ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 

 

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M.ܶMiklos Marschall
ӽ[]

ʦѧ ѧԺ 300073

죬ѾΪȫιעġǽȫʹٽȨչǡǵδЩǻۡϡִŵĹС

ڡ繫ˡCIVICUS1993ĹԷ֯ĵһ>(Washington, DE:CIVICUS, 1994.)У˹̹ǣRajesh Tandon׸Ƕ Miguel Darcy һܹشȫ̡20͵ĺ20꣬ʤȫԡԼطԹ֯

20Ŀ̫ʶ̬Щʶ̬빫ἰݣcitizenshipļֵ롣һЩչʹǵõЩİοǿ»϶ɴĴ˶mass manipulations20ͣѾ빫Ŀǰ˱ˡΪѪȵͻһϲԵĽ֡𣿲Ȼǻɱֹ۵ġ

ΪǴϵԼͻķʽƺڷ仯һشתѾڸֲεĹȫġġҵطµġǹҡ塪Ĺ֯ѾΪdz֮ΪijƶȲɻȱһ֡ⷽʽı仯ԼתǾԺַʽʼһǧó̵˹ע֮һ

ʲôgovernanceأǸ˺ͻĺ˽˵ģΪʵֹĿ꣬ճ񡢵ԴȨķʽܺ͡1ͻԴٽij͹2ͨǿغʹٽ˳ӡͷ˳ӵƶȺƣ3ʽ֯ţں֯һͬԸӵķʽ֯š

ǿڵطȫ֯ճijƶȺͰŶԼٶʽת䡣תҪҪȫ򻯡ϢͨѶԼ硢淶͵¡

ȫԼͨѶϢĸΪȨҵƴ˷츲صı仯ҵȨΪȨΪʹϵеΨһʸѾԵʵT. ˹MathewsڡȨת䡷Foreign Affairs,1997.1/2.˵

ȫ򻯾ɥʧȨΪȨĵΡἰȫҲҵš֯͸ֹ壨ҲƷ֯NGOָȨ1648Ǻƽ˶Peace of Westphaliaʼȹ̵Ĺ뼯ȨʱĽ

˹Ĺ۵㣬ҹ̶ĵ뵱ġԡ nonterritorial nature֮ijͻǿҵԤʾŹҵȨ


ֱӰճĸԵùӴ޾ϸǣк͵Ϊ׼ʵ壨quasi-autonomous entitiesΪľ߽гطҪǵˣطΪṩʹ˴Ĺ档

ڵطȫչʵϴһʷǰȨֻ̣Ȩɢ塢֯ͷ֯(NGO)Сʵϣһ״ᣨnetwork societyڣУͳĵȼṹõ޲ߴij̶ֳڱһ״ġˮƽľ߽ṹȡ T.˹˵粻ʹ˴߻ĵλá෴ཻ㣬ʹø˾ۺϳڲͬĿȺ廥֯(CSO)Ժáݶ뻺ĹŻȾ൱ơͨԵѸжܹ֯Ʒȡƣùۡˣãҹ⣬òˮƽ磨policy networkijһгòطš漯šְҵְҵԼطҵ֯һƬȫҲˣƶȫůûڶĹʷ֧֣֯ûκҪȫԵõ ⣬һϵйͬļֵ淶׼ԼձȨΪ־ȫglobal ethic¶ɽһǡȨŮȨɵȼֵͳһ׼֮ȷΪܣʷǰδеġǿȨȻңһʵҲDZѰҵҲãҲգһǵΪΥЩ׼ٻеκͲʹܹۡͬļֵͱ׼ȫý崫Ϊ֯ԱѾΪεĺĶ ǵļ԰
½ɫͲBenjamin Barber ѹΪǵļ԰the place for us:

һأ˽гͳߣͨͥ䡢̻ĹͬжΪԼΪߵĶظΪͳ߳Աij֮ϵĵֱǹг

һ°ͲкǵҪأÿҪض⹫빦ܶҪģ1־ԸɻεĿռ䣻2ṩ֮Ĺͨ3ͨЩнṹ˳Ϊ4֯ɿռ԰ǵĶԪݣһͬʱߡͥԱ͹񣩣5нԽḻԽϸԽԪԹԽ

ͲһҪ۵㣺 civic life Ȳͬǵ˽ʱֻһߺߣҲͬڹʱֻͨͶƱȡȨͲġǵļ԰ζ˽˵ģҲǹģǹģcivicռṩΪֱӡΪСΪ־õIJ룬ȴͳĹεIJŸʵظǵ

֪һ־ӵƶȰź໥ṹIJԶĴڸע⡣ʱΪӦӲΪ۹עĽ㡣ֻеȱʧʱDzʶҪΪʲôϷǡɱȹҵΪҪṩǿ֤ԭΪЩҵĹΪ20ǰܵ𺦡

һ󵨵ġġǸθΪǷǸģDz˵Ǵ󵨵ġġսΣ׼ġеģ롣ʵеǹΣcivic politicsһֵͣΣսεĶ֮Խ˴ͳĶԪ˼άʽں߿䶼Ͳ----ҪôǣҪôǡʱӢʥ۸ʵأMahatma Gandhi·¡ Martin Luther King ɶѷNelson Mandelaߴ򡤹άVaclav HavelԼ˾ٺò֤Щ20͵Ĺμ֮쵼ߵʷ̨Ϊܰѡҡ¾

