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˭ԼƵ֧أȨγɣ˼ҲԼϵġȨݡ˾ͳελڽ̣ټϸ͵Ĺ¡1 ҹ֪ʶ粻ףҲձΪйı֮·ԡ糱ƺƵﲻס¾ǡ˳߲֮֮ҹķĹȻΌ飬ɬĸӹԣۡ塱Զоٵġ⡱ҪסһµаȡɵĽڵаǼԸʡ¡
ԾʮԱԹȨı˽ͻȻԱըٶӡܵĸԴе岻Ӧ˵гáǵΣȨԼɢ˾ظгĹƽƸĸȻüޡȻŵ֮գ֪ʶ繫ϵƸĸ﷽ܼٸܣʹг
ʮ󳱲ûиչйҴڶҡռ֣ܴӣ˥࣬ȴ𣬿ﻹƮɢѪζǵսĽұ硰ԵĶʮйܾ沨ųǰУȫ羪㵵ijɾ͡
Զ׼ʵλáνļֵڻûɫĿѧԣҲû֪ʶӵְҵ񣭣ɺôҡ˳֮ҹǡ߲֪֮ʶ˭սݡ⡰
ͬ塤ǰҹյȻƵȱٹرũ񡢹ˡ˹̽ײ֧֡϶µũ塰нʮ꣬ũǶһΰҵȻȤȱȱʵСơʱľ޴顣ҹеġ¶ѵżȻģйİѵһ䡰רơ񶨵
߶Ƶijɾ⣬Ϊһ֮֡ĺ׼Ρнսĵ۹ʽйµĿԣᳫÿŶʵõ˼άȡšͳйӵжغȽƶȣδйҲȽҶصġй˲Աʲô糱ʲôֵۡлԼֵƣδйҲӦʵģҪʵҪ󣬼ֹܣƽ
ȳͷͬĸּƳšαȽƵIJͬ˵йľʺһͬѡ񣬼ԷΪѡһѯͷ塱ľ巽ּʹκεɡκμԼκ߶ܷɵԼʹÿһйڷǰְܲλְҵ塢λƽȡ


һ.
1. ʲôƣ
ʮС͹ʥһ˵͹һ㶼ʥʧҵ¸ڵȷӡСʥһ˵Ҳһ㶼ʥϰҪʲô
(rule of law) Ķdz򵥣еķҡר (autocracy) ĶҲdzһԼԼΪ䡣2 (democracy) Ķȴ죬۵Ĵʦ޲ء (Robert Dahl)ҲĶ塣ǵĶĿĺͼֵۣѴʵרơ3 嶼ԼĿĸУе嶼ֶΣ֯ķִ֯ķǣȫ깫ɡڵѡٱ߲쵼ˡƵ֧ٵǣӡڵĴҲڡɵѡٱ쵼ˣѡٵɺͼҳ̶Ȳ
Ƶ֧ȻƴԼ񡣾ٷѪȺͻĹұ㲻ܹƣսʮѪȵսͲ˵ˡرǸҡȻƣӢʮķҾˡӡǡҡᾭڲѪȵȺͻҺ١ǵáҡ˹жڡɵĹѡ٣뱱ԼսԵԵýĻֻҪά浱ѡ˹ͲҡӢսʱӢרơ˺ŷ˵Ӣʵ
ᡣκβõ鷢ˣҪôǡġ壬Ҫô㹻壬ǡǡδ룬һ硣Ƶġ򡰲ơֺγͬһأδа˵ĺҸΪѵ绤˼ͳһڽ̡
ʥĿĶͨаΰٲĹܡĸֱ׶˶ָȱ£еĺôĹ͡1998ġⷽġɫӡڡΪʲôҪʵһġʮôרƣȨάɣԾ˵չά˽ƽȣƽ÷١4 λdzϽѧ졣һĨɱйijɾͣˡϵļ̤ŵսūʷսѪȡȨ˶ıңԼʮľôΣͰʮġ͡СҵԣҲԽսҹѧҲšʷѱͼͳʱڣǰ546-ǰ510ŵʱڣΪϵһˡ5 ȥ˥ܵIJޱսŵǿʢ˴Լһ꣬ͼͳ֮ռ˼һ룬ŵĻԻʱڡͼͱȨҸλӣôͳˡơСϵһˡġ黹ۡ͹ơǷǸ巨壬ôͳƣսһǰרƻεгɾ͹ǰб׶˵̶Ȳ
Ϊʲôŷִָȫ깫ɡڵѡٱ߲쵼˵ƶȡ6 ƲΪȻݣȷ¡

