ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 

 

Ȼ

Kenneth Einar Himma ˬ

ժ ҪȻۿɴӵµġɵĵȶǶȼ̽֡ŷ֮ΪصҪ󣬻˵Ҫ֮һ˷߱ĵһ۵㣬ۡȻԷѧ໥桢͸ֲͬı﷽ʽڴ˻ϣԵȻ۵ĻɽһȽ꾡Ŀ飬УԷ˹պ͵ֽ˵Ϊء

ؼʣȻۣԷѧȻ壻Ȼۡ

.Ȼ۵ͳ

Ȼһ൱죬һֵۣͬʱҲһַܴۡ˶۵ĺ߼໥ġȻĵۿ֧Ϊĵ±׼ij̶ֳǿ͹۵Դ˵ıԵģȻķ۶ԣһЩ(ʵڷ)ɹ淶ȨǻڴЩ淶ĵųֿǡȻķɣݵھɹȨʱòͬ˴

ȣбҪνȻ۵࣬ǰȻĵۺȻķۡйȻĵ۴¿½綨һijϱΪһֿ͹۱׼ǿԳΪʵֵ壻仰ЩҪһֿ͹۵ٵжϡܵ¿͹ʱɵͬڵʵۣμMoore 1992190κεŵжһֶ˵ʶڴͳĵʵȻ֮Ĺϵд۵ġ磬Ƶ£Geoffrey SayreMcCord1988Ϊ¿͹˵ʵ۵һ֣ΨһʽƵµĹ۵㣬׼壨intersubjectivismʵ۵ʽɴˣϸ˵Ȼĵۼ޶ڵ±׼Ŀ͹֮С

Ȼ۵ĵڶ⼴ƣֵ±׼ij̶ڡٶ籾Դ౾ԡʥ?˹?Ǿ˵˵ȻΪıߣΪĵһҪ򡣡AquinasST 񣭢Q.90A.I.һԣȻԶôڵȻȻˡڴˣǴıܳȻ

ǣһȻҪ뷨֮ĹϵȻķۿɵͼµż䲢޶ԷҰȻȻ۴ɣͬһ۵ѧ߶ϣвַɣǵġȨǽ±׼߼ϵϣȡijЩԶʱγɵĹconventionе£DzδϿijһųΪԵ׼ݣЩɹҲΪеĵݶΪһȨǹҽַ໥۳ΪۣOverlap Thesis[1]

ϸؽȻйȻĵ뷨߼໥ģ;ۣǰһ۵ѧߴҲȻķߡ֮Ȼķ۲ζ˾ͷȻĵۡƩ磬Լ˹John AustinӰʵ֤ѧҡͲͬνĽۣ۵ȴӽȻĵۡ

ʵϣ˹̹ʵΪһַɹ淶ûбҪȡݵĵԲɡǣھܾ۵ͬʱ̶ֺܴȵؽȻĿ͹۵ۡ˹ȫ̼̳գJ.S.MillͱߣJeremy BenthamĹ塣ֵһǣʱҲǵ۹ԵijЩдԽϵϲͳ֮¡ָʲôӦģʲôǽҪġıߡϵǵBentham 19481ɴˣȻ۵ͬʵȻ۵ķˡ

Ȼһ˷ȻĵȴȻȻķۣȻʼҲûС˵Ϊɵĸconceptual pointڲֵظƵµҪ󣻵ͬʱҲһ壨壩Ҹ˵Ĺ۵ԣɵָּǿ¹ɿɻǵĺõϵԡǣȻķ۱Ȼĵ໥ԶµƪȻķ۽רۡ


.1 Էѧ[2]

ͳϣԣԣѧҪĿṩһ׽Խɹϵа˹ԣԷѧѰҡЩзеҪغAustin 199511仰˵ԷѧּÿһܵΪǷһϵбҪֵ֤Ĵڡ

ȻһͨΪһַͷϵijԣôڸԷļֵһЩҲǺȻˡ׶أBrian Leiter1998ָѧ඼ȡһȻѧķ빤ߺ϶ΪһѧѧѧָѧעһѸԷΪоص㡣׶Ͽ˹Brian Bix1995˽иԷѧоһЩͬĿģϮķ޶壻ָijоصͻΪ罨һϵϿ˹ڷѧовõĸҪ漰Ǻ͢ȡ

