ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ

 


Ʋ
˹(Ludwig von Mises)
ʳӢУ
һ
18͵ĩڣɵĸÿһָǽɹܲͬ
һָǴѧģδָʱϵɵĸԨԴڹŴϣ˼ҵƷɹ۵оǵʱŷ޸ߵȽĺĺҪݡЩŴϣҿɲӦˣ˵һȨ˲Ȩϣ˵ý۹⿴ֿ˵ǹͷΣضȫȨĹͳȨеĴDZߺūһʽ൱޵ɣ˹Ԫǰ4ԺҲûΪѧҡʷѧҺμΪһʵʵܷƶǽ俴ǹȥһʧĺ¥̾Ϣƽʱţȥָ

ڶɵĸͬҲǹͷεʽȻȱϵκμءΪ壬ʱҲΪй巴Բ͵רƻȨάǵȨIJҰġŷ޴½Ĵ󲿷ֵڶȡʤֻӢͺʿײͳԹɹ˻ȨõģҲ˵ɣǾӢײɡ Щˣڸ̺ȡɵͬʱҲΪʹ˲ɵƶȡũūƺūƽб绤DzǴαƵġ޷ԲؽԵ⡣ͳƶ̫ˣ˲ӵ˿ڡʱǰũҵлƶ˼ƬߵԲ˺ܶࡣǶе򹹳вںܳһʱ䣬ûƳһЩҳƶǡ˲ȫȨκοܣ˵DzμӹҹȨˡͳߵȨ֮ƣڱʹDZְ

ǰʱʱ޵ġʷǾսʤĹʹ͸Լսʿһʣ⣬ǡߡlordsΪǵĵλȡгѡ񡣹ͬʱԼӹҵҪߣּӹҵлƶ£γ˷ԸµķơƲƫ봫ͳʽũҵֹҵҲֻɺ޵£ˣ˹Ļ˵ڡȻΰʢУûиλãȻȥ[1]DZһЩȻܳɹػŮʹԽԽƶ

ʱˡܶΪʱһת䣬ʱôֹҵԭʼ͵Чһ൱dzĹ۵㡣ʱʱǰҪʱµгʱ岻ǴģĻһĴģȥƽʱֹҵֻнײ󡣵ʱĹΪ˵IJƷIJƷͨڵģҲڹƷĹˡֱṩƷ߼ӵƷʳƷԭϣַͨʽΪṩгʱı־Ҳִʱı־Լľ󲿷ֲƷߡӵȨߣΪǡȷġѡ񣬾гʲôƷʲôͶIJƷǹҪIJƷ;ЩҵӪЩҵ𣬵Ʋ߽ľתƵЩܹɹҵʱ£Ҫе˽вȨṦܡҵҡʱҺũߣߵǾԲܳġΪ˻ȡ󣬽ͻʱDzģһһεؽʽͶЩҵгÿ첻ظĹųЩչʹƲĸн׼ҵȻʱܵԸʶӵķޣȻܹԭΪڷΪṩݳƷĹܱôĹģ 19͵ʷѧҺμҵȱ㣬ûпǹҵҪߡΪ׼Ψͼнײɣ˹˵ĽǿͳݣǺܿͻᷢǹ۵֮ˡӤز½ˣ˵ƽӳˣ˿ˣͨǰҲβĺô