һʹƽȣ㷺ߡյĴѡơνȨ(sovereignty of people) ʵʵǡȨ (parliamentary sovereignty)ҲƵġͷͳΡ(polyarchy)ʲôơ7βϣӮҺҵѡƽȣÿмӵͶƱᣬѡҺü꣬ѡ˺͵ѡôƽȡѡٲʹεĻƽȣֻʹ (accountable to) ǿ漯ţԻ֯˵νᡱܿܿԣʵɿƽֻһ֣ǰƽȡ
㷺ֱִ߲Ƶǧǰŵǰƶȡij̶롰ȨĴСأҲ˵ѡٵƵԼѡٺ;ߵĹ㷺̶ȳȡŵ쵼ͨǩƵΡǩѡٵȻҪö࣬ƱԴ漯Ųݣ֡ƱƽȵIJᡣŵġ(demos) ƵƽȵĻ뼸شľߡȫ塰񡱲ĹÿپʮΣӵ˾شߡؼµȨǾ¡ŵţҾߵԽ࣬߾ԽǰѡȨ롰ĸΪһ̸ŵƽʮ˸ܺͻң˺ԥǸƶȡ޵ˣνṆ̶̀ȲߣƽȺǸаġơ˿ڶ༰⡰רơΪɾֱܾܾ񡰹㷺ߡСʱʵС㷺ߡǸʱѾƺһȥСҵɣ˵̨׼ȡȨʱġΡ8
ڶۡ桢硢ͼɡĴɡѡ쵼˵ҪƵȷĴɣɳ̶ԽߣѡپԽƽȻѡٱȻۡ桢ͼɣЩɱ뿿ЧִϡȱٷεġҡǷķɹ涨Ǹ⣬ҪȱЧĹϵĴɡȱٷεĺңѡδ۶ʹõıҲδȡʹñɡ֮ҪĴɣȴṩĴɣԡַĴɡĴɷṩģرɷϵġзȱĴɣȱεĹȴĴɡ
ζƺ⡣ƺıڲķȨ˾ȨҲǷεķ룬ѡٵıȻѡٲ֮ƺ⣬ѡ쵼Ҳһطɹ涨ƺ⡣ңѡ쵼ھнԡȨܶ쵼ţõѡƱԽߣȨҲԽѡٱִܾʶ෴ѡִʶԴڷչйҵȱٷιرȱЧִأѡ侭̤ƺԭ湫Ա⣬ֱӸ˾͹ԱִΪר𲻴ȱЧķȨƺ⣬ѡרׯƶȡڽ֮йƺⳣΪͨѡٶԼⲻ֪ȱٷε£ɵѡҪô״̬Ҫôʹ͵ԼȨ֮޼ɡѵǾģ
ģֹܡҹ֪ʶ粻ǽ鵤ҩֵ۶ŷŷʵ壬ΪҪθܶܣӸܵĻᡣܵĶԹȨı˽ֻҪڹȨı˽򣬸ܾͲܱܱܲڸ޷ƣҶܰѸЧؿڷԻij̶ȡڷչйңܾͷ⣬ΪܵǷϣʧܣԴϽнṹͺࡣ
1ԴھýṹĸܡýṹкܴҪIJܹȨ֧䣬һг֧䣬־ýṹΪṩ´ЧǰֶԪľýṹгûȨ֧ľáζžƶȵġԱйʮľгʮľüƻȱٸԵıƾýṹ͸ܵķֻϸִطɡѡ쵼˲ȻϸִϸִǷεĹܡ
2Դνṹĸܡֵ֧ľṹҲǸܵ´ڡͳᡱѪԵڷ䡢ȺȹϵȻġȹԼάȨҪ֧֡ʹѡԹȨر˽ȱٷε£רƻ߾ʱָܴIJڡִᡱȹϵΪȻϷġƽʵڴڵĹʶɹġἯӦӮȨӮȨ߸֧ԼļԻرġ֮𡰴ͳᡱξµĸܣִᡱƶȵĸܲٸܵij̶ȣֻǸı˻¸Ķʶģоεʵʶͻ¸ѡ񡣡9 ˣѡҪľѣ׵ԴЩǮȱȨˡԼɺƵĵ¹ձܡסձĹȴһֱܡ10 ڵ¹ĸܳʼĸһ㲻⣬ԭжһἯǿȨΣȶǿȨĻͬءǿȨƽΣΪǿἯӦõӦȨ档ڶơӷεƶȣȨȨʶٹ̣ȨܷȷԼжϸִǵĸܡ
3Դڹ;ߵĸܡԤúΪṩ硰ҵߡƻɨƴǡѡ쵼͸ܵĻᣬΪ漯ʹԸԤܵĻҲ֮͸ַһڡԤ󡱺͡áҪĿ֮Ѱǡƽ⣬ʧƶطɣ׷ϸִȱķԸ͸ܷdzЧۺ¼Ե֤
ʮ˳ûмٸܣʹѸӣ˷չйҵһҪ⡣һЩѧ߼˵ֻڳе󣬲شС֡Ȼⲻڸܻ᲻ڡסܲܿƸܣԼΪʲô¸ܲѡ쵼˲⣬ӸܵĻᡣͨƷġûзΣܾ͵òûзΣǴģܵġԾʮڿʼйĸѾӾýṹͽͣͣǰЧķΡ

2. 롰ơ
ͨѡƣרԼ쵼ǿӸƣ߶ƣ (personal rule )ιơ (rule of law) ָɷָܱɷͳε塣
רƵ߼Ҳdzŷѡ䲢ȻרõطĸƸṩڵĻ˺䡣֮Ȼרơáһרơɵ߼ûܽרƵľиȱݣƽǿ漯ŵɡѡҪѡƱܵѡ񡱵ԸԼ䵱ѡõʵ֡ƻν1ƶǿ󣨼֯ġǮġἯŵҪdzУԽǿļܵõԽĴԡ2ȨԶ󱳾ճλԵһѡٽأձ岻òλѡƱĿǡ3ȨɷᣬƵȺʹȱ١ᡱͳĹ
ѡٻӳġֵۡʥ˵˲áֵֽװ˶ǿȨεġɡǿ漯ŵɣǶߵӡ
չйȱٷδͳƻܷεƣǴƶרƵѭDZȻġʵɵ;һ֡岻ͬͳţһڹģְϵġڷǰƽȡ
ơơơǵƣ뷨νϵƣμӷεƶȡƶĹִϵͳĶܵأѡٵҡְλĸܷϸԼѡƱִѡ֮Ȩָ໥ƺ⣬ܷþ͸֤гĹƽάĴɡ֡ͣѡģˡεȡɵĸ߶ͳһ߳ɾ֮͡ŷƶȣƶиŨķƺɫʣͨƶȵİŰѡȨķѣʹǵȨ໥ӶɣʹѡȨżŷͳǿδͳƶȰϿƫƺ⡣ŷķδͳǿͳƶȰϾͿƫ֮Ͳˡơ (judicial review)ѡ߷ԺѡͨԼѡͳǩЧķΥЧƶֻڶսԺ뵽ŷơܷƺԼơ
ơɷֽϷγɷָߣĻᣨͳӹᣩǹԱϵˣճȻλѡƱսȻᱻ컯ɽǮϷɿƶ£񡱵ԸDzֵҪѡƱȨսʵ֣ӳ˼άǿȨ˼룬ǿἯȻӦӮĴȨƶ£ͬŵʵҹͬӮѡƱʲ׼ҪɣҪȨɡʲ׼ľ˺͹׼ľɣ͹ǵĽİ취ҪȨɣҪϸѡķΧԽ϶ѡƱƣ֣Ȩʹ͹ʱҵ塱ɻѡƱ壬ἯŵʵԼ֮塣ΪṩǿȨֵ۵ġϷԡѡƱձ֮ʲô߼ϵϵӦӣйũռ˿ڶɢȱ֯ϵƼš
κŷ޷⽨ķ崫ͳȻķȨӦȨˣķβδΪͽ˵ġȨʹѡСĽԽɵ׳ذ벽ơɴʯûķλƻѸٸƵֱؽѭ
չйȱٷδͳ۷κΪһ塣ǿԵó۵㣺1κDzͬ£ڲΪ2κڷչйһ㲻档ǿȨʶԼǿȨʽƶȺףɵѡչʾȨʢաιͷƶȼΪѣҪԱ͹ڶԷȨľηرǽܹϸִзɵĹԱϵ3ȱٷεרѭ塣ûжǿִϵƲȻΥΥߺΥΪݻ͹ƽ
ǿ÷κҪذϵֳ࣬Ƚǵı֡1зǼҵƶȣ죻2ȱΣǶչйҵƶȣ3ȱչйҵƶȣձȱεƶȣ4зֻۺ¼²áձάµ1993ǰҲƶȡƵıҵƲ¡±

