ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 

ƹܷԺĵλáڰĴıȽо
?÷ɭʿ/

һĴǷɴҵ˵һΪ˶ܷ뷢ԷθԺȷΧ߷ԺܷijЩضĽͼЩ͵ķۣһֱϣ硡ǣһ㶼ȷţܷ̬ӣȴõһܷĴܷв꣬ͬ¶ԣģʽĶ๲֮ͬȴָ𡪡Ҫҹμǵָ𡪡ΪʱµIJìͷҪָܷԱȨָ䲻Ϊ֮ݵȨ䷽档

1973꣬ڰĴܷIJ½ÿһȵܴƶȣƽܷ12ĵײײܴѸdzܴĴѾܷԳ⣬DZ˴֮޷ͱĻɹʶ֮δﹲʶܷ޴ãǴ˿˵⣬ಢǵԴǵƶȱдȴҲȱΪһΰȺʶȱʹÿһѡͺͬڴһͲеѡĵλõ׿Խ֪ʶΪܴǹƽԣ˵ȥָߣʵ˹ֹˡĶսϱսΣ齫ȺһͳһҪʶԶͶܴijɹΪĿʶ

19851219գĴһרɵܷίԱᣬǰϯSolicitor-General Ī˹?ʿQCҷɹʣϯһ˹ίԱЭ£԰ĴܷһˣӦ19886 ʮջ֮ǰһݱ档ijЩ򣬸ĸȷ档ٲȨΪעܷ51xxxxΪڲҵϵеȨ޼ȶ̣࣬ʹǵIJҵϵٲƶȳ಻ʷɿֻԤԼҲŻܷίԱᵼ¹㷺ܷĴǵѡȻ佫ð֮踣ܷ

ԺܷĽͷֱӱܷĸıҪԣΪԺʹþ̬ܶĽԭԭĸѺѡһԺõĽͷ뷨ԺĵλõʶΪܵڹϵ߾ᣬ°Ĵ߷ԺThe HighCourt߷ԺThe Supreme Courtйؽͼ⣬ڸԵ¾кֵλõԤڣ˳ɹؼڡ

ΪһܷԺõĽͼĺܷͬ˳ɰĴijϵ֮ԴһΪصвͬ۵ĺڰĴܷҲйضڻȨıϵĹ涨ǣ硵ҪΧ߷ԺĵλúԺݡȨƷ档ΧưĴܷĸͬ漰ƣȴǴһͬĽǶչġͨȣΧưĴ߷ԺغȨԼȻصܷͬȷҪ֮ͬ

 

һܷıȽ

 

ܷĸͬǣ1.һѡٵûһֱѡԺֱѡIJԺ2.Ȩ3. СȨenumerated powerСȨresidual power ĻϣݵԵȨ4.˾˾й涨һ⣬ܷҪǣ1.ǵƣѡḺ𣩣Ϊͳƣ2.ܷбȨֺһϵIJ𣬼ǵܷǾӢ۹ʹȫӢµķȨڵһֽģܷԴȨʶ

Ĵ߷Ժ񸳵ܷԵλã߷ԺġĴܷйܷЧ˾ⲢδʲôرĹ涨Ȼʼٸ߷ԺһְܡȻ߷Ժ෴Ĵ߷ԺΪһݷߵͨ߷ԺһԵߵճҪ֡

ȻйذĴ͸֮Ȩƺܷ⣬԰Ĵ߷ԺоȥӢԺߣ1968Ĵֹ˾Ժߣע1968ĴԺߵģԺ1975ȫȡ˾Ժߡע1975Ĵ߷ԺԺ߷˺󣬴ӸݷԺԺԼз198633գŰĴǺӢܷ֮ϵֹֻϰ⣬1982ôܷġɽֹܱӢڼô˾ϽȨPatriationķʽΪ󣬴һǾɰĴ߸Ӣʵֵġעһȫʵʩ1985ġĴǷҪԼ÷ܷ51xxxviii֮涨 ĴֹͨӢIJܷϵ֮Ȩڶ1986ġĴǷ÷ҪԼͣҪԼŵģҪӢȷܷϵճ̵1985꡶ĴǷӢ1986ġĴǷŮ198632ǩһЧĴǷۡ60ҳ254-5,1986Դܷϵйζ

ĴܷȨԺжݷԺ˾ϽȨעܷ77ʹȨٿԺã1970Ժ ĴԺthe federal court of AustraliaͥԺthe federalfamily courtɹάһͳһķԺϵͳЩµķԺ²γһųݷԺ˾ϽȨԺ˾ϽȨμӾ˾ϽȨ⡣ˣ߷ԺΪݷԺԺ߷Ժĵλȷ˽Ĵǵ˾ои̶ȵͳһԡ

 

ܷͼıȽ

 

A.ԭThe Doctrine of Parliamentary Supremacy

Ȼҹܷĵʽ涼ܷȡ࣬ȻӢɴͳĿڵ˰Ĵܷġһش죬ܷеһΪ֮ͳƣǶȨָƵһشΪʲô˾мƵӰ֮⣬ԭǵܷӰҪСöࡣͿµּ˵ҪǰĴܷǸݶӢ˵Ϊ뷨ϡ͵ġ

ǶЩرϵĸٹ̵뼤˲СȨԵȨָƶȵǡɶգ̶ܴʵΪǵķԺһֻõ̬ķӳ뷨ٽ硵IJҵϵ򡪡ڴĿ˰ĴDzҵϵͣٲίԱĴǶĴʷһеǼŷɱ֮𣬶˾ľֻ˾ȷȻȶȻʹDzһֱΪ塱Legalismܷ뷨ɽģʽ߷ԺеģҪʽϸöࡣ