ΣɵĸִռҪһϯ֮ءĸ۵һԽ۵̬ϡڴˣɷΪһȻķ֮ͬڸϵڷʵ̶֤һϵ

.2ԷѧӽµĹŵȻ
ۺȻۣͬǶǿ֮ijַʽϵģnonconventionalϵֹ۵㣬˳µıǣ뿪˵IJ鿼޷ȫزɵĹ򡣾ܽ۲Ǻ壬жֲͬıʽ

мֵIJֹ˰ǣAquinasͲ˶٣BlackstoneŵȻ۵ĻʯǽɷΪ֣㷨eternal lawȻnatural law˷human law͢񷨣divine law㷨Щ֧Ĺɣ橡ĪˣSusan Dimok199922˵㷨ǡͳϽĿѧɣѧѧȵȣ֮ߡ漰ÿһʵļĽȻһҲܽƾԼȥ񷨣񷨽ɵġֻ֡ͨصdivine revelation

Ȼ㷨֧Ϊһַ򣬶˵ΪܿԺ־ڰǿȻĵһҪڶԵе㺬ƱֵܶһǰֵȻۡΪƶ׼ԡҲǿ͹۵Ķʵġ

ͬʱҲһλȻķߡΪ˷䲼ķֻݺϺȻҪ²ЧġдÿһķɶΪȻӵ˷ԡһκһƫȻķͲǷֻǶԷıѡST 񣭢 Q.95A.Ļֱǰ¹˹Augustine۶ϵһעţķɸͲǷɡȻΥȻķ治зЧһͬҲǸȻ۵ľ⡣˶٣William BlackstoneһģȻķ򣬵ϵۣȻؽκι淶ΪԽԼ鼰棬޴ڣʱСһ֮㣣κκϷԿԡңǴǵԴͷȻзȫȨ197941ƪУ˶ٻ꾡ز˹ɸȻۺĵԭ򣺢ȻͻĹ򲻾ĺϷԣЧķɣȨֻԴȻ

ҪָǣŵȻͬҲ˱ӵҪáŵȻƺͬƶеʱDzûаʾɾͻ˱ڶĵĴɴˣŵȻ߲ûзڴƷɵĹԿɱ㹻ж˵ǽƣжҪܵ½ɵƣЩ䶨ķɹֻڷϵµǰ²Чġ

Ȼ۵dz۵顣ȣЩ԰¹˹ķѧ߻˵ķʵϱ̫Ƶʵš˹רϵָ

νķìܵ˷Լ˵ͲǷһ۶ʵʮʵϣЩаķɣҲΥϵּķɣȥһֱȻԺΪǿʵʩšijһΪ˴š϶ģȴΪ봦Լ̵״ּʵʩһΪɣҽҵȻһоΪϵ۵ϵκ߲ýֹЩȫΪȻƷԺоҵɲʵȷֺķɵġЧԡAustin 1995158

Ȼ粼׶Ͽ˹1999ԣ۶԰˹˵ʵ˶áΪԺҵõȥʵʩһְ˹Ϊ߱ЧԵķ

һἰǣǸȻƻ˶ԷɽееĿԡڷЧԵһȾDZȻһ£ˣЧķɶ˵Եġƣһ淶ķЧԱȻݱΪ塣Jules Coleman īƣJeffrey MurphyԴ۵

ʵϣȻۣΪЩҪ磬ԷɵĵۻӷɽǶȾǵĵֻΪ뷨֮޵ıøѡֻһζشӵµĹ۵ȥǷ⣬ӷɺ͵֮ڱϵij̶ֳϵĽֻʹɱӻްйطɵĵ»ۻڷɵĵкͱ

ɴ⡣һȻ۵ֵЩԡʵ֤ǷƱʵʩЩ򲢲ȻغϺȻͲһеɣ豻ʩеĹDzģôͲзЧԣʵʩЩԹ˽ȨĹڷ

ΪҪǣַּͨʾȻһʵ⡪ƺ˷ѧϵĴ󡪡ָȱݡԷѧٶһʵƶɣĺԽ͡ɴˣƶԷѧչıͨ˵ȴ棨preexsitingʱ꾡زظɴˣȴʱ״δܵԳ˵ĻôĸȻСǽѡ۱׼ʵͶ̢ʧʡ

Ͽ˹һζۡ˹John Finnis1980һеģϿ˹԰ѰǺͲ˶ΪǸȻѧңΪνķɲǷһ۶ϲӦýϼ⣺

νķɸǷ룬ĽӦǣķɲڡȫϡin the fullest senseǷͨἰijЩרҵʿǾ߱ӦƾƺǷȱҪʱ˵ʦҽʵϣ˵ֻDZΪдͷΣʤθְͨӦ߱Ρͬģ˵һķɡķɡnot really lawҲζţָЩ롰߼higher lawϵķһܳͬȵĵṩͬȵɣBix 1996226