(1) (2) չй (3) ٲַչй (4) ۡ¼¡1993ǰձ
+ - - +
+ + - -
+ - 0 +

ѧһֱϷǡͳᡱݱɡִᡱĸ־11ΪʲôҽƹǷأΪƹ㵽ÿһʮ־ĵҵǿҵڽʹɫʡ1831-1832䣬˾Աпά (Tocqueville) ȥ˾Ÿ£дˡһ顣ڡۡгƣͼֹǿϵ۵־嶼ֻ˳Ӧⰲŵˡ1848ڼ䣬ΪDZĵʮдһƪǰԡƪָƽɱɢ硱12 ϹɢԤ㷺Ȥڶսѧ̩ɭ˹ (Talcott Parsons) ǡִᡱġṹԻ֮һı֮· (evolutionary universal in society)13 ս֮Ŀȴﵽ˶㡣νƽۡDZ̨ʾǣ˭ߣйսĸԴȫ綼ˣõĹʺƽ14
ںңԭֻǷۿںšʮȴȱٷεĺ֮ʵġ塱йչйҳưѾͷһˡл̣ôͲսЩ塱糱ƺƵ赲沨ˣйƾʲôǵ沨ǵ̾ĶܣҪʰۣصĸޣ
ƵĻһ;ĻѰɵƽ⡣֮ԳɹȶʯһǷΣơ񡱵Ȩṩձ塣ڶǶǿȨκԵĹʶ˭вѡƱ࣬˭СϷԡֳɴ漯ţ˴ּγ⡣ʯȻ֮Сй;ûдδͳҲûе¹ǿȨεĻʶйûĴ漯ţ̸ϴἯּ֮ʡ£ͨķʽǷdzΣյġ׼ҹҹûγŷʽġ׼(corporatist democracy)Ҳûеɴ漯ʵ⹹ɵԪ(pluralist democracy)ǵõǵҲļͻǴ壬Ӣ壬壬ٵרĹ̡15 Ȼ֡׼ﵽˡᶯԱĿģDzҪᶯԱΪʲôҪͻΪʲôҪǿѡƱǿȨļֵ

. µѡ

1. ⽨ŷ޺͡ͳй
ΪʲôйûʵƣþָIJȻܷˡȱȽᡢáϵIJͬʷȻΪʲô߻вͬѡ
һǧǰ˵ŷķ⽨ʱģũׯ԰侭û⽨ȼƹ̻ͬͳΣûͳһַ⽨Ĵص㣺1ȱپɣ2ȱιƽ3ǿȨȨ4ȨķȨȨԴȪ16
ǧǰ䷨йʽġ⽨ʱйͳᡱɴ˿ˡ17 ԸСũľûֻԵСũͥǻʵĹϵͳͬطͳΣӵ׺ʹһͳȨ׵ġͳᡱڽ̵ġ⽨ᡱзdzͬĴص㣺1ӵľɴͳ2ӵжصιƽ3ǡǿȨȨ4ԭǾķȨԴȪ
ŷķ⽨ƻأũūֵͶˣŷľܵƵġ⽨ȼƹ涨߹ѪͳDzȨĻ̶ײȨǿطʽķ⽨֮ڼҵƵսǡΣҰǿȨȨȨԴȪ֮ŷ޵ķ⽨ǿϣʱǿȨʶͷδͳȻȻǡ־ܴȨ18
ͳйɾһֶضȽԹƽԲĹԵԭ͹ң֤úɡԴҹкܴ졣
1ҹľɴͳҪأءͻңǾɵĻ׼ԹԪǰ356ϾİСũᣬͶأʹȨһֱҹԶ׼ΨйǰʮǸ⡣ȻйӵǿȨƣǧľɴͳȴʹƻüѽȶdz׿йľгҲ˺׳ɹҹĿǰ˰ʵ˰ʵѽڣ˰ʵʹ˰ķԼ˽Ƶķһ֤йɾôͳۺ¼걻Ϊϡɡĵʵûʲôֵģֻ˳Ӧ˻һƾʷͳѡ̨ͬҲֹ½ɾý
2ҹжصιƽΪӦ׼ֻԵСũᣬй״ƣʵµĴͳԿţѪͳ𱰣ûвƸ׼ûСӡûйơһǧİǰƿƾȡʿ1905ϿƾٵĴԼһǧ䣬ƽĹٿ¼ƶȴࡱԼΪɣĺáļѻʮ߿ȻǼҪ͹ƽ;ڽսʣļϵġƽ֮߿Ȼ߾Ӱסҹ壬ѡ峤ȨأΪ϶ܻѡٵʤƽԱ⡣ۺ¼£ĹϵͳбѡöȨ񲢲еƽձ1993ǰЧú͵λҲԶĹϵͳ19
3ǡǿȨҹһͳȨĻӣǰ551479Ͱͼǰ427347Ϊ½̻ӸͳҪΪԵ¡˵̣֮֮޳ܡ֮Ե£֮гҸ񡣡20 ˼˵쵼̷ͷ̷ֻ֮߳ġ˸ĵϵʹŽһ£֮߳ģƴλߵ쵼ͼġӵ˼Ϊͨ˾Σ͡Ұ磬Уֻÿͽ21 ִ֮ǰŷһֱҰͼҲһֱаͬʡ350䡰Ρ˼һͳйʵᡣԪǰ130ңʵСټңߣ˼Թٷʶ̬ĵλ˺ҵ׼Ϊͳι֮ǿȨͳй岻רŵ˰պ˾ʱ賣һСͳڶ񡣴ͳġءȽյġءٴһֻͨһнĹԱ˰գΰ˾ͳһ˸ʽרƣʵǡ߻ʵԶɣǶδһԱɣǡ(limited government) µɡ֡ΡĻƴģһͨƾٿԳΪԱݺصԼΪ𡱡һֻվһߣΪԼѧְԱάһֻվԼԼ籾һߣΪ䡣ҳڳ͢ΪҡӡĵµȼԼšĸʹҵɹҲ棬ΪҡΪ֮Ϊᡱĵͳͳһʧ¡ΪֿṩԣΪʵ굽ҼҡṩᡣйӢԡۣɸۡΪսսͳΡʥ濵 (1654-1722) ʵеġӣ峯Ҳδҷ1900ŷӵй˹˲ŮһһŵΣֻҳ۹پҡӸˣδũ֧֣ȷũ壬ҲũĸǧֵµķѣһͳлΪṵֻ̃ٺͻʵۣơйǧĵһ漣䡰ϷԡǿȨܱ⣿
4ԭǾķҹͳȨԴȪɻʵͳ˧СĹطֽ֧ͳΣΣԤȻ;ڷƽԸСũ¾áҪλɵʵԲǿš͡ӡ֮ĵԭάִһͳ22 Ȼȱطϰߣ˵ȵΪͳŦάϵѪԵ壬ȳݣطţԼֵȶ֮ĵаšԴڣڽ̣£Ƿϵ֮֮ͨȷķɣԭԼԷdzȨĵԷdzȹϵĹϵͳǡŪȨȨı˽ŽˣͳйǡһɢɳʽǡרƹҡʵǸȡҡӡġĻ롱С֮Ī֮ʿĪԺȴûȷ磬ûͬҲûзЭᶯԱʮڵͻȻִִ֯ӣִҵִƶȣȨзɵȨ˿ڵĴһ١ٶرǧۿսȺۼƽǧĸաα