B.ԭ

ŷ?ϿɭʿԴԭ±

ϸѭDZ֤ĴǣͻŵΨһ·˻ζΪԺ̫طˡܱǸοַˡϸ׵ķ壬ûʲôΪйشͻ˾þṩȫϡעľ߷Ժϯ󷨹ٵĽʣ1952Ĵڷɱ漯85ҳxiii-xiv

Ʒģʽŵ˾þԴÿ͹۵ķɹͷɽԭԭ򣬶ԴþķǵۼֵҵǣܷκƶȵĽͶֵڷǼļֵʱǼӦ֪Ϥͽļֵǽֹ˵ļֵڵΣǡϸ׵ķ塱ڱδչֺͶλֵעά᣺߷Ժ˾һܷļ֡1968ҳ91-4

ԭʱ䱣DZĹܣƲɵʧӰоDZŵļֵʱЩֵ֮ҵʶЩԭDZŵļֵķݷԭǰЩDZŵļֵµог֡㾭ҵֵȻͷˡ

߷ԺĴ߷ԺزһصĽģʽ̶ܴϣʵвͬճĴ߷Ժͨ˾ϽȨҪܷ԰߷Ժ˾ϽȨ񣬾ڡȨʩжԣһܷίԱᡣĴ߷Ժеĸ⣬߷ԺЩֹҡδɳκ˵ɻƲ˵СƽȵķɱܷȨйص͡

һʽʹڷģʽҪݳխΪϸرǰĴǵƶҪϸöࡣңΪʵб䣬޸ķɵĹ۵㣬ڴƲһܷرһȨҪ߸׼ȷ˵ҪԺĽ롣˵ܷǸݱ仯ŵʵζγɵףְ֮ʣԺڽܷʱصÿֵ⣬ʹܣҲءˣǷԺйܷ⹫ɣܷΪ֮޵ġ

Ϊ߷Ժĺܶస漰ܷȨ⣬еǡֱӵ߱λģʽan openly policyoriented approachȥ Ĵ߷Ժͨƶ಻뷨ģʽתŰĴ߷Ժ롰ϸ׵ķ塱ת߱λܷģʽȻģ롰ϸ׵ķ塱УΪӶĿԽ

C.˾

˾ĺϷԣʱָΥԭѣȴյ?´󷨹ٺͺɴҵǰͬΪǵĹעڡijһԣ˾ϷԵȷЩ˾ȡϵĴͳ˾ΥʱΪִǣĴܷȨøĴ߷Ժøܷ漰ԼƾܷӢԺߵȨȴͬʱζȷ߷Ժ˾ξܷЧעܷ76i74ŷ?ϿɭʿЪĴܷıһĬJesting Pilateҳ174-5 иڡѷע߷Ժ5ҳ1371803԰ĴǰʵΪĴܷƶȻϣ߷ԺӦ縺һȥֳطԺע˹ڹ˾ʿ߷Ժ2ҳ1414-61419-201861Baxter v.Commissioners of Taxationڷɱ漯4ҳ11251907Kingston v.GeddάǷɱ桷27ҳ4171901ŷ?ϿɭʿġЪĴܷǰһ򡶰ĴǷۡ29ҳ4251955 ӢԺȨʹְܡעŮ߰͹ӢԺ߰3ҳ9041878ңܷ109ɹ涨ִЧ˵ܷԺִ

˾ϷԵȫϿɣΪݳиʵߣԺʹ˾ϽȨһͨԭ򣬷Ժʹ˾ϽȨһ£ûʲôһ⡱ԭ򡣣˶߿߷Ժ369ҳ2171962 Ρ߲ʰĴǷ۱桷59ҳ3411985ĴǷɱ桷57ҳ523-41985

D.þDeference to Legislative Judgment

ڽܷʹ˾ְʱĴ߷ԺвþܷЧһʵݴģʽ߷ԺʷеҪ棬ʹ߷Ժڲþݵʱ֮ǿҵһǣԤ裬಻غþ˹涨֮еΪעȽϡ¶߸¶ҵЭ᰸߷Ժ452ҳ2771981 롰Ĵǹ߰Ĵڷɱ漯83ҳ224243-4263-51951 Ĵ߷ԺϣںֹΪݼó׵IJþ棬й㷺ɲȨע Permewan WrightConsolidated Pty Ltd v.Trewhittڷɱ漯145ҳ371979

Ĵ߷Ժоijɵأthe regulatedΪǷ˾ϽȨȻ߷ԺijɴƻȨȨЧ䷨ЧǷڸðøɡעFairfax v.Commissioner of Taxationڷɱ漯114ҳ1رҳ71965 ̫߰Ĵͬϣ115ҳ4181966ī޹˾߰Ĵͬϣ136ҳ11976ĴӰԱЭ߸̹ɵӰ˾ͬϣ150ҳ191-5201-3216-7һδųڷʵִЧĿǣע̫߰Ĵڷɱ漯115ҳ436-74421966άݣ˾߰ĴȫίԱ᰸ڷɱ漯138ҳ5231976ңԭȵЧΣһʵʵִлᵼһľúעģ˾߰ĴȫίԱ᰸ڷɱ漯138ҳ5231976

漰ijǷΪȨٿʵijһĿĵֶʱ߷ԺȷֻҪȨ¾һĹӦþעͶߺڷɱ漯86ҳ1691952ǰҡ̫߰Ĵرҳ436-7ķЧ߷Ժֱӳͻѱ趨ΪԵΨһ׼򷲴˸Եķʵִ⣬Ӧþ

ӦģĴ߷ԺĹϵͬ߷ԺĹϵƵĹϵڽ֡ϵĴͳʹþϿ߷Ժthe Commerce ClauseIJþӳֺԤ衣 ȻһչеԤڲϣԤעĺܶʵΪһԺеʵʽ߷ԺĽͷʽϸķɫʣעأһչܵһϵвͬԤڡΪȨȱȷĻ̶ı߽һģʱ龳б仯ԣܷıʾԵĹ涨Щ£Ǽµйػһϵ⡣ǶƵΪĺһ˻ָΪɴҵЩ϶ȨΨΨŵŵһ棬Ǿ߷ԺõĺԤڶþһЩ˿ֻ˵ǹԸݶǵĶЭ

