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et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis

 


¹ѡƶȶεӰ



ժҪ:ڲѡƵһ㺬͵Ļ,κʱںս¹ͬѡƶȶƶȺIJͬӰ졣

 

ؼ:¹;ѡ;

 

 

ѡơƺε֧ͨڰŵľѡѡձΪͱ׼,,ѡƶȻõĻԵλʮͳ,ҪҵԱͲƲƺ,ﵽȡѡȨԤĿ,ǶѡƶȵĹעҲѡȨתѡٳ⡣ѡƵIJͬѡ໥--һѡƺͱ,ͼƶȷֻIJͬͻ̶Լκȶѧоռŵλâڡ¹κ깲͹սʷΪһоṩķزġĵͼڴѡƵһнϵ¹ʷ˵ͬѡٰӰ¹νṹͽ̡˵δѡ,ͬƶѡι̺ĿȻĽ

 

 

һѡƵһ㺭

 

 

ѡָѡ֮Ĺϵ⡣һΪһѡʱ,ߵĹϵͺܼ,ɫкͲӡֹ-ѡģʽֻСпСڴһЩĹ,ձDzõ-ѡģʽ,ѹҰһ׼ΪҲСĵΪѡʱ,ѡ֮ĹϵѡĽǶȿ,ָһѡвһǶ;ӴĽǶȿ,ָƽڸѡǰйع,ͬһ塣෨ǰΪ׼,ֻ:ѡƺͱơ

 

 

һѡ

 

 

ѡ(single-member district)ָ:һѡֻһ;ѡֻԶƱһܽߵĵƱȫΪвѡΪѡĴƶҲΪ"(plurality system)""ʤȫ"Ӣʵֵ͵ĵѡơ

 

 

ѡƵľ,ֻѡڻһĺѡ˲ȫȨѡ,ʹõһܽӽĵڶƱ,һôҲûСƶȱΪʹ˶漯źΪ,γơΪڶ൳ֻһʤĹ,ʧܵʶ˴϶һεѡ,ҲΪͬԭȺϲȻܹƶ´,ûжٻʤĻ,ֻΪķȺѹڡ"Ʊѧ(wasted votepsy cholgy)"һʴ˵С֧,˵Щܻ֧һСΪ,ǵӮʤ,ΪʹѡƱ,Ǿתѡһ̫ԵƶӢɵ˥䡣ѡƾһЩŵ㡣͵Ҫ󵳻ϵĻ,ӶƼijɳڶ,ڵĹ۵һߢ,м·ߵ˾Ӷ,ͼҶ,κƫ۵ѡ¶òֶ֧ɨسšļ,һһռݶ,˳ֵıҪ,ȶͨγһȶ,ʹͳαøס

 

 

,ʤȫõĵѡҲԵȱ,һЩΪɫʵĶ,ʧܵʹ49%ѡƱҲòκδȨ,ѡٵʤʧܶ,ڵΪƽԿƶʵ׼ȷطӳڹ۵ж̶ȵ,ѡƴм·ߵԭΪӮôмѡƱ,Ƶ,ѡֶѡ,Ȼȫȴζۡ

 

 

()

 

 

(portionalrep resentation,)뷨,һȫѡеĵƱ,Ӧϯı,Ӷﵽϯķʵ׼ȷطӳѡеۺҳϷֲ״ĿꡣƶȽڶѡĻ,һѡжϯ,ڸõѡƱӦϯλһһ10ϯѡл60%ѡƱ,ͻϯ,ɱǰλĺѡռݡ10%ѡƱֻһϯ,ɱһѡռݡʵҪӵö,Ϊȷ,ҪķмһǺڶ㷨"",һǵº(D'Hondt)ƻ"",ַСϯԴûԵĺôܡ

 

 

ƵŵϯΪ׼ȷطӳ˹ʵǿȷѵĵԭм·,ҲȷıϺѡһСԴлһϯλ,ȴرϲԼĹ۵㡣

 

 

ƸСӶѡͨƶ,,߷ܴ,еһռȶ,Ҫ֯һмˡ˾ȶҲشγɾ,ӶƵĵ,Ҳڼ١

 

 

()

 

 

