҷ)űʻȻڴΧڡModerneMode rnitaet / moderniteȴȻԵıʺ壬бȷ С17

Բ˵ִʷִڵʱ ΪһġִĻУȷҵͻΪʱӽ е˷ɢġճϰ׵ͷϡԣΪִƷ ʵԺߵĽϣִԾǹɡݡżȻһ һͲ䡣18Ҽ尾ʵԳִ㣬߱Ĺ ԼִĽģXʮġʵĵҲ޷ٴѱ ѺͿ˷һʷ̬ĶʶĴڡʵ(Aktualitaet)ֻ Ϊʱ(Zeit)(Ewigkeit)Ľ㡣ͨʵԺԵֱӽӴִ ϻ߳dzݲ⣬ִּ֤˲δĿɿʷ 19ֵսΪŵ䡱νŵ䡱翪ʼʱһ ˲䡱̫ãһ֣漴йʱʵ ٴ򼫶ˣڡִ͡ʱС֮佨׺ԡ

̳ĹŴִ֮ijɹһֶصķʽı˾ ıأΪһֳɷģģټѼȷһ ɷԵģʱģ˵ʱС¡һ֣Ǽݲ Ȥġ˵ġθıƤûһֳɷֽDzͲƷ ģΪܺա20ΪҵIJǿִ滭 ӳġе˲ǰԳִԡ 21ڡִԡһϼţ˵ǴһȫµĽǶȶʹ ʣһص֮ƷȻһ˲ 䣻Ʒϵؽ뵽ʵ֮УԶʮ㣬Ƴ棬 IJס˲Ҫ󡣶ڴ˲УԺʵʱϵһ

ֻܷӳʱαװ֮У˵DZ֤ͼִ ƷڱԺʱԵͳһֵʱСԼֺ š֮ͯ佨׺ԣֺ֮ͽ޷ͨ׵֪ ʽĴ̼֮ճ֮еijĹ޲ߡ˵ӵ þڣʱ𾪵ĿͳһԼΪȻ22 Ƴ³µ˲֣ѰǿԳΪִԵֶ ΪûиõĴ̸ֹˡ˵ڴеĶ ȡܰŵʷиʫĶӹг㡣23

ִسʱ󣬵ֱֱȻԼӮñ׼ Ϊ˽⣬˲⡣Ϊʱ ԺƷдﵽͳһĻת ʷᄈСΪˣˡʱ(Jetztzeit)ڡʱУ˾ ʱʱ䡣ڵáģ¡ģѱ÷dz 仰˵ÿһʱжԷ֡ģ¡Լ ۹֣ƹһʱϮʷʽȥʱ жʵǼУʱת֮Ҳ˹ȥʷᄈеֱһֱ֤ ı仯˼ɸ24ԵIJǴģв ʷ淶ͬҲֹִʷ Ļֹͻƣһ淴һ־һ ʱۣʱ۾巴ӳڽʷѧԽĹִУһ 棬ҲʷһжԻΪʷʷڲУ ʷ¼Ĵһȥ25޲˹Ӷһͣ Ϊ˴ʷеԣϧϮŴóʱԡ֮һµĹ ȥԼ޲˹ӶͼʵݿһֹʷĻ ǣִһΪʵͱӱõĹȥľΪԼ 淶ЩȥٱΪԭʾԵġDzIJ˵Ĵʱе ʾ(Model)ԱѲ׽Щ˿켣Ϊģ¹ŵ걾 Ĵԡ



ڸʹִʷĹ淶ӰΪѧĵһˡȻдͳĹУִͳڽ̸ĸո˵ľ飬ҲǶ ִȻѧ˵һַӦѧӺھԺֱйִ ⡣26ǣֱ18ĩִҪȷ֤Լʮͻ ֮ڸŻΪѧ⣬ΪѧĻ̽֡һǰ޹ ˡִڲǰ¹Լĵλйڴ˵DZڸ ǡҪѧĸԴ27ִѾʶԻȷ֤ Ҫ󣬺ڸҪΪѧҪ󡱡ڸΪѧһʹ ˼άĽǶȰʱںڸԼִڸţִѧ ޷õѧĸ