E.ĴܷȨͲ֤֮

ΪܷĵѭӢ˼룬ϿɹȨýͨΪDzıܴ־ѹȣ԰ĴܷڱһЩµȨ棬涨١DzδĵȱϵûбҪߵȨܶѹȵĴ߷ԺϴͳӰ죬ܷȱԶѹȻ£ɶܷ涨Ľ͵ڱߵλһ߿

1.ֱѡDirectly chosen by the people

ڹԺԱѡٷ棬ܷ21ҹܷ24ıơĴܷɰĴȫֱѡdirectly chosen by the people of the commonwealth һǷӳ˵21񡭡ѡchosen by the people of the several statesһ ҹܷһġȡܷĹ涨Զ߷Ժ21˹涨ˡһһƱֵĽ֮ǰʹǶԣ24ʵ˵21ļֵڡ˾߰Ĵעڷɱ漯135ҳ11975УʷIJ˳ΪǾܡͿ߿עǰע12Ľ͵һʵԭ򡣵ȻԭǵһһءĴ߷Ժϯ󷨹ٰرָĴܷĵǽһԭ򣬶ܷȨƺȨִġȨƶȡעǰע10

2.

ⷽ棬Ĵ߷Ժҹܷ80ΥĴɵ°УThe trial on indictment ϤŽСĽ̬ͣͬȡܷƹ涨ǵ23⣬зϤŽС涨еĸϡע˿·˹ݰ߷Ժ391ҳ1451968һ棬ĴܷĹ涨򱻽ΪֻǶӦߵ°вȷŽУȫȨЩķӦ°ΰٶУsummarilyľ עR Ů߰ɴ˹񰸡ڷɱ漯41ҳ1281928RԺڷɱ漯59ҳ5561938˾Ĵ ڷɱ漯94ҳ881954鲴߿ϰڷɱ漯121ҳ2831968־£룩𰸡ĴǷɱ桷62ҳ1611985߷ԺʹϵڳĹ涨ˣ ڹڿΰٶoffences triable summarilyУ жദ涨дһϼ̷ӡ

߷ԺƲϿɭͰλ󷨹ǡֹ۵Ӱ죬ڡ³˹̹һ͡עR Ժڷɱ漯57ҳ7651937ţ ܷ80Ĺ涨صñһҪʵԱϣֻһԵĹ涨ܷǵIJ죬رҹܷ֮δܲӲʽĹ涨зϤŽС಻νӰ졣ܻۼעܻۼй˹ķԣīҳ350-41894-5еIJϱ ܴݸʱ֪ʶͼӦʹþijǷӦŽлΰٶ˼ܴǵ̬ȣ˼롢ʹǾܡȨνһޡΪڵ80ĽǡȷƵġע˹άǰע23ҳ169 ŮĴǷ۱桷60ҳ260ĴǷɱ桷64ҳ166168 һЩоȴ߷ԺӦڵо˼עګ󷨹ٵġ˹ά롰ʰо

3.ȷڽ

ҹܷ116 涨Ĵƶκڽ̻ǿκڽǹ桢ֹκڽ̵ɡķɡǴӡܷһġȡһ涨һεأҲһЩͬȻ1900ǰһֻDZΪֹijһ̻ҽԺѧУṩԮ߷ԺȷԴ˿öĽ͡߷Ժָ

ȣر׵ĿģΣҪּЧȲ֧Ҳýֹڽ̡󣬹ڽ̾йеĹϵע߿߷Ժ403ҳ612-31971

һһֱǸԵ˾ìͷı׼ùң֧̻ѧУ첻ߺϷԡע˹߽ܷ𰸡8629 66˹ش󷨹ٳֲͬҳ78

DzûжԵ116Թ涨ꡣ ǽּڽֹԴȷijһضڽΪΪĿĵķɡע˾άݣ߰Ĵڷɱ漯146ҳ5591980Ȼڴӹֶ̳ܷ͵ŵȽϣӦָĽͼӾʵѶȣʹоִСעйء˹߽ܷ𰸡ļУʱ٣ϯ󷨹˹߷ԺĽֹԹ涨ǰ

ijݻѧУĺṩͼĵ̿飬ǸҲȴṩͼ֮áijݻṩйֳʷĽ̿飬Ҳȴṩһй?ʢٵӰƬߣӰӳʦʷзӳⲿӰƬijݻṩõҵȴǹѧУд֮áijݻ֧̻ѧУУãȴ֧ӽѧУȥ԰ȻʷݽпУáijݻ֧ѧУҽƼѣҲȴһطڽ̻ѧУе˵ֹܵģȴڽ̻ѧУ˵ҽƼ顣ijЩضĽѧУ׼ѧṩѯ񣬵ȴѧУ֮⣬ͣڽֵϵϳнСijݻѧУṩдЭѵķ񣬵ȴʦ׼Ļṩ

ϼLed 2d 2978-9ʱнԣ߷ԺֹԳķ涨ǰʡԵķ?˹߷ԺһЩ򣺽ܸѷֽǽ᰸ſ˴ѧۡҳ7701984 йصһڽǰأΪһܷڽ̡ݴѧۡ2ҳ7531984һڽĸЭͬϣҳ877

4.Ȩƽ

ڰĴܷ117ʮıȽϣ ΪģʽIJͬṩһõ˵117 DzܷǿӲ涨Ůij񣬲סκιңȷΪסڸùŮij򲻵δƽ÷ɶΪȨʸߡƺһԡйҵһоƽȨܷϡע߱ķڷɱ漯128ҳ4821973ЧΪ˾Ͷơ涨ֹסԭȨʸӡְ֮ʣһԭͳסڸùȨķɲڽֹ֮СĴ߷ԺȷһݾסһʱΪݾڸʦҵʸȨһͽϸĹ涨ĽҪխö࣬һֱܵעD ?˹ӡͳһȡ˹?˹ڱࣺĴܷļҳ210-229һεأ һͷӳ߷ԺڸݶԭԽԵܷĽֹԹ涨עǰע32ҳ488

5.