ѡڷ˱仯ʵͶƱ,ڵһ,ѡ˱þԶ(50%)ܵѡһûѡ,ֻѻ12.5%ѡƱĺѡ˲ܽڶ־ѡ,һֻԼ򵥶Ӯѡ١ְűΪ"ʤĵѡ"ݡصǵһμӾѡ,˶൳Ƶں,ڶ־ѡΧʹϲȡһֱֶӽеڶֵĻ,ͻʹγ,úӢһ

 

 

ս¹չһֽѡƺͱϵĻѡѡԺƶȵֱӰDz뵳ƺͼȶ,ǶͲȶκ----ѡıƵش

 

 

κ깲͹ıƶεӰ

 

 

(һ)ƵܷԹ涨

 

 

һսĵ־͹ܷκƶֳΪκ깲͹κܷΪԺ,ԺԱɸ,ѡ,涨ȫΪһѡ,ȫΧڰƾϯ,ǰ̸,ֹ涨С,ʹڶСܹᡣ

 

 

κܷñƻϿ˵ǶԵʱ¹ʵһֻӦ¹ųڵķʷ,ͳһʷ൱,طһֱͳһȨӰ졣ڵڶ۹ڼ,¹һ൳桢ơ¹һսʧܺ,ì,ͼŷ׷,һ淴ӳ˵¹ṹ͹۷ֲ,һҲǿ˶൳ľ档

 

 

()ƶƺȶӰ

 

 

κʱ(1919-1933),¹Сһٶ,ܾжʮҪ־񵳡뵳־񵳺¹˵(ɴ⵳)ȡ򼫲һ,ӼҡСмɵɺͼɶСЩСȷ,ȴһСطС,ֻҪ޶ȵ֧־Ϳȡһϯλʱĵ¹Ҳûγɹ۵,طǿ󡣶ǿ,ʤȫƶΪ˽ϳǿĹ۵,ΪDzȡˡ,κʱڵ¹ṹһ൳Э"ѵ"

 

 

һЩѧָ,С,ֱƶȵķ,յڸȶڶԴ˵оʾһDZڵģʽ:ѵƶ-ʶ̬ϵļ-ڸIJȶ-ı,ѧ,һЩڶսǰڵŷƵʧ,ͨʵһ򵥵սԶתƵ,ǽӵıƸΪѡơʹһЩС˶ȡȨĹ,ӮöҪѡϵ֧,ǿͨȡߡҲΪ"ͽ",һ,ԳΪеľЩСܻǼ˵,Լ׼ΪûʲЭıҪ

 

 

κʱ,ͨ󵳺һС,ûһܻþԶ,ȫϯλʮϷ֡͹ǿ,ܵĪ˹ߵӰܾǰߺ,ΪԵ,ֻͬССͿеҪְ,ǿöķɴȴûл,Сñɱˡһ,ֱ,شڴһ,ڸ󾭳λĸҸŶ,ͬƵ໥,Ϊͽij,ȴܻȶƵƵ,κ깲͹εͼ1918굽1928,κ깲͹ʮ1930,һѡ̨,͹һֱڽ״̬д,ֱ1933ɴ̨

 

 

ɴ⵳Ϊ,1919ֻһĬĬŵġصС,ȴڱƹСѵ"ƶȶ"׳1928,䵳ԱΪ10,1931򳬹801930ѡ,ɴ⵳ϯԭ12ϯ108ϯ,1932230ϯ,Ϊеһ󵳡19333µѡ,ɴ⵳ѡƱ17,277,000,ϯ288ϯ,ռȫϯ43.9%,Ļ鵳õ8%ѡƱ,ѽӽ52%ʹϣڹ˶֧֡ɴ⵳̨֤˱"ƶȱ"

 

 

ս¹ĻѡƼεӰ

 

 

(һ)ԻѡƵܷԹ涨

 

 

־͹¹ܷ涨ҵΪԺԺ,ѡֻԺнСͳһ,ϯȷΪ656ϯ,328ѡѡ

 

 

սؽ,500֯Ҫ,150ݡ¹˼ȲԸͨͬԸĿ,κʱ׵µܵ,ֻͨɺܷݵķʽֹƵٴʧܡǽѡƶش,ƹҵĵѡƲƻ,γһ͵ѡ---ơ

 