2. лѡ
ʲ׼ȫͬйȲΪ˾ɣҲΪȡеġרơƵŭ䲻ŭڶԱִ֯Ĺҵᣬֿꡣһ仰Ʒ峯ĶйҪվһΰǣɽԡʳӸ֮ԡר˵ġͳһйȴԱڶɢũ񣬵ֿձ۹ԣʵйҵܵ֯ʽͳɫũ߳ɹضԱйũ񣬴˹ľӣǿĹ赲ڳʰ뵺⣬Ѹٵʵ˹ҵһԪ쵼֮µġרӳйʱҪ󡣲ˣϵǿܡƽȴҡ
ʮ󣬵ҵгϵȡ˵ָгȡΪٹҵʵеġָ;áרı׶˱͹ǰۡáִüëһץ岻ӦִᾫܵרҵֹҲӦ澺ڵ±׼гᣬȻ¸ܡǧǰܹ񡷣ΪžרƷΪشﶬ֣ʹ˾ְ٣ع٣񲿴٣Ĺ٣̲٣١Ϊ֮Ϊף±Ρ񡷽ǿƽϸĿƶȣйͳ硣ߣй۾ᶫԶϣǰκһɹ23 ΪŽͽԻ֮ͣлѡ
ѡƣΪĹDZϾúͣȨģɡdzʴ״ġġָĴȼ׼յĴ漯šǿȨƿԼʱ׼ȷطӳἯʵıǨҲϣʱǿȨʶӵԴʱȷڷ⽨ʱδͳʵķǿἯŶƼŵͶձļ̤Ҳڳϵȶͳ졣
лʺѡΡ
1й᲻Ǵ漯ŵ´ͳɡ㡢ͷɢСũͥΪɼҶ˳ɹҡǽ׼ĹҲ漯ŵĹǼͥĹһͳĹɢСũݱɽгϵļʽСҵǷɷɢγɴģ漯šΪɢŽϰǸ߶ͳһ־˿ԳΪձĻ衰׼ԡȫȻܵѡ
ΪԪľȻ¶ԪľΡòơѧ˵ʵԴڶǿȨεšۺ¼µľñҪԪö࣬ûе¶ԪľΡ̨Ԫľ޹ءؼⲻھΡԪЩԪܷϳоļţҵǷϳμż뾺Ȩ档йҵȱԭܼ򵥣ѼΪɢСҵϳɴģμҪܴġ׳ɱһıȻӦǡǹͷ񡱺ֶ֮֮͡ϷɢͼעڷѺͱѡͬǿȨ㡰ȭͷá󴬡Ҳ˲һԹĹ˳ӦȻάĹƽΪΣƫУܷҹСҵľƣǿȨܵõӵ
2ҹ񲢲԰ԭּλɴ漯šǿȨʽ岢Ȼĺԡ漯ͨöƱȡȨʹȨǵ棬ǡϷԡԴڹ˵ʶȴ㲻ùӲлϵ£ִǹ˶ҪΡͳĵ뵱ķθǷԴȪǵԭľ廯˵ΪṩĹˣͬڴͳĵʱйĻͬȨͣȴ׽ְҵĹ١ĹϵͳڹƽĿԣƵĿˣִǨһЩӹڶȡĮΪؽũġʶⲻ֪漯ķּʷĻġҹȺڶȺ㲻ϱɣС
Ƶǡ塱漯ŷּΪΡ̨γԡȫΪ쾺ѡˮɹҪԱʵɡΡȻɲͬľú棬λҪѡ˵ľúҲûʲǫ̂ͬȻһ¡̨ҪʡӢġͷ족⣬Ӧ˭ȨȨա̨Ϊ̨ˣεĸϵͬθС
3һ紫ͳᣬҹȱٵIJɣǹɾĹ͹ƽЩڷ϶Ĺ涨ȴΰִܻСǼҾͼھáᡢгҵһԼ֮гϵӮҾЩйϵˣԸⲢ¸һԱˡѾȡԸᣬɹչ˵ᣬԭʶ̬˵Ѿ޷ֹܣΪƭܿӮľЧԶԶɱ׵Ҳ޷ֹܡ̨幫Ϊܲڽ𡱣ڽ̨Ľ̶ܿŷߵģսʮ껻ʮ˽Ƶһĸ̶ܳҲŷߵģʮڽ¶ܾĶǣ̶Ȳ֮й
ͳĵ뵱ķθƶͨǷԴȪǵԭľ廯˵ΪṩĹϸִ߷ijɱʹƭ㡱гṩƽĻʹΪҵľܵľԱȨľϸִͱƹԱϵƶȣܾѹԱµƶȣԱΨǴӵƶȣùϼίǵijҲɡᡱȡܷάĹƽˣҹⲻ˭Ȩ⣬Ȩôյ⡣ҪҪΣƶ˵Ȩ÷Ȩ˵ȨǡˡǡˡȨ
ÿһΰһΰйĴͳлŵĺģл˵ϣȷһֲڱͱ壬ٵʵ⡣ԷΪлȻչйԼҲӵз崫ͳҡ˼ʼڴʱ٣ǰ645ĩİʢսʱʵйԭʼķ崫ͳںʱжˣΪѧ˵IJ䣬ǧһٶꡣͨķ崫ͳйǧʷĶƿػһġѯͷΡķƺ⾫񣬵ܾǿȨʵԭ򣻼̳лԿԺͿĻΪľĹƶȺѯԵ֧ƣܾԵԭʶ̬Ϊ֧ܾˣʵۻģռȨƶȣɿԲĹϵͳƵĺģƱϷǰƽȣάɺ͹ƽ֪ͱȨйܳصĹƶȺͿĻӦΣҲڷξԡ
˳Ϊȶ⣬˳Ϊ(law and order) ⡣Ƕ˻άֵάֵܲ編άֵƽȶ24 лĵ׿ԽгȴΪԺαźڸġ⡱ʷΨġ֮񶨡ɷҵġΡݱ䵽ҵġΡٻعִķΣȻ֮¡㲻žʽġ֤ҲûʲôɹݻƾͰйչսᡱˡǿȨΪֵлĻȱٻ˶ƵĮȻҷdz롰ڽ̡ʱй˶Įһ⣬ԡߡġɡ