Ĵ߷Ժܷȷӽȷ˱ϺͷӳԭĽͣһA?V?ѩA.V. Diceyϵĺԭ ҹܷƶͽ;شӰ졣ܷϤһԭͱ֤ȨΪʵʱзɵĹ۵н͡ϸķͼ䱾Ϊͬһԭ˾۵ķӳ˵⣬ͬɵı£ǷԺߡ

Ĵ˲ʮͣȻȨѹвȨ֮෴ǽԭδκܷԱϵӢȨܵɳֱһIJչʾ

F.Ȩ

ǽƶһĴǡȨʵΪմͳشƫתȻ˾ٲǣܣеġȨؽı߷Ժ֮ĹϵΪʱԡȨ޸ģϵλԽάֲ䣬κ漰淨ԺоеȨΪһµν𡣶ڴһȨĽͣҪı˾̬ȣвͬĽͼͥͷԺԹĻȨ嶨ȷϣ޸ķһͳһԸʵ뵲ۣ޲

ȻһôƶĵһƶʽͨġȨ󣬷ּôķDz̫ԸˡȨԹ㷺õЧ˺ᷨݴˡȨսʱôԺȴڶκγͻԾضķȡȨĹ涨Ϊ˿˷ôѧһζִԭ򣬼ôһܷԵġȨ

Ӹ?Ͼʿ߷Ժ󷨹ٰ¿ύڶʮ조ɴᡱĵУע˾IJβءάǷЭۡ607ţҳ654ԾһȨ˾ĵλõijЩһµӡȻʶʿ˵ֻһܷġȨĽ⡣

ʿ۱෨йضڡȨĽͽʹǴڶν˾þĹעʷеһЩҲ˵һעǿѨ硣߷Ժйڽɵþ½γʡ

СȨͥ뷨ԺĹӦؼĸһЩ˿Ŀ֧Чʣپһԣ϶һϵбϻȨϡߡרԱƶȣOmbudsman regimeϢɺͷӰ졣˵һеյĽѾܵЧԼƺ⡣

һ棬ͨƶȣµΣϵּڱضȨۻɣȨܷԱϺ͹ԼԻȨȫ桢ۺϵıŷ޷ԺоָӢδ乫ΪŷȨԼϿɲŷ޷ԺʩеĻȨͨڱϻȨַ棬ǰ׿гЧ

Ȩһŵǣȷ⽫ԻȨΪݽȷγоܸΪտܾеӰΪܷԵĸֻܷԵġһŵǣȨİչͨĿռ䡣ôڷ־ƶʽͨġȨ֮콫Ȩڻܷ֮СڳšȨҪͨңֻӢ⡣ӢΪŷȨԼһд෨DzһȨǾͨңˡȨ񷨷ϵҵķɷչ

ͬôһȨΣĴǴӰһȨĽ󳷣漰ܷڻȨĸԿ뱣ˣίԱᡱ롰ܷίԱᡱЯֹķ֮һΪܷ涨ĸȨԣܷίԱᡱ޳ɰһܷԵġȨɣ

 

Ƶ˾

 

ĴܷѧŻϵΧ-ݵĹϵ߷ԺȨĽģʽչĴݹϵбߣͨ漰ǵԴģʽİĴܷйع涨˰עĴܷ90ͱݼóסͽɵȨΪĴǵƶȡעĴܷ92Ԥͽݼʲҵ׵ĵͣٲãעĴܷ51XXXVԼעĴܷ51xxi־ӣmatrimonial causesϷ棬עĴܷ51xxiiԵȨڶעĴܷ51xxixݷԺ˾ϽȨ棬򲢷ˡڰĴһֱнϴ顣

IJͬɴܷļҪɴ˵´ܷϰһʵý͡ǻܷϵݵĹϵΪעص㣬رȨΥܷ涨Ϊ߷Ժ͸ԺְڡЩ棬ǵûʲô⡣ȣǶȨעʱעΪעܷart 1,s8,cl 3 ߷Ժڡͣ߷ԺģؽȨܷȨĴܷľȨνޱӣ

A.ݵIJ

ɴҵйȨص֮ʹǶڰĴһ˻˵һ㣬ݶIJ޶áϵĴ״ϵܷ涨IJΪ߷Ժ͵ĽĴܷճй˰Ʒͷ˰Ȩעǰע36ȨڡΪʵڼκһݻעĴܷ96ܷ105A涨ݾ乫ծΪݾծԼ涨ġЭԼFinancial Agreementʹڳٹծ棬 оԵӰ졣עЭԼЧҪݵľٴáĴǴίԱᡱ׼ίԱȨ԰ĴĸֻʵʩЧء޸Ĺ1928꣨ĴЭԼ˰Ȩ˾ͲƣչȨΧʹ˰ָһ˰գ˵ʹø˰һвƷҵƷ빺򡣣עʯ͹˾άݰڷɱ漯151ҳ5991983˹Ʒ˾ʿݰĴǷ۱桷59ҳ2211985ꡰϿɭȹ˾˹ݰڷɱ漯130ҳ1771974еԣ˰Ȩ˳ɷ˰ľ޴ϰݿɾʵĿȡ˰⣬߷Ժڡͳһ˰עϰ߰Ĵһͳһ˰ڷɱ漯65ҳ3731942ά߰Ĵڶͳһ˰ڷɱ漯99ҳ5751957оҲͬЧ Ȼðĸод˰֣մ˰öȸݵIJյ䲻ȥ˰

һͬĵصĽǶ߷Ժܷ96עϽҡϰ߰Ĵά˾߰Ĵڷɱ漯146ҳ5591981IJȨĽͣʹȨزضĿݻʽ𣬶ʹøݶھ֧ЩûκηȨthe federationڰĴthe CommonwealthĿƣɲɱ⡣Ͽ1902Ԥ⵽һ㡣ζǣڸݴͳнϴȨ?׵󷨹ָģʹøIJĿɥʧȵĴʲΪͷԼѭȫ˼·¡ע׵壺һ·Ү³ѧۡ86ҳ102519771937꣬߷Ժڡ˹ͼػе˾ߴά˹мʸĿ߷Ժ307ҳ5481937

