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ɲΪŵĴ䱣ġ˼¼бһ㡣˶ⳡ̵ĵ⣬ʼռԳϷĸȨҪӢ䷢սضԴȨ˼˶صзһϵйἰƶȰŵ

˵˼ʱ˺ͺжһЩϵϰDZ㵼ijȱʵݵѧѾǡֵָһ㣨μ顷1999.5"˹ɵĻDZصģ"ţѧʷоԱԸʷר˹Leslie Mitchell 1993Уעˡ˼¼дһƪԵij򣬶ڸд˵Ļ˼ԼӦʺԵɽҪԲķ˵ԡ˼¼ӡ1998ԡۡ뱾Ķиһİ

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ѯܵõĻӦΪ"Э"Revolution Society1688ٸһξۻϣijЩΪӦĹᷢϢףǷ˸ոȷЩɡӢλ˶һ𡣲˵ΪϿĶһ롣

˾ͷ˵ⱾͲͬѰʹԸ˲ͬ˶ԷȤ1757ɹ˺Ͽ1775϶ڷȹµʱ⣬йⷽļ¼ЩαӻˡԸԹȴٵÿʹӲͷƤ뷨Ҳʱ֣Ըܿ裬ڰAuxerre ĵطʦ͹мĥʱ䡣Щ˳ڷҪϢԴڸ˹Charles James Fox ޽ķCharles RockinghamףCharles Greyʺظ̸۵ʱ򣬲ȴЩŮŮĿˣ˼Ϊƫ©ࡣķ˶Tom Paine Ϊ"ԷΪİ"ʱƷ"һ˵"Ƚ̹ϵʱΪ"̸Ǹķ"оȡܵ˵Ŀǣ"Ŷ"ȥΪĿ

˵ֱĿǸӢ˷һ棬ҲȻֻһӢʶĵˡ˵˵ĴűòУǵ޹ؽҪͼ忴żΪ֮ҵǣˡ˶1789-1790귨棬ʵȥ̫Զʹ⵽ͷԡûһ˹㷺Ķ߲⵽˹㷺ἰ䰲ŵ۱ǺԲƣԡ˼¼ӦСӣȴûû˵߶ϸʧʵ͹ֿŵд

⵽Բͬķԡķ˶ֶ˹ͨأMary Wollstonecraft ļɣʵȻ˹Ϊ""ƤأWilliam Pittֻǿ"һЩ룬ȴһǴ"ʱǶڽΪѰҴ𰸡ȣ˾ΪʲôdzϾֹ֧κͲĹ˹ܸѷThomas Jeffersonˡ˼¼֮Ϊ"ԲʹҸеȡ"ΣΪʲôִⲻ׼ȷ淨Σ

1789-1790¼Ϊ֪Ӣ˵ļ֤Ҳٵÿ˶ʵʱdzѾ߲ijϢ͹۵洦ɵáˣ˰ƺ͵طƻΪһ̸߰1789105-6շ⵽˵һĴ磬DzԭµġǸֵûбıɱڰ轲ԼչȡӢߡ

ص˶Щǵͷһλ¼Ŀ߱

ֶBenjamin Vaughan϶˸Ͳֵһ�"װ˷ʱ"Ž˷߿֮⣬ǰһλ༭˵"С"϶dz"ߵĹ"Ӣ˻Ȥ׷ףһΪһʶ֮ʿΪʲôƽΪش¼ص

е˿ԭ򲻹DzΪ˴õһϽޣΪޱ͡˼¼֮һΪ̵֧һſ϶ȷɣΪĸͽʼղͬڽ̿ݣζǣֽͿ˵кҪԷ̻ἰʦôͬѰı绤ڸʱڵУ˾һҮջʿźڳۣͷĽñһò˥ԶĤݣʥ÷Saint OmerǸƶȵ´ܹһ

