ܷԭͷϵ()

                   ˻

ܷĻԭ֮һƵĹҽṹʽ
ϵԣĴܷʷ
ԭݷĹϵϵ

һʷ

񷴶ӢֳͳεĶսʤһΪҪĹǣ
ķ֮ԴѪгڵĶΪȡɡɣ
ΪһǰԺķٺܿ˾ʵй᳹һԭ
򣬸ձȨ͹ҷɣɺĹ۵оȻ
ʮĩʮͳѧǡμǶӦƶ
ķɡӸӰ˷ɵı

ʮĩ˵Ĺ۵ΪȨӦ
ĹͣͳߡȨͷƶȵ
ĿӰ죬µĿıܷĸֳ֪
ʱڣһЩҲܷԭǵĶΪЩܷԴ
ͨĺԭ򣬲ȷرȨɡ
ҪһܷݴֻȨȨ
ʹʩƣгȨƶܷһ·ɺͷ

ܻĴٵһҪǣҪȡ
ⲻǿľ¡ߡڲܽЧͳ
εʷ飬ҪάɣμҡܻĴ
ѷ˵ģҪǵǣҪһǿҪ
Ȩʹ䲻Ȩַɣڽزٵ
ȶͲַԼڹĹע
ȷܷ᳹ԭ򣺹ҵĽṹʽΪ
Ȩ֯ʽԷȨƺԭΪ

ȡöսʤԺ1787ڷѳٿܻ顣ڻռ
ԺܶΪ׵ɡΪܷ֮˼
ܻʽ֧áڶսʱڣ˾ٵľ
ְλʹ鵽ܹӳO㹻
ʳͱԴΪҪΪ˽вƲʥַģΪ˱˽в
ʵЧͳΣϳƣǿ
£գܻйعƶȵķʱ˵Ҫ
ɼȲר壬ҲԼ
ƶȣȲרģҲģݵĴ
ݳ¶ͺ׶ٵţڻ˹ƶȵľ巽
ԺƵĹһԺѡһԺѡ٣
ԺԸݲܵĸȨ뻹Ҫǿ
˾˾֮᳹Ȩƺԭ򣻸Ȼ
ֻΪطλãȫ񶨸ݶĸ
Ϊܷͼ

ɵĴŽݴݳɭΧܻ
ķԱȨΪһԺƹɸͬ
ĿĴɣԹͬȵķȨΥ߳ʹ
ݷԺϽʵ˵øݵͬ᲻ʹȨ
Ҳøݵͬ⡣ԿԱȨΪ
ģķ档ܻΧ˼ҵıۣ
ѡ񣺣һȫ룻άɢˣ
ԭİƣ͹ơ

ۺܻͨƵܷɺͷ
־ܷݰչս˰ɵﺺϵ˷һϵ£
ܷľԭ纺һ˵
ǷƵҪŵǿˣܱ
ĽˣҲܱ֤ȶִзɣܱ֤ԵҰļҡ
ɡ״̬ǹ밵ڡ˾šһ˵ܷʵ
ǡӦٿǸ󷨡ԶܷƶκηɵĽ
ӦڷԺ߳˲ɵ͵ķ磬ܷΪЩ
ΪȷǿΪ߷Ժ˾ȨάܷȨ
˾Լ͸ݵĹϵṩ˼ݡϵ
۵߼ϽIJ˿ڣΪԶӰ졣

Ļԭ

ܷйݵĹϵ涨ԭһܷʮ涨ܷܷƶԼȨѵ޽ͽҪ޽ԼӦΪȫ߷ɣʹκݵܷͷִݷӦ
ء

ܷһڣȷоӵо¡⽻񡢲ݼ
ó׵ȷȨսȨܷʮ涨ܷδ
δֹʹĸȨֱɸܺԱϸ
ȷоٵȨںڹΧȨߵģݵܷ
ܷɻԼִǰ߾Ч
ȨʹȻֱԨԴܷĹ涨涨ȡ
øݵͬ⣬ҲܷƸȨʹ䷶Χг
ֵĹȨְתɡֻڲΥܷ
ɺԼǰʹ䱣ȨҲȷϸĻ
ʹȨ

ȻܷݵĹϵ˻涨ɱȻʱΪ
ܷƵĽͷۡһԭԵ۷ڣ
¦ݰܷܻʢͳɵ人ܶٱ
ΪȨɵѷΪ䡣ܶʵʱ
幤ҵɹҸҵչֺ֧Ԯ˴
еĽ飬Աʽֹ֧ҵչͨ
Ȩеķ꣬ݹȨ
׸ͶĦнзСͨ
涨ݾڵз˰еijԱ
¦ݷԺߣ߷Ժߣһ
ܷļۣǷȨС
ݵı绤ʦȨɵԼΪܷ
Ȩĸɴ޽ԼȨԨԴڸݣԨԴ
ֻøݵͬʹȨܷвδȷ涨
еȨҲΪȷֹʹȨȨΪ
ǷǷģȨݾڵз
˰߷Ժϯ󷨹Ъݵдʶ۵
ָܷȻǸɴƶģݴǵõȫϿ
ģܷ;ݴ˶ɵԨԴȫ񣬿ܷһ
׼ЧͶԸԼֱӶʹȨܷ
Ȩǽ׼ͳεĹߣĽ׼ԣʱͼڸֽ
ԣһȨɵͬġΪ˹ƣ
ǿȨܷȨֱԨԴ񣬷
˸Ȩ۵㡣ǷȨе⣬Ъ
ʵԮ˺ϡĬʾȨĹ۵㣬Ϊܷһ8ȷоٵ
ȨеʾȨй涨вȨܷһ
ڣй涨ΪʹܷоٵȨƶҪĺʵķɣ
дʾȨĬʾȨеȨɹ
Ȩġд˵һֶζʵģȫĿ
ӦģôЩֶξͲֹܷģʺܵġдҲȻ
ж侳˰Ȩ