B.Ȩ

ڲ;ľӰģȨš˾ܷĵǼ϶ԤȨƲ1943꣬Ĵʷŷ?ϿɭʿָˡȨij½ռƵȨעĴƵɷ桱ǰŷ?ϿɭıһĬҳ122ԴԽһͷΪƵķʽ˥ҹȻûɡʽĿδ֮ڰĴܷ˾͵̣һܷ˾ͣݵȨΪ۵ȨȲš

ĴڰĴǸĿӰ죬һ֮޿ײ롣20ǰοͬͰĴǹճԣɵӰҪݵķɡǣ㷺ḣĿͥԼڹ˾ó׻߱ĵأʹǰΪصµ

1.ݼó׺Ȩ

߷ԺڡŽͣȨһŽͣĴǶóȨǡǡ෴ŹյȨ΢һʵαижʵȻ᲻ͬĴֱӰó׺ȨСաҵʲ⹫˾ó׻ڹ˾Լݼʲҵ׵ĵͣٲõԤͲöȵȨڹ˾ȨĽͣʹȨڻݼʵó׻мȨӼʱڷóԹ˾˵ó׻ĵءעĴ˹ݰˮӰĴǷɱ桷46ҳ496509ĴǷ۱桷57ҳ710737

̫ƽƺȫõȨ߷ԺػݼóױþЧһþͬʱΪһþ߱һĻעù߷Ժ379ҳ258-91964ڶѡֶǺʵġעţ̹˾߷Ժ315ҳ1191942ԾݼóƷһҹͶʱ涨ЩƷܸݼó򡣣עȫ͹ϵίԱ˹͸ָ˾301 US 1ҳ411937ỹɾһũ˱õũ涨ΪͥѱӰũĹϵƵǣϣնݼóȻоӰ졣עWickard v.Filburn߷Ժ317ҳ127-81942ڰĴǣݼóһԽݽͨҪ̿ͻԼעҽԺ˾άݰڷɱ漯87ҳ11953 ţ̹˾ʿҵְڷɱ漯134ҳ5591975Ĵľ˾߰г»᰸ĴǷ۱桷59ҳ5161985ĴǷɱ桷59ҳ641 Ȼ߷ԺΪڳڲƷĵȨ֮£ԣ߷ԺδȨӼڲƷעGrannall v.Marrickville Margarine Pty Ltd ڷɱ漯93ҳ551955Beal v.Marrickville Margarine PtyLtdڷɱ漯114ҳ2831966ҵѳϸȨӼƷGrannallҳ77-8Ƚ Wragg v. NewSouth Walesڷɱ漯88ҳ385-3861953 OSullivan v.Noarlunga Meat LtdУ ڳڲƷô˹򣨡ڷɱ漯92ҳ5651954

ĴǶڸȨĽܷ92ݼóɵĹ涨ԵִθӡݼóɵıҪ𾿾ʲôݼóסΪ߷ԺԴĽݼóײһΪԣȻԸȨķΧ⵼»ȨΧ󡣳һӵأ߷ԺĽģʽΪһǣǽݼó׵һʵ⣬ΪһпɷΪDZԵݵij

߷Ժ1937ǰ˽ͲƷóֿһʽࡣǣĴڽһʽʱȴܾijֶݼó׾оӰΪʹԼȨ֮£һ۵ȷʵԽܡעģ˾߰ĴǹҺίԱ᰸ڷɱ漯138ҳ5231976߷Ժ1914꼴ֹ۵㣬עHouston, East and West Railway v. United States߷Ժ234ҳ3511914ԶԡŽ֮ǰĺչ˾ڰĴ߷ԺܾϾӰʹȨϵṩһ˵עǰע58ڸðУ߷Ժϣijɣ׼ղijijijijؼкӪˣͬһ;ۣͣÿͬʱºͻװж÷ϵȨЧʹעܷ122 ;۵Ľͨյ֮ĺ˵ľЧͬܲɷ֣ͬķɲóȨһ۵Դйݼóһľķࡣ

ڡ˾Ȩڹ˾ӪȨŽͣ涨Ȩó׹˾óĿеһлص¶ó׺Ȩϸ޵ĽͣΪ£Աʵϵơǣݼóɶ⣬òȫȨʽϸĽģʽȷġȨ

2.ȨƽͣImplied Prohibitions

ڵȨĴر𲦿ȨʹʶܷȨ⡣ɴҵߣ֧Ȩδ죬תΪݵʳĿֶΡڰĴ߷ԺСԭ򡱣The doctrine of inter-governmentalimmunitiesԭԴڸڵ߷Ժϯ󷨹Ъʾһԭ򣬣עݰ߷Ժ17ҳ3161819 κһݲʹԼΪԼƻȨȨʹע°ڷɱ漯1ҳ911904 ϿΤ17ҳ585ðΪӢԺأꡰΤ߰ķڷɱ漯4ҳ3561906Ժɴ˽ԭŽΪ˫ԼԱӰ졣Ĵ߷Ժ᲻Ȩٲ÷ԺThe FederalArbitration Court 漰֧·Աʵݼʲҵоע·й糵Эʿ·ͨԱЭ᰸·Աڷɱ漯4ҳ4881906

1920꣬߷ԺڡʦעʦЭ߰˾ڷɱ漯28ҳ1291920 ϣΪһܷͣԭ²ãԭľѾȷʾҲκݵúָӦִнӰݵɵʩйʱôԭ򡣡ʦо֮ɬͷ֮ͥδʾָ÷Χζһֱܵעŷ?ϿɭʿĴƵɷ桱ǰҡıһĬҳ116-7˹?˹Ĵ߷ԺĴܷҳ9-11ŷ?Ͽɭʿ˵оĺ޿ָġעŷ?Ͽɭʿǰע66ҳ117 йظ֮ԭȨ˷߷Ժʩߣ֮͸ʵ ɻɡ

ԡʦ֮߷ԺʱѾϣȷбҪܷ֮ԣزӦӸݻǵĴΪĺС͡ǣĴǶȨƣһȻ֤ݵȨıǴġӵİǼ亱ġڹȥʮⷽЧעī˾߰Ĵݽڰڷɱ漯74ҳ311947ʿίԱ߰ĴĴǷ۱桷59ҳ6991985 Ϊһ˳֤䲢һõĸڱݵڳΪߡһܷսøࡣ