. ѯͷ

ӱȿӹһЩԡͽƲΪͽСΪֻ²УֻҲУΪܲ˶ԶʩС25 ܷСأôִֶܱܱԷҳϣƶȵʾһ֧ɵƶȰţΪѯͷΡĿIJҪǻеϸ񡢸Чִ26

1. ѯͷε֧
ΪĵƲͬĺļȷǡˡǡǻеĹϵͳϰϵѡٻƾٲģ϶ҪĹϵͳ
1ĹϵͳϵͳܣһϸִΥؾ ڶӵȨ֮ᣬĹϵͳҪö࣬ԱϸִзΪְκһἯŻ档ĹϵͳҲӦȨĹϵͳƶϵġƶȱڿԡЧӶĸ棺һ¼ÿԺϸȿԣڶڡƵ͹ۺϼЧȵĻģԱϵͳӶơ
Ĺϵͳķʽǹ͹ƽĿԣһȨƽȵԭһΨǾٵԭƶ߹ٵĽݾƾĶ߲쵼Ĺϵһ졣ϵͳڵάͺ͵һ׾ܵķ淶רŻִʡȿԳɼԼĴҪۺغʶ̬֮ġԱ׼ųΥԼԽְȨЧΣΪִܵͷĹϵͳƵȻǸӵģе֪ʶҪǣйĻѿѡٸƽƶȡҹɿԲĴͳĹƳһǧ߰꣬ʽϵķϳ񻹲һ꣬۸߿ͽʵеĹԱʵ˿ƾƶȡԱʳ˼̻Ͳܡԡѡٳ漯Ż򡰹ᡱĴҪöࡣ
2˾ϵͳĹϵͳȨԼ˾ϵͳԼĹϵͳҪ˾ϵͳҲܣһ֮䣬֮䣬֮䣬һ뷨ص飬˾ϵͳӵΨһIJȨڶĹϵͳķͨ߷ԺӵзȨоЧķЧɡýǹ˾ΨһϣҲ˾ϵԴȪشƶȺͷϱ˾ϵͳԣ˾ϽϽغϣΪְԼܵɺĹϵͳŵġܵڲͺ¼ƶȡ
3ķ̰ȫ幫Ա̰ܶϸԼĹϵͳΣղȱԣԹȨı˽ĹϵͳΪĵķ̰ĵλdzͻֱ׳һ֧ɵĶר˾¶Ա˾ԹȨı˽Ϊڷ̰ְλĽȫ̰Ϊܼ򵥣ڲĸһ㲻ΪȫԵ⡣Ϊ龫ɣϵͳڵĸܾסϵͳڲίԱᣬרְ췴̰ڲĸܷӡ
ԴΡġ̰ܵһ׶¼ʮڵҪЧãʮǰ¼¾飬ġ(ICAC)󣬸ĹϵͳĿ̰֮סˡʮĩΪĹϵͳѾ൱࣬޸ܿץԼĹΪ조˽ӪҵĸΪ̰ɹĹؼԣĹϵͳ͵ΣζֶԶ˾ϵͳͬӢĹ٣ձĹĴͳķ̰ԼȻΪжķ̰ۺ¼µĹٱձĹٸࡣ
4ȫʡΪĵĹ㷺ѯϵͳĹϵͳѯϵͳԼȫʡ˴ѯϵͳĺĻҪܡһ׼ùԱϵͳķĹϵͳȨ˴׼Ȩ߷ԺӵзȨ⵼ѣأöࡣڶԱϵͳ飬ʹȨھ֤ᣬѯߡͬʱš㼶ĹԱҲԼŻ㼶ġѯίԱᡱίԱݹԱйרѧߣйҵĴйؾĴͬɣнйصĹԱ׳ίίԱṩķ㣬ǻ㱨ȡǵͽ顣ڷڣԱ׳˴ί鹫ȷܾܡ򲿷ֽܵľ˴ίĽ顢ԱľԼʵʵЧԱͨý幫֮ڣʹ͸оݡܾ谭˴ίĵ֤Ȩ¸ùԱ׳ͷΪѯϵͳʹĹٶԹڵԸУˡѯͷΡ塣
ƶȰӵȨȨϯλĵɷȨĵɹѡͳƺ⡰ȨǸ⣩ҹƵİʵǸΪܷ涨йй쵼Ĺңȫ˴IJɵĵɾ޹أȨʵҲ˴˴׼Ȩ֪ʶЩ˺ʹ˴ȨʵʻΪIJ裬ȴŵһҹûѡٵġơʹåҹƣۺ¼µʵҲѯϵͳҲ׼֣ȴЧʹ͸ʹĹϵͳں1993ǰձԼѯĹܶޣĹϵͳһֲٰ죬ձھʮǰijɹǾϵġĹؼǣԱϵͳܾ漯ŵѹͶڵĺϸ񱣳Ϊ涨ձṩϡΪ˽壬ӦȷȨȨȡѯϵ幦ܣǿʵʹܣȷķɱּǿ˵ʵʹܣʹ֮ʵΪԼĹϵͳЧ
5ܷɳֱۡ桢ᡢͽɡĹϵͳĴȨԼֶͨ汣ĴȨҲͨƲΣ֪ɵijýִ֯ᣬۡ桢ᡢͽDZزٵģִĻ֮һڷĴɸرҪǹڼලĹϵͳҪʽǹĹϵͳԼԸ
ĴִһΪʲôڶ෢չйҵȴƴĴɣһý֯ձȱɡý֯ȱȱǿв׼йأǿв׼Ȼý֯¶ɫذȱɵý֯Եʹ岻ܼӵսڶҪԭǣȱٷεưý֯ȨιߣҪιߡȻЩý֯СȨιߣڶ䱻ȡҲĮġ˶ѭĴɵķȻһֽġڷ£ͨȨ֮űرˣȨĺĹϵͳûһĽݾý֯ȨΪͣҲͲþɵۺͽ硣ⷽ͵֤ڷλ£ƲκͲ֪ɵý֯壬ֻά档ϸִΪְĹϵͳԣάɹ涨Ĵ乤Чһִ֣ӰȣִijΡˣķλۡ桢ᡢͽɱĴɸɣӽ