ȻҲһ߲Ǹµض϶ڷˡʵʵڵ˵˵ͷʱʵ˷˼׼ŻǾҡƢָ꣬Ƕ޶ãdz޶ȽۣЩѳΪڹеʮ;ʮ�"ɫ"һʣָЩǵšСҿʼ"ŵķ"Щüڭ£ͦųìеķ糵ŭԴϻĽ񸣿˹Ц˵ܸ˿˷ԸΪָ֧Ŀ޶ȿ϶Ͻ̼ܡ˼¼ijЩݴǼңѹijԱ̻һȺ֮Ϊʳ˳񱣬һжһֻҵļ⡣

֪Ƽڲڿ֮СеЩǻʱҲdz԰׳֮ڡ

Բ˼ΪϤҲ֪ļⲻʿһյĽͣд˼¼һͼҪ˼ȨٴǿӸԸ񵳡˵ıӻ޽ķ1782ȥ˺󲮿˱ս䡣ʮǹϵĻԸ񵳵öˡʮ˱仯Ǹ˹лﵤRichard Sheridanһɫս˶Դ磬ǰͽǿܽܣȴǼ޵޲šˣԱΪһӰ첻˥ȷʵջڶס˹͢˹Warren Hastings

еУرԹ˵ΨһľڳϯвԴ¸ӦйעİίԱԱ1788-1789Σڼ䣬һѯ˵ʹҲܵ""ʾе""˼¼дԭһҲͲѽˡ鲻DzػԻԸ񵳵˼Ƶĸԡۣ˵ԷΣ˵ӢΡ

˵˼¼дӢζ뷨йأʱѾʶһ㣬ȴʵϣҪѵһӢˡ˵ҪؽԼҵⲢʵ顣ԶشҪӸ˵Ϊ1789귨飬пܷھʮӢ˼¼ĿľǶҡЩξӢ⡣Ҫţ˾нƵ1688ӢΪȫµһĻڷԽ߽֮ǰ˾ףĹֳŷдδİʹ½Ľṹ߽вӢ˺һҲΣ֮С˶һλ̹�"һ뷨˵һ͵ġķʽԸԭ"

˵һ裺˷Щأ1789ӢҲͬڡ˼¼ôƪԴ˽֤ЩڽϵijֲͬߣDZܾ蹫ȨƶĻ½ͽ̫ǻָ֧ȹ̻ᣬⲢֵ֡¡ʥٰRabaut de St Etienne¼ʱԼʹһλ½ʦԡӢҲƵΡֲͬʦǰʮĸ˶Ҫˡ�"Э"--Ļʹ˲ȡж--ľۻϣ׷¡¡˹Revd Richard PriceڲǰзơԼɪ˹Joseph Priestley¡ʥٰͰ

ҮʿAbbe Sieyes һޡǻΪŹ̵Ľʿų켺Ϊڲ棬̺ԺƸ·л棬ȫĻǵشйȨ޻̸֮ʮĩҶӢЩĸ--˳Ϊ"֮"--еļʦͬDZڸ--""--йӡ˼ΪӢҵѧҺǵĿģ--ķҡأCapel Loftt ³ˡ

˼ȣBrooke BoothbyʿԼͼˣHorne Tooke ȵˣģ¸ȴͬĿ׶¬˼롣ںߣ˸ǻĵ⡣Щ֮ζͶΪȫ"һֲη"ǵ˼ŸԵȱݡȿصԭǾоǶ"˵Ȩѧ˵գȫ˵ı"ⷽ棬ӢϿûʲôáѧҼһַҲһӢ󡣸ǰ˫ŲϵѧЩǵ졣ͼ¶һʹӢͬвĵ߸
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˽Ŀġǣ--̻--IJƲӶȥ䵱ծıʽԱ֤ҵծȨ˳ծ񡣶֤㱦ĸƶȣЩͶ̡ʳߵļһЩȴʧӢծĹģ볥ھʮΪǵ飬Ӣ֮һȷ֤