ȻʷǰĹͬԣֻǹҵһƷҵҪɾھõȨӵתƵͨϡͨ˲һڴӸϵмĿΪǰʱʱȼūũūԼЩ̻оߡԺѧԼ1619Ͳе߷Ϊƶ񣬡Ѿʧˡǵµҵ£ɵĹˣҳߡֻı仯䷴ӳгҵϡҵҪггʱҵĿںšгζϹ˿͡ߡʱֻһ¸֮·ǾDZ˸õظ˵طߡ̵͹ߣΪ˾ȨߴĶ³ϰ塣ֻֿDZġߵȨ߾ǹϰ壬ûгԽǵľָõطߣǾͻᵹƲ ǾʷϵһΰתۣıòܿȨȨײתڡʱҵѡȨܿ췢չΪ˵ѡȨڣгѾȥѡҵҺʱҵȨ󣬾ҪȨDZѡ һЩܳľѧע⵽ȥõFrank A.*ΪгһÿһǮһͶƱȨȷе˵ѡٵĴһֳԣͼгģʽģʽƴûгֵʵֹǶ˵־ռͳελ˱ӶȻˣ٣ءװҵΪεװһΪشҵΪһ˳ŷʽС˵̽С˵һ˲Ŷרҵ鼮 ڶҪǣ򣬸˻˲òӶ˵־ѧ˽вƲʹΪܡ͵øۣϣûͲܻԼҪĶһظۣͿУͳ֮⡣˶,屾,*ˣΪ׼ʲôĻأĪ,*,ֶء, ˻򿨷˵?κʱ˼ά˼ΪܹڣΪ˽вƲʹпܷ˵ʽеھ㹻Ӷпܾܾ˵й۵㡣ǷֻɾõᣬܿܿУŻȥ֧ǡ˼ûıˡ̸׵˹ܸʲô

߶ʱľУڸϴȱݣΪûпгеȨǿ˵ȼɭϵҵ֯ҵƻȴûʶʹҵߡ߹ִΪʱұ̰ܵǶпİߵҰδԽ֮⡣Ǻǵ׷ߴ̸̸ȨļУȴûʶȨɹԱռдĹС޷ȷЩ飬ΪЩ鱻һǡҵ͹ҵ̫ٶˣûпµIJ𣺾ͳȨĹʹ󹫣ֻΪһȨ߰ȨһɿֻҪ߻ݹһṩߣͻɥʧġ ļƻáĸȹҺڵĻôͻйȨ塣ְҵĸңΨһĹǵȼսǰʾֵģʽȥһҵϵͳϵͳҪߣΪIJǿԵ˰ֲᡱ˵ҪΪһ칫Һһ[2]ûпֻһ칫Һ͹DzڸָҵѡƷͷʱ칫Һ͹ĵѾıˡгʱäĿ֪֪ɺū֮IJ졣Уֻǹ˶ߣŹʱѾȫΪūǽеĹ̵չУǵūλı䡣öȨίԱȨȡߵȨŹھȨʧϵȨҲʧˡҵͳһƻϳκμƻƶ֮Ӧܷһư˹ȥƻĻᡣDzɷֵģһ˲ڲͬƷƵĹװʳͷнѡͬҲڲͬ͵ټѡѡٹְԱȨΪˣǼȨʦеһߣŮҲƻѧᡣ

Ȼҵ侭DZ֤רʱʹν׶ÿ˵ҪԸõĹɵһ׶δڡ[3]һȨọ̃ʱޱѷŮʿ*Ӣ½ѧɵĴdzŵʹİֵšҲڡ[4]ֲͬ߳ΪйƵɵ֮һԴ˹֮ҲһӢJ.G.CroutherĹ۵㣬Ϊڱһ׼ʱ򣬶Σշӽѹڿѧվסŵġ[5]ȷ˵ģе˶˳ظһ߽µʱǶгֲͬĵ˿ˡ*,ж*,޲˹Ӷֽ

߷һ෴˼תΡ*˵ǵġԡУһСһƣthe one-party principleӴԴϿpartyԴpartһpartyķʡ塱в𣬲غˡһһһԭʵ޵ԭѹκʽķζͬͲ֮ͬȨѡ񡣵Уζͬ񣬺ͶԲͬϸֶֹﴫͳںĵ߸Ƕ˹ߵһ䷨˹ɴͽԭڷϳ˽вƲĻϣߵκͶʹÿһ˶ƻίԱĶαװͲӮڵֱ֧֣Բ䣬ѡǵĿǰͶū۵ľأǾͲƭѡDZɵ÷ϷѾ࣬صĺ塣