оĴǵġˮӡעǰע51GarciaעGarciaʥ³нͨίԱ᰸LED 2D83ҳ10161985ڷԺܱ֮ijʴṩ˵е΢˵ڽݵִGarciaΪ۹⣩ܷͺͷԺĵλõĸ

ڡˮӡУҪȨעǰע41빫˾Ȩó׹˾õĶȨ֧йر˹ƬҰ򡢽ֹݵһҹ˾ڸ跢վˮӵķɡȨʹþݷаĴеĹ񡣷ĴǼԼ涨ްĴǹڷЧƬݰĴǼġĻȻŲԼ롰ŲǼǡùԼԼڱŲ񡣶һּڵͼṩˮӣǡʹƬҰûڱصάƽһҪҪǴȨӦԹԶǹΪĸԼơߣζŰĴǼ㷺ĹʹԼȨøκʵȨľء֣߷Ժһ۵㡣һʱ߷ԺԮ1936׼ʵʩ1919ʺչԼҪעRŮ߲˹ڷɱ漯55ҳ6081936ζǣ1920߷Ժ͡ߺע߷Ժ252ҳ4161920ϹȨƺûжݵȨԵӰ졣Ĵ߷ԺϣĹ˾ȨζȨнֹһó׹˾óĿĽˮӵķɡ߷ԺΪֺݵȨӶΥܷȨƵ˵

GarciaУ߷ԺһԹ涨Ա͹빤ʱɣЧڳнͨţܡȫUseryע߷Ժ426 ҳ8331976ȴɲøıݵøݴͳйع涨ȷԱϵ߷Ժ֪ڴͳǴͳ֮ȷڰĴǣΪӰĴֳʱʼͨ˽ҵṩķһֱṩġעǰע64ʿίԱ߰ĴĴǷ۱桷59ҳ7081985ĴǷɱ桷61ҳ17ԣǶβһ

оľΪһ⣬ܷԤȨʹжijĵأȻ¸ݶڴһĵĸ棬˸沢ǹ˱صȨķɸݡݶȨΧĻеصɥʧǡΪܷ109涨ɵЧڸݷɣƽһءְ֮ʣ֮ȷɥʧȨһʵԵȨơ˵ЩЧĻҲֻӰΪĹܵ档ڡˮӰУݶijЩضĻĵȨ׼ʹԼִ֮ˣȨGarciaУȻضϵеľҵԱ״ijΪڡȫ˰֮ʵƽͶȨƶṩһΪǿĻǣȴDzġ

GarciaرΪȨıϵġȨơĴԡһ֮ԱĹϵеȨܣΪεҪءһϵƱӰݵĹйظԱĹϵִһֱǰĴĸֳͻĺġǶԣһͻǣ浽ĵͣٲȨġٲίԱᡱڽݼʲҵе˾ϽȨ⡣ȥϸ˾ϽȨڴͳϵIJҵʱdzϡٲίԱᡱþܹڲҵݹԱþעR Ů߰ĴͣƲ÷ͥڷɱ漯107ҳ2081959ǾٲίԱᡱ˾ϽȨӦΪ㷺ӼͨIJҵףעRŮ߿ºķڷɱ漯153ҳ2971983˵յǡٲίԱᡱܷṩDzҵݹԱþһGarciaΪơһÿ϶ش𡣣Թ߰ĴǷ۱桷60ҳ4411986һشݣһ硰ʦһǽٲȨʹٲίԱᡱþ漰ݹԱݼʲҵþҲûиݽܹڲҵŵĹԱһΪ

ĽܷԭڴݵȨƽ⡣¿ɴ󷨹GarciaʾʹǻصһȷȷݵηΧĽߡһ⡣עGarciaʥ³нͨίԱ᰸LED 2D83ҳ1058 ǣ UseryɵIJȷڡˮӰGarcia۾˵ƽܷĵָΪǿѡconstituent elementsȵһת䡢ʵΪȨʵ֮أȷܡ

GarciaУ߷Ժ֤ܷǵ֧ԼйݵȨΪƽṹһ͡߷Ժ˵ں֮еĸֳ򱣻ݵȨ档ķ󷨹ٷ߷ԺΪƽṹںij϶ݵȨȨı˾ԵؼȨҪΪʵעGarciaʥ³нͨίԱ᰸LED 2D83ҳ1034죬ЩЧΣʵ֪

ΪֹĴʾƵϵƵšĴеIJԺһݵĹͬᡱa stateshouseδһְǸݣ ѡѡԺԱѡʸԼԱѡٷʽ³Ĵʽƶ֮ΪϸļΪеĿƣų˶طȨЧķӳңΪƧԶڣĴִһеķʽǿڽԼݵһελ

ȷмĴڸݵȨĻӦб塱cooperative federalismĸߣȡݵȨΪԵĴĻǵΪʱڸݶȨ󡣾ͶݵĻ˵ĴͶ󡣲һñѶԸȨṩЧı֤ݡڰĴǣڸݵйزĹ涨ΪݵĻԵơĴ۳Ƕ߾ִСЩ鳣ûʵǵطġڴ˷棬𺦵طΪֹ֧Ϊġʹijһʹǿ˵ĴܷĵǿǵеΪṩ˳ı߷ԺҲᱻݵٲߡݵģԼᣬΪ߷ԺξǷԽܷǵȨþʹЩ齻߷Ժ߷ԺΪ𣬶֮֮ڷյ봦ȴûȨһܷԻش

 

ġ˾ͼظıܷȷƽ

 

ĴǣܷͣliberalinterpretationԺڽܷʱûܷĴ⼰ǵԭּ1985ݴǿ߷ԺڡȨĽ͡һ飬ⳡУԶܷƵ?ϴ󷨹٣߷ԺоõĽԭԭ򡣣עС?Ϸ٣ܷϿɡءʦЭᡷ43 ҳ1