Щض˲˵"߹ϵĵײʱ֮ijͻ"һһֻڲƲʥַƶȡһӢתõƶȡӵвƲȨʹһ˶ڱƲĸмᶨƵĹС֤ܵõĽϾȥԵشλ淶Ʋ״Ƶһ棬ĵͶ̰Ͷ̿Ǵ̸ȻȨڸӶΪ

Ϊó㹻֤ݱӢϢϢء빲ļijֲͬߡҵѧҺͶ̣˸߶ߣؿIJһõ˹ѫLord Lansdowneӻ󵳡˼¼ΪݾЩ˵ĵط˹صIJΣбְ͡ˣڲ˿Duc d 'Orleans Ȼͬࡣڽסߣһ׷˵Ҹڤڤ֮бѾõϰ׵ķͳ档¡˹Լɪ˹ڽˣڷֳ˵߸Եáǵ֮ͬǴ"һԲƲĹЩҰIJǵķ"Dz˶Ÿ塣J.G.A.ƿˣPocockָ˱µ"ǡһЩֵַˣһЩī͡ծͶ̡źͼר�"ڲ¼ǡӦоСŵĴʹһ˵ŷ˼¼һ˵ˡҲ˵ӢԢԡˣʵĿǡѶߵעһҵ¼ϣĵȴƶȵ⡣

Ȼʮ;ʮı̸ۡ˼¼ܻ˴ﵹæǷ¼Ϊ˶ǽ˵˲òεҪһ⣺ǾΪʲôʲôڹ֮ͬУ˵ȻҪ漰ijЩʷ¼еó۵ȴпκʱκᡣ˼¼ʷѧʹ˵ʽһѧı˵ЩͬѰɾһıڼ¼ʱ˲òʡһαȶδﵽνת⡣ⷴӳעʵЧԣҪѡһشʷ֣óԵţ෴

˶ԸΪеУؼ϶εӦȨʼЧ˶ϵһĴߵȨԡ֮Ȼ跨һܹṩЩȨĹҡΪԯޡȨ"һһδըлٵйŴĿ"ʹܹھʲôǻȨһϴһԴȴûйʶôϵõͱȻǸδ⡣Ա֮£Ժ"ܵȻеĸ٣ͻһִ֮ҫ"˼¼¬Ķ⹥ԿDz˳װ˶˼άʽ˼άʽǶǴȻȥʵ

˼ţ˼εΨһȡ;˵εԭ--˱

ָӵﱻ˿ŵ˵ɾ˵ѧ--֪ӦõȨȴ̸ܶھӸеɡƽȡصڲ˿һ룬һ롣˵ȻܹԵģҲܹиʲô鼤ҲһƫܵŲΪȡϰ׺͹ɸͬҪˣ񷨹˽вͣչֵһȵľ󡣿Ԥϣֲ͵ᵼ»ҺͲȶ1790Ԥ1792-94ĿֲΪȷţⳡ첻㡣

֮£ΪԷļȶ죬κִƶȶӦء֤ܹʹڳνнĹȻӦܵӡڡ˼¼˵"κðղǰһܳڷṲͬ־Ĵû߲йЧõķؽʱӦֽ"ƶȺ͹سϰõȷǾͿ˵ǵЧѱ֤ö˥κξֿƶȣԱΪеĹԡѧоУʷѧҪûʷƶȾͻÿһʱֵ˼ڲκﶼܰʯ�"ǽñIJӬò˶"

ⷽ棬֮ĪӢԴķӢעص"ʵȻ""Ȼ"עصȴ"ӦȻ"˺Ĺ18õijɹȶԭӵһѾ600֮õƶȡʹͼ뿨ļɣѡȨʱҲȻȨΪݣΪţǵݳѷȨ仰˵ҪϵɣǷʽɡһĸ߲"Э"ʱһ̶ϾΪǿʷֻأΪϵļֵһѭ˶еõաˣDzԱصʿļңΪӦʷۡ