ϿɼϿ˹鰢ǺͲ˶ʱֵĹ۵ͬڽڱĵۼԼ˹Ȼ塣ȻǻͬBixĿѰǺͲ˶ȻѧҵĴͳʶͬʶƶѧϵļֵţΣӰ컹ȥ

.Լ˹John FinnisȻ

Լ˹һֱоͷչ벼˶ٵۡͬBixһҲΪǺͲ˶ٵȻ۲ܱǷִ״̬һָԽ͡ڷ˹˵ŵȻڹķЧԵĸԽͣ˵Ǹע˵֧ŷɵĵЧȻԭ˵ʵڷԼΪȫϵġԼһЩԭܴЩԭƵʱˡFinnis 19802324ڷ˹Խ۵ĿΪɵĻΪǿΪṩһϵԱ绤һķij̶ֳҲԻúϷԣֻԳΪȡǿֶεɣˣ߱ȫϵԼ֮һķɲʵ̺ڷɸеĵ룬ķʹзԼԲܳΪȫķ

̳˹ŵȻۣ˹ȻۼҲǷɵġһƽȼֵĻҸbasic goods֪ʶϷ꣬ڽ̺顣ΪҸеÿһԵԵʶڵĶֵЩֵ֮ڣΪ䱾Ĺܡͬʱ˹ΪÿһԵģҲ˵κʱκĻáֹ۵㣬½ɵĿģּΪ׷ЩҸ趨ܣ½ָ໥ͻĸѡ񲢾һʵ׷ĻҸʱӦЩʲô ڷ˹ɵĹؼṩһϵȨԵĹԽڹͬ׷ҸĹijͻìܣյƶͬҸʵ֡˶ܽԼķۣ

ɡһҪָһЩDZһȷġЧȨ˻ַ֯ΪɹĹ涨ӱ׼ƶȻΪˡƶң˾ڷָʵеƲά֡ЩͻƵָܺͣǺؽʵֹͬҸʱЭ⣨Finnis 1980276

ͬʱһʾ˷˹ڷЧԵĹ۵㣺ΪЧͱͨеĵ¼顣˵һΪġǷĹų⡱ҶеҪزࡢȫǺϵĻйԵĸҶһٶԸIJ˵Finnis 1980278

Σ˹ţһָΪʵֹͬƶͨ¼顪עͲȫɵԣˣҲʹطɵʥ񡣴ӷɼIJķҲԼģDzΪΪṩϵɡɴˣ˹ţһͳƶʱԹͬҸΪ˵ġġĻСϵ棬ԤȾųijЩ˺ĺҪôͳȨӸϾȱݵġFinnis 1980352һͳߵȨռԣʵϣȨƶЭĽ취ƽͬҸʵ֡Finnis 1980351

˹Ϊһַۣ֮ŵȻĴͳƺǶǡǣǶȴΪ۵ĶԶٵشȻͳһԹ֮ͳһʵϣ˹Ĺ۵㿴Ȼ۵϶֡ʵ֤ΪͶΪ˹ͬЧԵԴۣa sourcebased theoryԴڡЧtechnically validķȴܶԹоԼ1996ΪǵĹŵȻȫ֤¹۵㣺ķDZ衱positedġ

.գLon L.FullerijȻ

ͷ˹һգ1964Ҳ˸ȻѧҵĹ۵㣬ΪӦöԷʩʵԵĵԼ˹ǣŷɱӳԵ¡ĿȻĿΪָĻ˵ĿĵģɴˣǴ¸ָľΪЩܰʵյĿġ϶ԣȻڱĿĵģôĻֻܴǵĿĺͽǶ룬ɱ⡣ͬĵΪһĿĵĻҲֵĿ⣺