һ˵ָĴܷĵǼȲԤȨ˴ţҲϵݵĵλϣƸһֱΪҪѡôڡDZ˵Ĵܷ涨;Ϊ˾ͣǵþѡ;ݵĴѡȫ񹫾׼һ򡣣עܷ128 ߵĿѡٳȨ͸ͬ飬ĶʮУͨIJע硰1946ܷ񣩡ʩеġȫ񹫾1967ܷԭס񣩡ʩеġԭסȫ񹫾˵˱ŵָءѾظı˾˵ϵɰĴܷȷƽ⡣Щָܷ͵Ĺƺڲ֪䣬ͬһ㣬ʵѶݵĹϵ˸

ֹ۵˲ָĴܷĵϣָΪǿѡͬʱһѹһеĸĿľǸִгȨ֮ĹһбҪȨDzϵܷϣƵһָڵԵȨƽ⣬ûĹ涨ݵĵλȨĸ档ЩͼٶʵشĴܷķʽҪάֵʵʵȨƽ⣬ʵʵݵĹϵϵܷк󲻾õijģģʱʵʴڵ״̬ңӶʵܹ⡢㣬ܶһȷܷʱ

ڣĴֹܷ涨صñӦDzԤľ龳С֮ǣܷʱֺǵͼĽڽ֮⣬ʵ޶ࡣְ֮ʣȻԼʱľ龳ͼֵ½ܷǽܷµķСԴ֮ĴܷһϸصƤ飬Ƶεĺۿܵԭ򡣣עС?Ϸ٣ܷϿɡءʦЭᡷ43ҳ48ķ˹߷Ժ217ҳ3731910

ЩԭڰĴܷ͵ĻܶĹһԭΪܷһԵԱIJϣᷢչӦڱ仯ŵˣ֤ݱһΪխĽܷĿĵʵ֣ Ӧɵģliberal͡ ע಼ú˾άúҵЭ᰸ڷɱ漯6ҳ36781908 ŷ?ϿɭʿĻ˵һڽнͣinterpretaryܷһȷԼһȨԱܱڱ仯ŵ龳Σ֮ߡעĴǺչ˾߰Ĵڷɱ漯71ҳ811945Ů˹ݹڼͥڷɱ漯113ҳ22561964 ŷ?Ͽɭʿ֤Ъ󷨹ڡ޿еۣԶǣڲ͵һܷǰע62ҳ406 200ǰɽ?ܶٱرһ˵

һܷ涨ȨӦΪٽɵĽһ򲢲ȡεضʽȨı߽Ľ綨ȴȡαĿꡣӦԹΣѡ磽ٺʹٽ己ٵֶ˶㷺ӣڸѡЩֶԹ㷺ɲķDZȻġעɽ?ܶ3ҳ455H?࣬1904

ڹ˵һںǣִĸԣóһ廯ij֣ڹԽǿҵӰ죬ҪҵԽԽؽ룬ˣһĽƺʵܷĿꡣ

1.ƶʽͨʽformal rules ofstatutory constriction

ĴܷϵӢ۹ͨһһʵڶȨխĽ͡ȻʱѶ̸ܷȴӢͥõĶһĽ͹򡣣עϿΤͰڷɱ漯1ҳ6301904Լ?ɪķʿܷĽ͡R ?˹ЪࣺĴܷļ19612棩ҳ158µҶٶڡά߰Ĵнˮ˰ڷɱ漯122ҳ39451971ڵʱ֡Ͼ ܷİԺǰӰĴ߷ԺڵаĴǷԺߵԺݸݵܴܡӳȨ־ܷ෴һǿγɵĹ۵ǰĴܷȨԴӢ۹֮Ȩ֮ϡעŷ?Ͽɭʿܷءɼ51ҳ5971935ɽ?ܶ3ҳ455H?࣬1904й˹˾ϰİڷɱ漯145ҳ2092141979 ڰĴ֮Ӣ۹вʹ԰ĴǽȨܡעϿΤͰڷɱ漯1ҳ6301904Լ?ɪķʿܷĽ͡R ?˹ЪࣺĴܷļ19612棩ҳ158µҶٶڡά߰Ĵнˮ˰ڷɱ漯122ҳ39451971ˣ һֱΪһȨڰĴǵĴʵ֮ءעǰע19˾߰Ĵҳ17

1900ġĴܷⲿһϵеܴĴݲ18981899ȫ񹫾ΪܷܵʽܷʽСܷԵһʾݵġ񡱣Ӣcrownش˰еܷ֮¡ϳΪһɷָƹͬ塱ˣĴܷһܷҲͬ־ķӳӦҲ͵þݴ˽н͡

ˣǰֹĴӢIJܷϵڱĴܷΪһԵķɣԴڰĴȨΪһ۵ṩ˸ΪʵĻ1986ġĴǷ1涨 ûκһӢЧӼΪӼĴǣӼijһݻĴǷϵܷ51xxxviiiƶеģ ֱصĸҪڰĴΧڣþʹӢʹܷܺеһȨӢ1985ġĴǷɱΪڰĴЧĿϡעйرĸԵֵ¶ΪʲôĴܷܴ1900ڵԭڰĴǶӰ족ҳ29ꡰڴѧĴǷ۱桷59ҳ591985߿˴δ˾ĴǷ۱桷59ҳ30231985

ܷʱϱΪȨĸݵʽݲͬעڡ߿˹ع˾У߷Ժ299ҳ3171936ɪ󷨹ָе߶ֳصȨһֹͬڸùᡣĸݴûжȨͬɭ󷨹1795꼴ǿָģǣݹȥھΪΪһȨ˹¬᰸߷Ժ3 ҳ801795ĴһҪǰĴǸݲǣҲӲȨݡǰİ޸ֳؼȨ˾ܷΪݡʱԼĵԼߣζDzΪܷİĴеѡconstituentelements