2. ѯͷ塱Ҫص
֮ε壬εġ֧ɵġѯͷΡص㡣
1ǿɡ (rule of law) ܾ (rule of the people) ҲǿġᡱȨߵȨѡٺͿβҪ;ʵַʽǹģȴͬҪģҲͬҪġεĺͨԲĹִϵͳƵĺѡٲϵͳĹϵͳҪְִзɣҪ䡱ҪְƶɣҪμţƾԼƶڱķɡˣۡ¼¡Լֱ1993ձεij̶óɷȡ
2ǿԣرӡǰƽȡǿεԣҪ漯ŵʵȨġȨǷȨԴҲӦǷȨԴԴڡ񡱵Ȩ񡱾Ϳ޸ķɣҲûʲôơ񡱵ȨˣĻأйġ񡱺ҵԭԴȨĻҲԴȨԴڵʱձܵΪ׼27 йȱٷδͳ뷨еĹԴڵ׼򣬾ķԴڻ
3ǿϸִҪԣѶȡҹƶ˭ķԼ˭ִιҹķܷõϸЧʵִСڷչйңɱһ㲻⣬дֽϵķɶҲԶֽͣϡϸЧִзҪƶϵıϣǷƵʵʳ㡣
4ǿְܺ͹ģᾭɣӶĴΪĵ衰񡱴Ȩ񡱴־Ԥᡣѡ쵼Ĵ޹أҪɺ͹ƽľְ޵ڷ£һзδĽֹ£ֻɹ涨£Ҫȷǰƽȣάƽ˷彫ϽھáѧĻȡԤƻƽߡ
5ǿ׷лͳɡκһ岻ͬȹ̣ΪͨĴţҪĹϵͳѹţᶨάձ塣ɳΪɣΪɹ涨ְܽά־ĹΪƶԱĴ֧ƺĹϵͳΪʹ߳͸ĺΪۡ桢ᡢͽܷϸϡ

3. ѯͷεĿ
ִ˵ѡѯͷν֮ѡƵĿҪߵöࡣ
1ԷΪθĸﲻζʹȶΪϵѾþʷ顣
2ѯͷڽṹԶΪĽṩû跢¯
3ۺ¼µṩڻィѯͷεķḻ飬Ѿȡ˾ϵijɹ
4ԷΪθĸǽֱӡЧİ취⣬άĹƽִĹؼ
5跨йִҵȻɲֺ񣬶ƶйġִӵִʷԭ۹ҵô˾ֵߣ쵼˵ѡٶôɣȱٷεĹҶִ˵ĹҡңԼձۡ¼£ٷӵ˷Σûˡִ⡣ͬнִҵḶ́йһĻ롱ִҲҪ񡣵һȷ磬ͳһʵȫϵŽᡣڶͳһгϵȡָгеŽΪлŽᡣ÷Ȩ˵Ȩʹг־õṫƽ28 ë󶫵£쵼˵һڵСƽ£쵼˵ڶΣ쵼һ񡣷Ȩ޷ͶƱҲδͶƱԷΪθĸҪ쵼ر߲зεľġ
Сƽȷ԰й˶֧֣жϼʹͼڵػҪ켸ۡ˵ҽܶΡƣǰʮDzܱ䣬ʮԺDzҪ䡣ⲻſڿӡλܳμҾתرԡʮԺڵƵ29 ܸ߲쵼͵ĽżҸУĿںǡ¼£ҹܷۡѡιҡйĶҲӳҹ쵼˵ȡǵȡ򲢷żȻйִʷ̵ҪҲκһ֡гáĻ
ʵʩԷΪΪθĸԴ֡1ִġĹɾýתΪν衣ȻɼƻгƵתѻɣĹͲǡ㡱ãҪþԼ㡱ԼĹҪתƵνϣΪгĹƽṩ֤һĹתΪ跨ΣҹĶԱ仯ڡԽ׼Ϊ١ץ׼ɲı׼ڡԾýΪġץָɲı׼ԷνΪĵʱطҵطɲı׼2׶νԷΪĶʮƸĸڵһ꣬ҪʵʮһȫġֿԭȡĿǰġ˫ơͨеĵԱ쵼ĹƶȼԳ׸죬ʹԱͣ¼ݶϸվܵĹԱУĿʵֹġι(rule by law)ڵڶ꣬ҪǴȼǹԱϵͳ٣ƺƶȡ˾ϵͳ̰ѯϵͳĹʵ֣Ŀǽġ(rule of law) ơʮ꣬Ҫǿۡ桢ͽɣʵе֧໥ϵѯͷȶԣʹ֮Ϊһֳִ塣
ԷΪΪĵĸ񣬷ҹӵϵȨҹȶ͹ƽỷлٴԶغͳξð硣



л֮һ˿ڣǧķɧǿ״ͳйνⰲŵˡɱɢ硱Ԥԡϣŵŵ֮ǧŷ޴˻Ի͵Ļȴ硣ΰĿѧҺͿѧҲDzҡȫ򻯡ͬ壿ȫ򻯴ٽͬҲ̼족Dzʹصḻʣȡ̣໥ѧϰҾͬ
ȷǽʮġ糱ΰӲ沨л׷ִȡijɹȫ֮һ˿ڴ١ս˵跨ֱӽҹĵĸܺͲƽ⡣ս˵跨ҹ̵ִ񡣴ʷĽǶȿִ̳к͸ҹصͳлԻ͵Ļš
ʵţ˼רơѧҪ۷Ӷʵ֤ҪԸԴ۵Уʷָľԭ򡣰ͬǿȨε˼˵ǡֵһ䡰⽨רơʹֱɵطҹǧʮɢսΰԼеijɾȴӶٵľ⣬޲ġ̸ֵȥɡ䵭Ĵڣѵţˡƶȱһ¡ʵƵ׽йʲô⣿ƾʲô˵ѡٱȿԼӿ˸ƽй˵ļֵôͲ˵ļֵۡȽΪʲôۡ¼¡ձûʵȴܻþ޴ɹ
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ѯͷŷ޵³ʿԼάµ1993ǰձֽۺ¼¡ۺ¼¶ȡĵijɹࡢ򡢺Чʵ֮УϾɵԻΪȡ˸߶ȵƽͬʵеġѯͷ塱ءȻйڵǷֲʵеأԻشβ