ڲ߻ƭСȦڣɵȴô¡ʼӶ߲ǹɵͼڹȥʲ׼ﵱȻãΪṩʵıĻᡣһɹ˾ͲҪɵ˼ͶΪˡκα仯ǶѴﵽõƻڴ£̲ͬ߼ֱǾҡ

ǣʲά˵ʲ׼ƫͨûԼ뷨Dz˵а̣κµʽֻӣǵĽ׼ԷԺ͸ΪְҵʶӵĽ׼ȫͬ

֪ûбҪһ㣬ΪⲻͨԼǷ˼롢ɡЩƽͨǷԴӱЩԽ־ǿǵл񵽺ôͨ˿Įģ񡣵ǿܴ߰ǵҪƳĶȫ֡޷ЩΪǿնϸ֤ǣһЩ˼۱ҵãijЩDZڵͨھܺܿػ²ƷִͨƼҪߡ

ͨȷʵҵͷӵĽײ㡣ǣھȨʹרҺ뾡ְ취пѧоijɹתΪǵճ֧۹ڹڲ֪˶ʲôͻ᲻Щ

άƶȵ֧һ٣ٶظǣɲߵơζƶǾֵ͡ӵСǿΪʹڰƶģ߲ƣܵȥӦؾص˵ʽ⣬˹ҸȲ˵ҸǷҲΪǧĴڼ֮еڿũǷΪͶӪȾסǷΪ쾻˵˼쵼Dzܺʵ嶫ˮƽɹȣȴ֮Ϊ÷٣˹˽һʧܵĽסڼûɣҲûз١

ѧʷڣ޾ģʷݻĽڵɣſˡ¬ָȻɣȴūˡֹ۵Dzġԭʼǿ׳ͿӶˣԭʼʵǿ׳߰ڲʱԻɵĶصġɵĹ漰֮γɵϵ᲻ʵָ˾Զֻɡÿ˶˸ṩҸָṩҸı໥ֻҪлȥѡDZɵģDZǿȻвijضĽϵҸоûɡ˵ūDzɣΪ˸ָ˾õٱꡣ

ѹɺǿȹӵ֯ڱɵĶڱԱвĿʹеˣǷԸ⣬ҪֻҪĹϽȨǿƣɡһҪ֮֯ͼʹϵ˳ԹıΪƻЩΪһֱҪĶʵϲǶ񣬶һֶΣһʹƽദΪֶܵΡȻɵĶζűסͶͽ̡κնҪװ֧֣ѧУҽԺʽ˰գɹ֧

ǿǵʵһûıܣıԻʹǼûҲûкƽôǾͿ˵֯ȻܸıǿƶɵʵɽԤܴڡԶǶԤơɽЩлȥѡҪʽСȨʵǿȨԵķɣľȷΧڣҹְԱűƸ˵Ļɡ

ཨĿģͶֹʹһΪܣǽ(壬ƻ)ǾʲôɿˡΪйÿһ涼ҪȫǼȨ塣аżƻǿÿ˰ͳһļƻȥж

г£˿ѡκһҪеṹĻʽֻҪгԷĸΪƱɷ壬˵ҹڴ£ɴڣΪ˿ؼƻԼ

߷´κɡͨгƷͷĽдɣŬūԵ;֮IJ졣ÿһгףѧ߿ǶɵǿơҲ˵ǵУһ˰֧ȥֽӰƱ֮ûκεIJЩ϶ͳεȨDzɵġΪHaleԵһ˵ζšƵʹƷ[6]Ҳ˵Ůë¿Ϊ͸ɷ򣬴ӶʹëµϰҲɡҲ˵ɣΪҷʹҵˢۣʱʹһ˽ͳȨһͶ˼*ʱʹõĹȨ