֮£ǵʷȫǻۺ֤ݱʾ˳׵ӡ֪ƶµķֱ׶ˡȷʾԼ"ڱ߸ķĴȱݲİ"롶˼¼Ȼͬ˽ͨغ·ʮķǿǴ𡣱ӦǶƶȽеʡ޼֦Ϊ˴ѿȻȴߵøԶǾ̽ȫ̸£ԷʷͳԲмһˡûб壻߷Ժ⵽ϳ̻ᱻƷ˲òʮ쵱һܣòͳһķʡڿ׶Ҫѧѧ֧˱ʾ˼

Ԥϣⳡ˲ûôѧΪκͳҪȲȴϤľʡԽҲûôԻڽһȡ˾񸦵񸦣ûоʥͽıҲ̩ȻԵáǵӳ˵ĹܸңõѡƱǹִؾܾʹáθѡеķӦȨղ˵˵һʹ񷨹ιͬʲôʶͳͳ⵽ƻ̸۵£Ǵ"һǵ"ȻȴʹķѵĽԿ

˾ݴԤԷңƽϢҵĽij־䡣

˴ӾǶȳزӢεȶԺͷעĿ״̬֮ĶԱȡӢ˲ǵʷУһͬ˼--һζȡڲƲȨԭ෴˱ǵĹȥ鹥ԲƲռС˼¼˴ƪ1789-90ʱԴ̻Ϊ˵һ㡣̻Ʋһٱ"ɹ֧"ڲƲʥԣһڲķ--̻--ӵеIJƲͬڸӵеIJƲΪȫǿʶκβƲĹǶвƲĹӢֵģΪ�"Խ̻Ʋʹ˽˲ƲһͬʣҲ˽˲ƲߣȲʹҲ֧ǣǸˡ"

ڲ˿ʷ봫ͳѾһɻ˵DzƲʹҰ״̬ιҲаƲ˵ӵijЩƷʹijЩȨ˵ض˫ֵͶֵЩƲҪõɵĽ綨ͱϡûıϣͻطҰʮĩҶʶ֮ʿѾע⵽ȿܽҲܵˡ

ܹȨһΪĽǶ˵Ʋζӵ˽˲Ʋ˵ӵء벮ʹǮ˲ͬߵIJƲഫԪǶԼҵķȶΪеĹġһϣ߳Ϊ"ߵ"ǵĽܳλ֮ҲӦܵκȨս

ֻҪܼһҵƲκﶼܳΪǸҵǡ˵ĴǣһĻԭ򣬲ڲƲǴ͡ٶۺųģ;ִַռ˳λ

ˣ˹̻ķ˲Ʋĸ˲ƲëȻ˷ְʲôIJƲܱΪȻأ

ڰʷͳƿ˴ڲƲԭΧϣ˱һЩƻӡڰʿһ֮ڣδͳγ1789һԳȨһСΪһ˶ûȨڡ˼¼вϧī¡˹һ--1688Ӣ˱Ӧ跨ѡһλ¹ڲ˿κһκʱ򶼲ѡDzܵģΪÿһֻǴȱйΡƶȼ̳˸ϲ1688¼һҪġһƫһģʽ˵һ˵һο˶˲Ʋʷ

1789ķȴǽȻͬ顣ʷ볣ʶ㿪ʼֽһᡣնȫƲͷ͢εĻΪֳṩ˻ᡣ޲˹ӶĿҺͲJacques Pierre Brissotݵżߣֻֻܳͷء˾ĵǣӢҲƵξ棬Ƶصǹڹʵ̷硣Ϊǿ򵷻ٵΪǼȱȽֱȽʶȱȽʷ޶ҲȽܾ޶ͬʱʵűȽеĹϵڡ˼¼еIJԼࣺ

ҲӦΪֻǾһЩͿȡƥ̲ó׻ijЩdzª⣬Ϊ޹ؽҪʱ޽ġɵ޽ĺϻЭӦľ⿴ңΪڽڵӶ̴ٵĶϴɵĺϻϵһпѧеĺϻϵһеĺϻϵһееĺϻϵһĺϻϵֺϻϵǶٴ˶ԴﵽĿ꣬˹Ҿͱ˲ǻ֮ĺϻϵҲǻŵˡȥ˺ͽ֮ĺϻϵ