ȣڸִ֣ԭ򡣸ԭ򣬺ڸͬʱִ ԽԼΣ֮ڣһ컯񹲴硣ˣйִ̽ ѰŶִС

ڸִŹϵҵĽṹڸ֮Ϊ(subjektivitaet) Ϊ˵ףִԭԵɣҲ˵йؼķ 涼Ӧõֵطչ28桰ִ(ִ)ʱ ڸáɡ͡˼͡ԡʵϣʱΰ֮ ɵسϣƸӱϽڵġ29ʹ˶ԣҪ ںa)()壺ִУжزȺĸ嶼 30b)еȨִԭҪÿ˶ӦϿɵĶӦ Ǻģ31c)ΪɣִDzԸԼ Ϊ32d)ΨѧڸΪѧ ʶִҵ33

᳹ԭҪʷ¼ڽ̸ĸ ˶ͷ·¿ʼڽ˷˼ڹ¶ У趨Ķ34½̷ʹͳȨ ֪ơʥʥֻ˵Ĺͷ 35ȨԺط䷴԰ʷϵķΪҵʵԵĻӶʵ ־ɵԭ򣺡塯͡¡ʼΪʵ־Ļ ڴǰʱ֡塯͡¡¾Լڹ涨ϵ۵ ȨʽھУߴڽ̵Լп36

֮ԭȷִĻ̬ڼȽҿȻɴֽ ֪Ŀ͹ԵĿѧһ漣ˣΪȻ ɸѾ֪ʶ˵ķһϵȻиеԵãֻо õĶųмֵĶΪʶȻˡ37ִ ¸Կ϶Ϊǰġһ棬Щ¸ ˽Ȩϣ˽Ȩ϶ΪǶԵģһ棬Ҫÿ ׷ҸĿʱӦ˵ҸĿ걣һ¡ֻдձ鷨ǰ־ ܻɣǡֻ־У۵־Уʵɻﵽڵ־ 38ִʾ䱾ʣʽ ݶɾġF.ʩͨĻӳһҵ ҵҾ飬ңһԼ˺ˣֻԸ͵Ļš 39бʵֳΪʽֵԭ򣺡ԭ ҵһлһıֶֻһ֣ȡ״ȫ֧ʱ ΪҶš40ԣֻڸУҲܱ ʵҲ˵ʵֻһͨҵ֡

ִڽҺᣬԼѧºԭ41 ѧбΪһֽṹѿ˼ڡеijԺͿѧе Եʶ漰֪ҹĽṹΪһһ ͨ˼硱巴ʣҰԼ塣µС춨 ַ˼ѧĻΪ߷ɻأǰһЧҪĶ ΪԼ⡣

֪ͨʶĻķге˶þʶе 񡣿һԸԴζѧͳеʵԵԸµ ΪͬĻڣֻʽϾͬһԡ°ʵ֪ʶж Ϊǵ춨˸ԵĻȷ˿͹֪ʶʶ ۣ֤Խһ䵱 Ļе߷ٵĽɫ簬׶˹˺˵ģѧȫʽ ȰĻֵΪѧͼɺ͵¡Щ˴˶