ЩṩǵܱΪĶ塱ΨһıʽΪֹѾΪϤʹǵΪӹҵִķ۲ֿͬΪһֻҽϵdzϵĿĵֳԵIJFuller 1964106

ķĶ壬ǿԿȻ̺µĹ۵㣬ĹڣͨձʹǿԽȷԼΪķǵΪճɾij򡱣Fuller 1965657

յĹķʾţijһʵַΪĻܣ򣬾;ǷȻҪʵһܣϵ1һġͨģ2㷺ع3ʵϿԤģ4һֿɱķʽ5֮໥Э6򲻵Ҫ󳬳ΧΪ7򲻵ùƵĸıʴӣ8ʵʩ涨һ¡

ڸտϵ޶ȵЩϷԭĻôҲͲʵͨǵΪĿġԣһ׹ϵڣ2ڣ4޷ָΪΪ޴֪ҪĵʲôǣսԭġڲinternalҪض뷨Ĵ״̬С

ΪЩڲԭ򹹳һֵ£Ϊɱ߱ʵʵĵ¼ֵ1Ҫγɣ2ʵǰĿͱ˵ȨΪȻҪ˵ΪáȻϵص޶ȵѭϷԭʵֵ¼ֵĿ꣬ôȻҲȷһֵ¡˵ȻЩԭ򣨼Ϸԭ򡪡ע͸Ĵ״̬֮УǾ͡ڻڷɣ˷µһָϵĹ۵㵱ȻͬڹŵȻ۶ڷ˹ģ仰ͬ۵ĺIJ֣Ҳ˶Ȼѧ֮С

ǣȻŵȻҲһЩȣշԹŵȻѧΪıԷɵݼԵƵĹ۵㣬ȡ֮ǣŶԷɵƶʵʩijƽбҪĵԼƵķɵڵ¡ָһֳȻעģǷɹ淶ʵĿ꣬һΪĹϵαʵʩķʽԱ׹ϵЧͬʱʵͼFuller 19649697

Σս綨֮ĸϵ֮ŵȻѧҶԣһΪˮƽϡ˵ŵȻѧҽ趨Ϊÿһɣindividual lawʵҪأֹ۵㣬һĹڸҲɥʧ˺Ϸʸ෴أȴΪֻǶϵ״̬the existence of a legal systemһԼ԰ԭһԭƻһֶϵͲ֮ΪǷϵFuller 19649697

ȻյijȻҲ˴顣أH.L.A.HartĹ۵֮һز޳ɸ˵νԭ򹹳һڵ¡෴Ϊǻ˵ʵЧĸ

ߣָաעְѷԭ롰¡ķ룬ǵ˺Ͷ˼ά۸ԴͷЩԭӷɲdzЧĿĵĻ͡¡ֿȴҪġյشʧڰΪһ̸ˡ磬ͶʵһĿĵĻͼҲΪһϵԭ򡣣ԭһֻҪж߳Ż·Ӧôֶҩжǿ˵ͶԭǡͶĵ¡϶ǻˡʵĿĵĹЧ͡ݵ¶ĿļС֮ĽޣHart 1965128586

ڹؿΪУͶУͶЧԭ򡣵ЩЧԭΥʱ򣬱ǰᵽͶǾӦñԭ޳ˣܹǿ˸յİԭڻڷɴ״̬ԭԹɷ֮ĸϵ

źǣغһʵյİԭɼǡһ棬ЩԭȻЧԭһ棬Ҳĵ롣˵Ϊ֪ӦùǷЧıҪǰ᣻ͬʱҲһ롣ʵʩЩδĹ޴˽ⷨҪڵȻDzġͬĵҲʩݼķ桢ڲͳһķҪ󲻿ķΪDzġͶڵЧʱ׼Щ׼ͻʱDZ㲻ǺϷԭ

ȻհԭڻڷɣʵΪЧԭǵڷõġձ˴ҲòϣɵʵϷԭ֮൱ľ롣ġʹ˷С˵ֻе·ɲʵָΪһʱDzŻʶԡЩ£ԭдУΪܷʵЧǵ롣

.ɵ¡ֽRonald Dworkinġۡ

ɵ¡ֽķġۡñΪǶԷʵ֤һֻӦʵ֤֧ɣʵۣthe Social Fact Thesisۣthe Conventionality ThesisͿɷۣthe Separablity ThesisνʵָۣǷЧԱijʵռܡ仰˵ţܹͷЧԵģijʵij֣صʽȷϺ ǿɵĺܹ跨ЧԵЩʵ֮Ȩģǻһ⡣˹۵㣬ڹԱͨʾĬɵЭ飬ʹõжκθĹǷܳΪɹı׼Լ֪ܷȨһʵʽϻȫʮݵ׼