1ۺ¼µķξͷϵӢûоӢֳͳΣйԼôܽΣ
ۺ¼µķϵͷξȷӢһ޴ɹȻӢֳر鲼ȫ磬ôۺ¼½ȱķ壿ɺdzʺϻ˳ᷢչҪһȡķξ񡣳֮⻹ôͣۺ¼µķԴӢۺ¼µѯͷȴӢķӢûƶȣȫκεطҲûƶȡȻƶӢ˺ͻ˹ͬģȴڻィɣڻɳӢ˳¼֮Լ𽥵ʱȷġΪʲôӢڽ۵ǰҹͳƾõӢȴţͳһʮ겻ϸӢµһҲûҪСƽĩ۶ͼɺԣƲڹ۵Ļᣬѯͷ۵ķ١˵ɡ޴ôǡǡЩ޴۳ɺͻԻ͡ۺ¼µĻֱӼȡξ񡣼ʱգڵصйҲѧϰ־Ȼйڴͳǧ꣬ȴѧϰƶȵ磬ΪҪǸɫƶʹԼվΪִҵйѧϰκһʺҪƶȣҲܾκһDzҪƶȣҹΰ̡

2۵ķӢͱϵġûйôܽͱϷƶȣ
һβǿġ˵ȨȻ·ΣεȷȴȨȨľηͶִȨĿ־塣ڶҲάֵġοͨij̶ȶ֧ȴ֧ŷΡ漯ŵѹŤΡɷ屾ά֣Ҫִά֡
˹ʹǰķԴڹͷơŵǰȶķԵרƣ״ȨͱͼרƵʱ͡ķξֳǸרƵľɴ½һֳڸݾڣӢھ (patent and charter) ġڶֳݾڣʻݵġ»šʿٸȱġӢھ»šרƴҪͽǩһԼ(Compact) ܵǰΪܷġ»ŹԼġܷҲĽһСׯ԰Ȩƺǻ۵Ľᾧձרƶά£³ʿ˷塣ۺ¼µķβģҲδκιҵϡֱعǰҹЧܷӢھӢڽǿӸ˵ģơ͡ھļ˸۶һȨӢȷƣԷɵȴӢƵĽڸӢִȨи߼ϹԱӢͰޣֱʮȻ丯ܡڹԱ¼µĶ̰Ժ۲Сƽûֹĩ۶ʹͼ۵ķοѾȨûˡ¼1960ӢͳΣӢֻ¼һҵơ¼µķҫжġطΥءĽȻ¼µķβǿѡάֵģǿ¼µִάֵģǿ䷨άֵġ̨ķλ䱡ȴҲվݺͽҸʱģ˵ɷεǺսʱڵ¡ӳŵķС

3̨Ѿɹؽơʲôй½̨ƶȣ
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4ۺ¼ֻССطľʺ˿Ĺң
ΪһƶԴŵ䡣ŵڶʢʱڵȫ񣬰ŮͯūˣҲŶʮңǸСǡССȻӡȺҲȡƶȣҵĹģij̶ء̶Զŵ䣻йʵзΣ̶Ҳ᲻ۡ¼¡ձǣƾһں͸ӾĿ飬ѾԶŵ걸ͳ죬Ҳ϶ȹ̡۵ķйڵҲӵĿ͵Ϊһµġ걸ѯͷΡе嶼ʼСģʵ飬ؼڹģһǷʺҪʺĻʷڡ⡱ķλۺ¼µĻ˿šɡƽ򡢺ִķòδлйӦеȽе֡йĴͳǧ꣬ڰǧΪһңǧƽΪһ˿ڹһСˣлԳΪϵΰڽ죬һִġصġΪãΪõѯͷΣҹٻξðϣлԡԻ͵ϣ

5ִ˾ʵȨܾų桢ߵȽ֯ƾʲôԤִԸ䵳ΪΣ
߲ʷۣʽġԤԡִθĸָһʺйѡִнĸȻҲνѡ񡣵ִָȨǷθĸĶȴѡεϰȻȨȻ´ƣȴҪȨûȨͲܴƶȡ֮йҪִʷ̣壬ʽȨDZҪΪִпʹ¾ģԷΪΪθĸһйƶйִҵΪΣѾǰ񣬲Ӧ;ϡڶйҪԷΪθĸƸܵӣٽгϵij죬ӦⲿҹŽսʺҹľе뷨ʽ಻Զøֶδƣ¯ģͬڶʮǰ˵϶·ƱĻᣬе˵䷢쵼θĸͬᡣ֮DzȻĵѡ񣻵ѡ񣬿ռ޵ġںɵѡ쵼һɱʽѡ񣬲ٵִһݻл˵ϣ