ǵļ԰80Сŷ˹ЩֲͬߴϢˣMichnikάHavel Kundera £Konrad޷Sakharovȡ֪ǵˣAdam Michnik ˵ЩҹDZˣջʹDZӼ̡ҵĹ۵ǣͨһЩֵͷʽľ񡢿ݵƷʡĬ̵ķԼͬѰķʽ

֯ǿ
ȻҲòֱԲ˵᲻ҲӦñʥ뻯Ҳϲ̸ʱʹõ׼ʽԡҲκΪţָгߵԽԵţЩɹ֯򳫵ҸԣͬƺȺ嶼ԡᡱһνٲȻΪöĴʡһҲͬʵڹ֯ϡκΪ֯С˫ࡱdouble purityȨǽǮܸ֯뷨ޱȵġʵһЩ֯ҲǸܵġȻⲢʹ֯ڵطȫݵҪĽɫܵɡһģҪʵؿᡣ ôڹ֯ɫԣЩǿƣЩأҵ֯ȣЩƶЩأȿƣɡšϷʵڡreal-worldhands-on experienceͿݡ

֪봴ϢϢء֯ƶȡͳͳˣ֯ͶʡԲǰҵͳ൱յĹ̡бҪǿԱЩѡٲԱʱصƹ۵ѹϾЩԱҪܵѡѡӰ졣Ѱ֮ĺĴϣ֯ԡɲʵǾǣ֯ӵ֮𣬾ĿĽϵһܹ֯ЧؼǵԴǵĿ꣬Эԡһͼѡٳɹμȴʱ޿̲ѰԺ͵ͣ໥Ѱƽ⡣

Ϸ

ھƶһЩΪмֵ⣬֯Ӯ˹ڵΣڱҲѡ֯ҵӰֶʹڲЭĵְҵȨӵнϸߵ㡣һЩĻ⡪ΥȨȾڿܸڴӶĹ֯ҵǶùϢΪעijˡʵ⻹ָͼලҵ棬ְ֯ҵ͵ϵȨҲơȻǶ֪ǶôĴСӮһҪ֯IJиŬֻһССʧʹ书

ʵڡ롰

ǶԹҵչԣӵȺڻĹ֯ҵ֯ɶõĺߡ˫ڵطͶʷ֮ҪĹͨ֯ṩһչ͸ĻƣĽչõķáӵеطĹ֯ԶԱԷչԭõıԴ

ƾϢԼ桢ʹϢ֯ѾԶ׼ġԱ۵ľ޴ʵϣϢ빫֯繵ͨˮƽʽ֮ѾʵĶԽӡ¼İ£ʵvirtual communityˣԽ˵κĻı߽磬ΧϵκνǡжңԶѸٵؾעĻչ̸֯Ҫȷȫ򣨺͵طеλҪԴ

Ȼìܵǣ֯ǿҲɳΪơɡݿʹǵճࡢЧҲΡʹѡֵ֧ȷ⣬ǰԣЩǡǡʮҪġ
ʹmandateΣgood governanceĵ֮ʯ֯֯κڹξĹ֯ȷ㣺ǵʹʲôҪ˭

ͨμҺͬǵĻشǡ񡱡һ㻯Ļش𡪡áֳνٵġģҲ˹֯ĿŶȺԡ⣬ЩᷨʾμҺ͹Աܡ񡱣ϽڵϵڹҡǶһЩԱĸ벻ΪĿ꣬һ㻯ĻشDzʵġ ǶԴԼϢϢIJһ䣬Ƕ֮أءġΡƵᡰΡ֮һƣ໥䣬ֳ뱾ͳԷĺϷԣҪӴá

֮ᲢһµѧʱУһʵڹеĺϷͽڴˡ֮֯ϷΪǴŹԱǹЧļֵԼעĻⶼʹ֮Ȼֵʵʹ˽˲ź͡ᡱpolitical societyǹͻĹס

Աͬ֯쵼߲ѡ𡣾ǵʹDzΪеĴҪȨѡġɡͿռ䣬Щǹ֯еġԽԡü򵥵Ļ˵Ҫ֯Ϊǡ񡱣Ϊͨǣǿ԰øá졣

̹ʵ˵ΪʲôҶһЩ硰ᡱpeople`s Assemblyһ롰ϹᡱUnited Nations General AssemblyԵơеġ顪֮Ĺֱ̬ȵԭҲԹҺ͵طġᡱCivil parliamentsֻ̬ȣġԺcivil chamberĹصĺΪЩ˹ʡDzͨƵνṹʹνṹӶƻ˴ƶȡƽѡ١ͽЧΪж壨civic activismȡ