νɷۣͨı׼ԣǼ򵥵طȻ˼Ľۡʵ֤巨ѧУɵĹ͵֮䲢ʲôϵĽ档أHartʹ˽һָɷ۵ġݺܼ򵥣ΪбҪȥijЩҪ󡪡ʵˡHart 1994185186

ֽ𷴶ʵ֤ʵۣΪΪЩԭȨDzʵ͵ġ˵Ѱоdz֤һЩԣЩȻǵԼϿɵķЧԱ׼

׸ĬRiggs v. Palmerһ[3] УͥҪǣıɱӦܺ˵л档ĵʱûϸķҲûȷ涨ִֹܺл档ˣͥоȨ̳ܺСӦáŲΪ˱ҵĴⱾһصĴ󡣵ֽΪͥԴ˰о¡ԭ򣬼˲ӦĴл档һԭΪһDZڹԿطɹ涨ͨһʽʹǰķɹ涨һµĽ͡Dworkin 197729

ֽΪ׸һУͥԮԭûԽɶ漰extralegal׼ǡ෴ԷͥԣԭӦܵõԭһ׼ĻʵϣҲκ֤ǸDworkin 197735ֽó½ۣԷͥһԭѽ;ǣԭ˷ɵһ֡

ˣֽţԭ׸õԭ򣩵ķȨԵʽҪġһʵЩԭɴĹٷȡijЩ֧֡Щٷϸо˾ֱͬ׼ЩԭҲȻؾͬ㹻ֱ֡ӵϵDworkin 197741

յֽĿ׸ԭķȨܴԣwhollyؼԽ͡׸ԭԼģԭ˻ҪҪᷨʵѾ뵽ѵоСֽΪһԼԭ֮ԾзȨΪΪһ޶ȵضᷨʵѵĵ±绤

ֽţijһԭҪ޶ȵشٳı绤ҽʱܳһԭеķɾ񣻢ŵһԭͬʱҲߵı׼ȱһɡ֮νǡķԭҲǾܵʹʵѵ»һ;ڴ˻ϣֽ˵ԺоǿҲӦñ롱ģ

ѰʱӦͨ;ȥ롱ͬνṹ磺ЩԶܷԹȨΪͬϸ԰дڴεԭ򣬷ӦشȥѰҵõоɣDworkin 1982165

ɴˣͲ˽гɹ롱ҪһȻֻΪضضб绤ϲdzɹģôͱҪʵ֮еЩڵķɹ涨ԡȻΪЩṩ±绤ôͱյµı׼޶ȵһ㡣

ڴˣֽչһٴӦ롱һ

ΪȷһʵĿɡܡij߶ȣ[ˬ1] [ˬ2] һ˼ȫķӦΪԼһµʺϸసķ롰ϡġСthresholdȻáСijһķ벻ֹһ֣Ӧǵѡѡ񲻽𰸼;ϸıȽϣҪǣ֧ǸʵϡõĽͣҲ˵ӽ޳ɵֽȣDworkin 1982171

ֽٱ뿪ʼյ˾ߣеѧϰ˵롰Щķ۵ĵԭѡʵϺƶ϶ʺϴһΪоϰDworkin 197766

Ȼֽ˵һͬʱҲǡʦDZ벻ϵκ͵۵Ĺ̡ʵϣԺУֽߵøԶƣеţκηٵĹ۵㱾һѧѧڱΣЩɼȻ֤ʵͳšDworkin 198690

ֽ˾ְνȨۣRights ThesisIJݴ˷ٵְڲϵʵʩ͹Ȩpreexisting rightsʹڴijһʱûмеطɹ涨һлʤߡΪѰȥ֣discoverӦеȨǻԵطinventʲôµȨDworkin 197781

ڡѰУֽ಻ͬķ֤ݡһԵ֤ݣ֤ݡܴͨٽ򱣻ijһͬļĿ֤ξߵԡDworkin 197782෴һ֤ԭԵ֤ݣࡰ֤ͨʾغͺȺȨ֤ξߵԡDworkin 197782

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A tendency of the temporary theory of natural law in U.S.

Kenneth Einar Himma Xu Shuang

(Southwest University of Political Science and Law, Chongqing 400031)

Abstract: The termnatural lawcan be explicated and deduced under the ethical theory as well as the legal theory. According to natural law theorists, any opinion subscribing to law must has certain moral properties should belong to Overlap Thesis. Furthermore, Overlap Thesis, blended with the conceptual naturalism, may seem to be a number of different outlook that it can be interpreted. Based on thus, this article is just engaged in an elaborate research to the tendency of the temporary theory of natural law in U.S., especially for John Finnis, L.Fuller and Ronald Dworkin.

Key words: Overlap Thesis; conceptual jurisprudence; Neo-Naturalism; Procedural Naturalism; Third Theory of Law

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