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1. 2000ͷٿ107Ҳμӵġᡱ6 27ͨˡ繲ͬ塷һɳԡԡȷȫ磬ȷ˺ҵͳһ׼ԡǩƶͼǿȷƶȺõ̡ϹԼӦĹʻС⣬ҪٳϹרŻ2002ٿڶᡣ106ڡԡǩ֡⽻ΤֶԡԡּɣΪаһ֡ڽ̡ǿҸڽָ̡δĿIJǿһЩҽǩֹԼ塱񡣷˲Ը齨һųҵӪƱҪγսķҰʵϰ¶أǿӲط˷⽻ָȻÿ˶ΪձĻȨȻҪÿһܵȨǹӦһͬ塣
2. ЩμְٿȫĿάѧٿȫ顷йѧ磬1992Ӣٿȫ (Encyclopaedia Britannica) 1993档
3. ޲ء(Robert A. Dahl, On Democracy, Yale University Press, 1998)ӡݣ1999壨Ӣİ38ҳ1. ЧIJ (effective paritcipation)2. ƽȵͶƱ (equality in voting)3. (gaining enlightened understanding)4. յĿ (exercising final control over the agenda)5. (Inclusion of adults)ıǣʲô(What is democracy), ƴΪ˵еƻȫʵġʵʵɴûж塣ȥĿĺͳ̶أ̫ķչйҽΪֹ鶼ڡ塱۲ݡ͢˵ĿĶǿɵģڽѡ쵼壨Samuel P. Hungtington, The Third Wave: Democratization In The Late Twentieth Century, University of Oklahoma Press, 1991Ϻ꣬1998˵ֻǡ޶ȡĶ壭ѳ̶ַŽȥˡ˵ǡáҡӢİ棬pp. 9-13, 5-8Ʒֳɡޡ͡δɣĶʵָDZƵġӷΡȱ˷Σ͡ˣҪصȱٷΡ˵ij̶Ȳ֮ӡij̶ѡٺ;ߵĹ㷺̶йأѡٵƵйأ뷨εij̶޹ء
4. £Ӣİ棩p.45
5. Ӧ˸ ȣʷйѧ磬199748ҳ
6. ĶĶܱصĶܱͨĿĶ壬˳ıҪԣǹεƶȰţijЩͨѡѡƱþȨܱأʱ塢塷ӡݣ1979꣬p.337
7. μRobert A. Dahl, Polyarchy: Participation and Opposition, Yale University Press, 1971.
8. ȨǡִᡱĻϹҵķɲڳо񣬶ҼڹÿĹ
9. ۵ǰԡ(A Preface to Democratic Theory)꣬ţѧ磬1999p.931956֥Ӹѧ档öεԭǣIn a rough sense, the essence of all competitive politics is bribery of the electorate by politicians.
10. ʮĹƵĵλձĹĸսԣΪڹĵĻ⡣
11. ڡִǷλѧĻʶ¹ͬ˹ (Ferdinand Tonnies, 1855-1936) ᡷ(ӡݣԶ 룬1999)ֳɡᡱ(gemeinschaft) ͡ᡱ(gesellschaft)Τ (Max Weber, 1864-1920) ᡷӡ, 1997Ͼ£Ȩֳ࣬ͳ мʱڣΤ۵ִۡ˼·Ҳͬ, ȹϵȨǴͳȨɣԣȨִġҡODonnell Schmitter Ҳʼۡҡġλ⣬֮Ϊ Horizongal Accountability ⡣ Andreas Schedler, larry Diamond, and Marc F. Plattner: The Self-Restraining State: Power and Accountability in New Democracies, Boulder, Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1999, Chapters 3-4, & Part III
12. пά 룬ӡݣ1997Ͼp. 2, 8Ӣİ淭
13. ɭ˹ (Talcott Parsons): Evolutionary Universals in Society, American Sociological Review, Vol. 29, 1964. ּ, Societies, Evolutionary and Comparative Perspectives, Prentice-Hall, 1966
14. ¬ضԡƽۡнĽܡBruce RussettGrasping the Democratic Peace: Principles for a Post-War Worldƽۣ Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1993, chapter.7; and Russett, Can A Democratic Peace Be Built? International Interactions, Vol. 18, No. 3 (Spring 1993), pp.277-282.
15. ׼ͬҹɼҶСũṹͬκҲͲһDzë󶫲ǿҪ⡱ǡѡ⡣ڴ˾õѧרҵǻ㣬ġάѧٿȫ顷йѧ磬1992
16. ˽ŷ޷⽨ƵĽݾĶӢٿȫ顷(Encyclopaedia Britannica) йĿľʷתۡ(Karl Polanyi, The Great Transformation, Beacon Pess, 1944) ʱʱȡɵоҲdz
17. ҹûŷ޷⽨ƵҪηѣڽ̾񣬷Ȩ׺ͽ̻ĶԪȨɵĶȱϸȼȵȡҹʷѧ粻֪ӺʱʼҹǧĴͳΪ⽨ᡱ˵1928ĭģȡյŵ˼޵ĴͳƶȸеСϸʽһ˵Ȼ˼һգ䱾˵ġʽͬŷ޵ķ⽨ʽ˹ֵ׶ۿܸйһӡ󣬼йûз⽨ƣҲûʱ壬ҲͲǡȻɡһ֡ʷѧܼʱġʱѿԼҲ׶۵Ľŷޣ⽨ֶڷ⽨λϽģ⽨ijɹءǰȱƹΪʵС⽨ơѧҡ⽨һϷ⽨ΪεԴ˵ϰѧԣʷʽĽ׶ۺܿɣйĽ׶Ρ˵׶λδɣŷ޵ġ⽨ᡱԼйսʱھˡ
18. ⷽǹ֮ġ۷ɡ (Marcus Tullius Cicero, ǰ106-ǰ43), ۹͹ ۷ɡйѧ磬1997ȽϽЩв (Harold J. Berman) ֮(Law and Revolution)йٿȫ磬1993꣨һ3£4£
19. μChalmers Johnson, MITI and the Japanese Miracleͨʡձ漣, Stanford University Press, 1982Karl van Wolferen, The Enigama of Japanese PowerձȨ֮գ, Vintage Books, New York, 1989Wolferen Ǵŷ޵ձפļߣԳձΪҡ֮Աǡ
20. Ϊƪ
21. йϣ䡰˼񡱵Ĵȴá̻ɥ֮ȮֻÿͽԳơźѧƵΣ룬Ұӡе޵̩ƪ
22. ¾áָСũԻΪ׼ġԡá˹ (James Scott)The Moral Economy of the Peasant: Rebellion and Subsistence in Southeast Asia ũĵ¾ã, Yale University Press, 1976
23. (A. G. Frank) ṩµ֤ݣʱReOrient: The Global Economy in the Asian Age University of California Press, 1998 룬磬2000Ĵ꣨1999ʷѧͼ齱ͷ
24. ʦͼͬʿ (Aristotle, ǰ384-ǰ332) ̡ơϵĹؼȴǷΣҪɷΡʿ ѧӡݣ1996ʮ¡
25. ӡ¦ƪ
26. Ƶijʶġ۸ۡ£йѧ磬1993
27. ޵ġ۷ɡ⽫ú䡰ȻĿҪ켸ɱšˣǰ飬224ҳ¬ĿͬΪӦԴڡȨ˲ܰԼȨи˴ֻļ󡣵¬֡ȨֱԼҲΪʵƴͲйԶҲСԼۡӡݣ1982£p.88
28. ǰĻܽġڽҡḶ́Ͽ˹ԡReinhard Bendix, Nation-Building and Citizenship ҵĽ빫Ȩ, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1974
29. СƽСƽѡ磬1993p.267ּйоģ̨͵׼¼ƬСƽ˵ʣp.250СƽγϵĶԻ¼棩

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