⣬ѧڴ˷ΧڰǼԺϷ42

ֱ18ĩƶȻǶȿѧºֻɲͬĻ򣬸̽ е⣬ֱΪʵ⡢Ȥζ⡣ԣ֪ ʶЩһһϷ ԼճȤٴοڸ˵ ԭ鷴˼ԭƺ¶šͬʱҪ Щй٣ԣڸΪڿѧУִıʳһ 㡣



°ִ˵һ˼áɴ˿ɼѧȷطӳʱı ²ûаʱ۵ϵִڸҲֻǴ ʷع˽ǶȰѿѧִı׼ҽ͡ڸΪѷ֣¾ 뷴˼֮йʱıȻŲȷĵطΪ²ûʶڲ ֻĻ̬Ļ֣ԼЩķȾζŷѡԣ¾ܾѱ ȷͳһҪ󡣵ǣһִһʷʱ仰˵һ ʶȥͱȻĹԼش淶һʷ⣬ôѧͲò йͳһҪ󡣽ű⣬ԭԼԵ ʶĽṹǷܹΪȷ淶ԴȪҲ˵Ƿѧº 춨Ҳܹ̰һʷεʷܣǣԺʶܷ ı׼Ǵִгȡģͬʱȥʶִ磬 ͬҲڲ˷ѵִִܸһڵ ̬ȲƣҲֻӱйֱִʽ?

һ⣬˵ֻһƬԵԭԭ򾡹 ܹɵͽз˼ΪֹڽӵľԵͳһ ڽ̵ͳһɵĵķ˼ĻȻֵýڽ̡ ˣ໥֮Ǿˮˮ43ڽ̵˥˵֪ʶķ룬 ޷˷ġڸڡѧ컯˵ľ硱һ ʹϸ44Ϊ̻ԽռԽԽḻʣ ҲԽ̻ҲԽ컯׷ºгҲʧȥ(׷ )45

λժ1801ڸд¡ƪУڸ гʵսѧҪ46Ժڸ˵ʱʶ߳ԣ 컯һ״ǵʱѧоǰᡣѧоһǰǡ ԡлʹõġԡѧ֤ ͳһӦ˷ַѵ״Ϊ״£ԲʹԼ һʹϵͳڷ״̬ͨԿºͷϣѧϵֱУ ʾִ⡣Ϊ˶ٵΣԼĴ𸴣 ڸȻ뾫񡢸֪ԡ֪ԡʵԡж ҡޡ֪ʶѧ϶ţѧ޷֤㻽 ͹ԵҪΨҲִУΩˣִȷԼλ ãڲΪʵһƻ˼֮⣬вҲʹ Ϊз֣˼µʱԭı47˵ִӦѰ ֤ôڸƱصøһԭڲı֤ٲִи
ں(ָ顶ִԺѧڶ¡ۺڸִע) ǽۺڸʵʩһƻḷ̌Լڴ˹ľ༴᳹ ɱ֤֮ƶƻʱжҲĴԣҪڸ ˵ġѧǰԺԺصĶڸġǰᡱǰԺ ͳһѧĶԴڸΣ顣ЩΪӦΪͳһ Աƻʱеʵ֤ءڸͺɶԼлһŴ ʫǶȥִǵֹ۵ɻͣڶڻ̺͹Ŵʷʾ ֮ϡֻҮڼ䣬ڸԼľ֪ʶԼĿӶʹ ܹİԽɵĽԽڽ̺ʲ׼ᡣ ھԸڸ˻صʱij嶯֮УѧΧ˷ ԡձ㲻ɱسڸ󲻵òִ пΪִСзζǣΪԵб˷ ⡣ɼЩѧҲûжڸͰסʷĽ̡

M.Τ½1±棬1973ꡣ

ڲ J.˹Ϊۡ˸ / ģ1981꣬1 225226227ҳ

ִۡءѧٿȫ顷10386387388ҳ

A.ףĻ̻ءѧѧоŦά£1963꣬ 321ҳ

H.E.غɭһƪ¡ʷءī198412 91 6ҳΪ׿Ǵͬˡ¡ǽˡʷ˵

² R.ɪտˣȥδ˸ / ģ1979ꡣ

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18ִĻҡءƷȫM.˹࣬ķ˹ 1982꣬4286ҳ

19ΪʹκִԶֵñɹŵԣе Ʒȫ4288ҳ 20ͬ飬271ҳ

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47ͬ飬25ҳҳ