֯ȱ
Ұ

֯ڶ͹עܵһֻͨһǿҵжʹж־жǹܹҪԴĿִܲܶÿһΪ̶ȲͬӰ졣ʱͬһּȴܵһ롱tunnel visionӶ谭ijڷչȣָеһĿģĹ֯ı׼ǿǷӰǵ档ǰ˹ľdzȷһУĽк͸˶Դǿ֮᲻һdzƽᡣ һ飬ŲƶȵֻڶԪļֵȡжھ󣬲ǶԵǶȫ˵ⶼٵսСȫΧҪȷԪͰݣѺʹ໯

ȱʧ

ϲDzòȨɡΡ˵ԱӦöǵѡҵӦöǵĹɶô쵼ָ˭أǺ׾ͻش𣬹֯Ӧǵġɶе񡣵Ǿ˭أȻǿһЩľߺԵĴ𰸣繫֯Ϊ֮һְԱϻˡԱͶԼȣ֪֯ǵġɶ֮Ĺϵʵ̫ɢˣȷμ빫˾ǵ֧θΪֱӡܺͼʱˣ빫֯Ա֯ΪӰȣѡɶҵ֯Ϊи֧ԼεIJͬʷӳҵ֯͹֯IJͬɫ͹ܡ֯Ȼġκ蹵÷ͨȫ͸ͽϸˮƽڵΡ Գ־

֯еĸʧʺͶڴͻ׼򡢿ŶȡԺȶԵȡ˵֯һ⡣µʽʮҪģ֯ʱòһЩԼСǣάֹ֯ij־÷չܻܿᱻΪһ򵥵ĺϻˡ µ
˵DZزٺֵƶȣѾһʱѲר쵼ڵֱӶԻʷ֯磬µIJߵIJϳַӳ˹ǵµʽȤһչ ʹӺ;ϸϰ߽ȨȼԵᄈУڣҪƽᄈáµܵǺͳ֪ࡣôһ90ڳֵһЩƶȺͳӵУ

1غͳϹԼijԱ֯֯(WHO)͹֯(ILO)ԭܻ(IAEA)Ϲͯ(UNICEF)׶ɭ֯Сһ֯ȵȣ

2вεó֯(WTO);ú뷢չ֯(OECD)

3Сξ񡱺͹ʱ׼Ĺʻ巨ͥ纣Ĺʷͥ

4ЭԼ̸硶仯ľЭ

5ʸ߹ٷᣬϹ뷢չ飨Լ¬籾ġᡱ

6Ĵͳϵĵ֯޹֯(OAS)

7˾Լǵˡ̸ά˹羭̸ᣨDWEF

8ʷ֯֯ɫƽ֯

9͵طµ˶

10Լͻʽ쵼ڵļ(town hall meetings)̸ᡢԲʵίԱ᣻

11⣻ѡ飬ͶƱ

12֯֯ᳫߡ˶Ӫ

ĸ
199938գΪԸŮıϹŮչᣨUNIFFMϹ־ٰˡ緶ΧԸŮĶ߻顣˫ʵתӡȡǡīͱʱȨҺ;Աѧߺýһһش߷򡢱ʵʩIJԼԸŮһЩɹٴ롣λȫʽģصǶΪһӲС뺯˵ʹĿáЩսڵһߵǺЩӰκ;ξϺͬѰ緶ΧԸŮıġصĹڶͨµķʽ룺Ƶϵͳǹ㲥

λ麭˵ȫȫҪأ1ΪעҪ⣻2ȫ3׼ȡжĹң4ʹȫԻΪܵͨѶ


һ׷ӵ磬ǵѡȨͿɹѡѾˡǸ˵ģǼġϵĹƵһǰҪλáͬʱΪΪҲûнڲΪõŬ

ȨƺǰʡһЩµƶҲдڷ򡣲һʵȴǧȷģȨĹҵ֯Ավ־һµʱ١Dz֪µȨƻʲôӣҲ֪ʲôƶȡͷһ蹫Ȩ֪ǣʷǰδеġ򡱵IJȨӢֻdzǧǻۡԾԾĹ

Ǹ嵥һdzӵĻṹԿԽš͵ȼ䷶Χ֮㡢ͷ֮2030ǰġ൱һʱŵķֻȨ޵ķΪ뵱Ȼ飬ȴڵǵҰλӡӡ硣

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[] ѡԡĩĹᡷCivil Society At The Millennium, West Hartford: Kumarian Press, 1999M.ܶ1953ѧߡμҺҡ

[] [߼] ӽѣ1976-УˣʦѧѧԺʿ˼ʷѧ۵о