˳ԾǣԭijпƶϳûһطܷɡǶ϶˵ľѹ˶ǵūʩӵѹûбʲǾܾν˽ͳȨDzͨȨɽơ뽫ɵƼ֮֡˽ƺ˽ȨķƶȣЩǿDZ˽вƲȨķɣҲκ˿ַ˽вƲɡ[7]

һļͥմĸ׻ָѧϰʳԼˣ죬ͥԸȥһװˣһ£Ϳ˹ˡǣ֪ʶԨĵʦ˵ͷ˼ͥɣΪͷĹдּۻۣ谭ʹùͷȨЩûܹѧָͨϰգȴܻ˵ͷͷƷɨߵõʹùͷϰ˵ϰƷڣƷͲκ˵ҪǴˣѧʵIJʿ˵ͳ˼ͥΪ˹ȨƻĸɣְڷֹĶַһλܵػеһ֧ɵBerle˵űĿ֮¡[8]

ͥΪʲôԸȥװʳƷԸĸ׺ĸϷʣΪַʽáûǿһЩˡDZ̡̡ʱҡͶ̡ƱͶߡͨͶڹͷҵǧͥDZڵ󡣻ͬ˽ʱңԼĹṩIJƷԽڹڣ߾Խ࣬ĹģҲԽ󡣿һͨͥͻ⹤ijֵΪ˭ת ɵĹκ˲ñֹͨṩڸõķȡƸҪĽԼĴǺڹִеӢܳľѧλİ¡˵*һԭϣΪгϲĶΪ޷гϲĶ[9]ֹھȨļеͽ͵ġ˾ԽԽ࣬ԽԽֺߡˡڡгеľȨ֮֡ ʱҵҵеˮƽϵظ¼ÿ춼ͼṩµġõĺ͸˵IJƷеϵر仯ܵΪ߷ĸ÷ʽеijɾ͡ʱ£һӢײ㣬Щ˱Ϊҵľӣܹµ˼룬ʵʩһ˾ӴÿԼܵظ÷ߣע⵽ˡһЩνμҺԷĸĸֻҵṹı档ҵгȨץԼùŵģʽԹЩܳΪҹҵӵľӢӿؽȡ׼ǰδеļƻʱЩμҺ͸ĸҵᄀһѾ֤DzɹĹȥҵ뷨ӹʷϻûйŽײܹ¼ʵʩļ¼DzϣǾӦͨһֻ֣֮Щ㹻ıȥ쵼һԽԽ״̬һ֯Ҫ⡣ ϵ˽ƣɶѡԼɵơǡǡ෴ζŸһͨĹ趨оϵȨǴ̼һҵĵȥܣõطһֶΡ
Ȼûܹ꾡ŵʱΪͨڵλľ޴仯ͨгΪߵȨΪͶƱߵȨǵˮ׼ҲǰδеؽһͬҪʵǣʱʹпܴʱͶʡʱʱǰŵĵȼƶȺǮǮߵԨڿѾԽԽСˡڹȥһ˵Ĺ֮ͣ˺⣬ûκδʹܹЩҲֻһЩɱˡʱ£пܴҲƶ֤ܹҵͶʡҵʱ൱һǹ˵ĴнײôյծͨɣԼ׬󡢷ֺ죬˼イҲǰߡǶҵķٸȤΪߺ͹ԱһΪͶߡһƣij̶ֳϣӵҪߺͷӵ֮һʮ־޴ĺ蹵ǣֻгûûбƻƻĵطܷչҷչãΪͨͣ޵زʳ֧IJƸڼΪͨڵĶʿȻܵѹʱһЩ˼ΪһΪծ˵ծȨߣԴġDzгõıʣҲ͵ûпһԵʵװҪȥԮЩˣʵЩߣյӵߺ͹Ȩӵߡ