һʹöЩȵǣǹȥһֱǿIJƶĽ͵һԹһģʽ壬ܷ͵Ļܶԭˣ訤ٸ䣬ǵܷӢͨƶĽ͹õ˵

2.ڵIJ

ͳӢģʽȷʵĺ⣬ʲôڵϡı۲ĺ⡣һģʽĿԽѵõ磻˾̬ȵı仯һĽ׼ʷԺʷƶעֿ߰Ĵڷɱ漯148ҳ 2561981ģʽڲá

1975꣬Ĵ߷Ժλ󷨹٣ýֹڵIJ۵Ĺ򣬷ʹðĴܴıΪܷ͵ĸעǰע19˾߰Ĵҳ1747ꡰϤίԱ߰Ĵڷɱ漯1ҳ21341904 ͬʱοĴǺԱЭչ˾ڷɱ漯144ҳ1434 1978߷Ժһֱʹðܷǵܴ׵ʷ׵ǡաͨʹܴ۵DzijλضķߵǷ˴˵ͬʹһЩҲԣһܾܷеķɣʵ˲һ

ijһ߾ΪʲôijһضIJݰܻ֮һ벻ļ͡ߣЩ۾Ϊͥԥõרǵ͵ԭʼϡЩأ֮ڵڲϵӣܿܵ³ܴıۡˣ׼ӣԻõĹ㷺ԡңʹѡԵDzԵĶϽһµġDZֹڽܷ涨ִܴ۵Ŀй

3.һЩܷ1900ĺ

һΪĴһֱõԭǸijһĺصܷ1900ʱеĺ塣עR Ů߰͸񰸡ڷɱ漯1ҳ411904 ˹ڷɱ漯128ҳ2291972ɪǰڷɱ漯122ҳ1771969Ĵ߷ԺŲҪȫ̽һ䷽½ܷеijһԱ1900ֵġȴܷеĸϵ¸עʿݣ˾ʿҵԱЭ᰸ڷɱ漯6ҳ4691908R ŮͣٲίԱ᰸ڷɱ漯107ҳ2671959ڷɱ漯110ҳ3661964ַɾΪѧܵںӶRŮ߰ĴԺڷɱ漯143ҳ2334 1979ɲһƵķ߷Ժϵ̨㲥ơ籨绰Ʒ񡱵ȨΧעRŮ߲˹ڷɱ漯54 ҳ2621935󲿷Ϊ㲥һ֡Ƶķ񡱣 ΪһһͨѶΪǾƵͨѶֶΡ

޳һǣɱӦ仯ŵʵԵıǨı䡣עǰע76רҵʦЭ᰸ҳ267 ȻһӳΪܷ͵ܶĺָ񣬵Ȼ׽ġְ֮ʣܷܳѧң˹?˹ָ֮ڣ٣صԣΪһ־ءע˹?˹Ĵ߷ԺĴܷҳ17ꡰ˹߰Ĵ2ţڷɱ漯112ҳ2371965

4.ǰĽģʽ

ƶʽ淨ļ͵ļԹҲһֱܷ͡һһгƱ߳ζȻò󣬵ڲʽ淨ļĺ巽棬Ǿһ֮ءǣ˵ΪЩǿܷ涨ڹϵ÷ԵĽģʽҪԣ֮߷ԺͳϲԸȻ⣬ʹŰĴǵܷһֱǼˡġ

һӣй÷ģʽȨģŷ?Ͽɭʿǿݼóף˶Դ˷ʽõIJ͡עRŮ߲˹ǰע72ҳ6712 ʿݰڷɱ漯88ҳ38561953ܷ51IݼʺͺóȨ ɲδóȨǣⲢζܷӦнֹӰó׷ɵȨȷӦǣʹκȨʱӰóףֻҪصķȨޡһ֣ʵѹͬ

һǣʱijȨƣһȨǶģͼ߷ԺijȨһֹ۵ΪڻȨڼ໤ϹУȨһڲ飨divorce ־ӣmatrimonialĵطΧĻ˾ϽȨ һ۵Ȼλֲͬķ٣ȴ߷ԺĴܡעڷɱ漯134ҳ511252571976һ۵ڡRŮذٴαأܿ϶ڷɱ漯147ҳ 462 4651980 ƵȨݶһҴ̨ҵĹ˾³̣constitutionʺϣȴΨʺ֮ΪһΣ֮ߵ³̣constitutionijϡ

 

 

߷ԺýͼͬݵȨ½ʽȴͬľи߱λĽģʽܶ½߷ԺڲģʽͬʱȨȴΨΨŵŵþԲþø߱λܷģʽˣ±ءһڸݻ죸죣һˡ

Ϊ߱λĽͽںļֵ£˵ԣ˵˾ǿ˾߹̵Ĺԣңԣˮ׼ҲΪȫ˵һнʹǸõܷԲþԸǣһģʽȻȡõǿܷʶ˾ой˸Ϊ׼ȷʶʵΪСĴۡⷽ棬DzСȨõҪôԺijеķַܷܵȨĻȨشⱣʶ

ʽϸķ͡ԽڵĻƫ룬ؽǿЩΪʹǵо͹ۡϷ͹龫֮ν͹ۡϷ˼ָܸij൱ձԵ׼򣬹ƫеضԴֿǵԣǷȫһԭдļ顣

dz͹ʵһʵѡ˵޷һһͬоʱӦЧ߷ԺһԶsingle majorityһsingle minorityоȻ˲Ը֧ijһĴ߷Ժȷƫоindividual judgmentsһ³ĴǴͳ߷Ժоϯоjoint judgmentıϹȥҪߵöࡣһԴʰɣ˵дƴжࡣǣijЩУϸزһζЭԭ򡣵һоsingle judgmentоtwo judgment ƵЭԭԣԣЩԺļþԺĸ˵һȽϵķɴҵǣȱԶ׼ġǣ߷ԺѲϸеһ뵥һˡ

˵ǣΪ٣Ӧ̹Уоƽ˼ǵĽģʦۿεϰǰɴΪˣǿ˾ЭϣҲͿ˵Զ۵Ķţʹ߷ԺоȷԽһֱԶȥ⣬ȴڶڸؽԶƽ˼Ǻġ