ѧһԭǸ塣Ŀڴһֽޣڴ˽֮ڣ˿˼ѡжӵǿȨǿȨַ֯Ϻ;ϵнԴɹ ҲΪʱԭߣھϵãҪκα绤ɾͱ˵⡣

ʱ˽вƲijɾͣ޿ɱΪЧʣʹʱҵпܸӵ˿ṩˮ׼⵼´ӵгĽһỷʹò׿Խĸ˿ɵؾܸԼͬס˽вƲƶΨһƶȣܿܣʹ츳ǻøԷչ㡣 ʱʳɾõģûбȸĦгмйů豸յ䡢ϴ»͵ӻľҸǵˡȻиԶеҵ׷󣬵ǣ֮ԸԶ͸УDzܱκڵǿʹڸľĺŬʱָһִ³ͻеĹ۵㣬ֹ۵һǰᣬº;Ļֻͨͨ֯ܽʵϣ͵º;ĻԣЩⲿףҪijֻʹʩʹлԼĵºĻڸϲȭ˹ġ󡷣ϲʿֶDZҵĽϲʫ裬ⲻʱĹһȷɣΪǰʱƶڽռʹõĶֻ˲ſܵõʱṩ˽Ļᡣ ۴һǶȿʱ壬ûɰȥνƽʱţûΪ׷Ȩɴάаġ

ǽгʥɽŵھŴλ鿪Ļʽֳ£ӦǶͬʱ˵Ĺ۵Ͷ߱ﲻֱֻͬɵΧвпܣĻIJ֡ףԸֲͬȨԶš
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195810˹ٴѧٿĵ9쳯ʥɽѧϵһƪݽ塣

[1] Thomas R. Malthus An Essay on the Principle of Population2nd edLondon 1803꣬531ҳ

* أ18631949꣩ѧң1911˹ٴѧڡǰµѧҪڹҵ¢ϵۺʵ֪乱Ҫʱۺͷ۷档

* ף18571929꣩ѧҺѧңͼýۺͶ̬ѧķоƶȣСн׼ۡĽյı빤ҵ״ҵۡȡ2030ΣʹŷҵƵУѧҲ޳Ĺ۵㡣

* 18191877꣩ң19ʵ滭ĴʼˡӦʵΪݣԷǵʱѴͳɵһҵ͵ʦ1871蹫󣬱ѡΪίԱЭϯ

[2]V I. LeninState and RevolutionNew YorkInternational Publishers84ҳ

[3] Karl MarxSur Kritik des Sozialdemoskratischen Programms von Gotha KreibichReichenberg1920꣬23ҳ

* ޱѷ19031994꣩Ӣʲ׼ѧң½ѧɵҪҪСȫѧļʱۡóɳۡѧѧִѧۡ

[4] Joan RobinsonΪЭдPrivate Enterprise and Public Controlthe English Universities PressLtd13-14ҳ

[5] J. G.CrowtherSocial Relations of ScienceLonder1941꣬333ҳ

* 1241꣩ʵۣԼBıΪСѥӡ37꼴λ7ºȻһز󣬻ָijЩıУֶμΪпᣬ41걻ıɱ

* ж14201498꣩һλڽܲй١Ϊķ̵̫˺ԭ˹Լ̫˺ĦŬӰ쵱ʱĹڽߡְڼ̶ܻԼ2000ˡ

* ΰ19031950꣩ӢС˵ңżߣԴߡ귴е۹ʲ׼ת壬սμӹ;ͬ⹲ѹηɵ1938дɡ¾Ӵһ¹塣һС˵һŰ꡷дһּȨͲϸдʷ

[6] Robert L.HaleFreedom Through LawPublic Control of Private Governing PowerNew YorkColumbia University1952꣬4ҳ

* ˼һ˷ļԵ˷סһĸĸʩ

[7] ͬϣ5ҳ

[8] A. A. Berle,Jr.Economic Power and the Free Societya Preliminary Discussion of the CorporationNew YorkThe Fund for the Republic1954ꡣ

* ϰ£Ӣѧң׶ѧDZ༭ǵ˹ܵġۡڹ͡

[9] Edwin CannanAn Economists protestLondon1928꣬6ҳ

ת߱ͬ⣬עתڱϢҲļһ֡