 

ƵҪ֮,656ϯƽȷΪ,һֵ328ϯλѡֱͶƱѡ,ÿһѡһϯ,ɵƱһ˻(һ),ǵ͵ĵ,ΪһƱ;328ϯλѡͶμӾѡ,ƱıһϯλԼԱ,ΪڶƱڷʱ,ӦȼȥõڵһƱѾѡϯλ,ijڵڶƱл50%ѡƱ,656ϯ,Ӧ328ϯ,õĺѡڵһƱ200˵ѡ,õڵڶƱֵֻܷ128ϯõڵһƱȫ328ϯ,ʹڵڶƱеõ50%ѡƱ,Ҳٷֵϯλ50%,ȷ˵60%ĵڶƱ,ſ԰һϯķ,ɵ66ϯ,õܹеϯλ394ϯ,еȫɵڶƱ,ҲͶһƱ,ϯλǺѡƱɱġ

 

 

Ϊ˾ټСԺ,1967ƶġµĹ涨ڱϽɵһԭ,Ҫ֯ԭ,ֹͼΣͷϳѡٷ,涨5%ѡƱſڵڶƱлϯλ"ż"

 

 

()ѡƶԵ¹εӰ

 

 

¹˶Զ൳Ƶƫֲڵ¹õʷĻʹͳ,˵¹ĻҪ,ͼõ¹˷һͽ͵ġҲСķٴγκ깲͹ľơ¹˵Ԥʩ:һ,涨ʼ㲻ͬɵ,ҲǷɵ,ʹκμû֮;ڶ,ӢʽĵѡԺеһ,ֵƫ̻С򲢳žۺƶȷչ,Ӷһȶγ;,5%ż,һСĿԡǰĹ涨,Ϊʶ̬һ۵,Ƶľǰ졣ֻһĹ涨ǸԵ,ûﵽ5%ѡƱͱлõڶƱϯλ1949һδѡ,һָ"һ"Ʊ5%,,11,֮ѡٷΪ"ȫµƱ"дﲻ5%IJܲڶƱϯλķ,1953ٵ6,1957һٵ4,1961Ϊ3˺,ܹפԺһֱֻ3,ֱ1983̵ͻ5%

 

 

1966-1969Ĵʱ(Grand Coalition),Щ취ɹ˶Լ˵%D%D(National Democratic Party, NDP)ľѡ֧֡쵼ߺ֧ǰɴ,֧ҪһСũ;ũеͽײԼֹҵ,ǶҲ˼ҵıۡĽǶNDP֧ʴδ8%Ѹ»,ʱڽ,NDPҲҲ޷һ־ѡˡ

 

 

Щ,Сδʵʧ,ֻDzڱ׵ؽ,ռһϯʾڡСִҪȨ,ͱ븶ӱŬ̵(DieGrunen),һ"",һȷʶ̬еΪе(1983)Ĵѡ,õͻ5%,,Ϊ¹ĵĴ󵳡1990,̵ܵش,1994־,7.3%ĵƱʺ49ϯľѡطᡣһС嵳(the Partyof Democratic Socialism, PDS)򱻳Ϊ""(RedSocks),ҲǿռһЩϯλ,19944ѡлʤӮ30ϯλȻЩСɵĴڲδû˶ƾСЭ,෴,ѡƵش仯Ϊ¹Ƴ׼ģʽչṩԭ

 

 

ѡƶԵ¹βԵӰ֮һƴӷۺƵݽ,Ҳѧdzƺ׼ƻ뵳ơ6080ĩ,ԺĴԼ90%ѡƱϯλ,ǷֱĻ(the Christian Democratic Union)(the Christian Social Union)ɵ"˵(CDU/CSU)"(Social Democrats, SPD),%D%D(Free Democratic Party, FDP)ӵ10%ѡƱϯλ뵳ά˶ʮ,ΪһؼС,һֱзƽá80,̵,״仯,γ󵳡Сĵ֡

 

 

Ӱĵڶȶһȶ뵳Ʊṹȶ,CDU/CSUSPDԵѡƱϯԳ50%(ֻ1959ֹһ),FDP̫"",ȱһԭ͸,Ҳδó13%֧,ϯλԱ---ڵ,ᱻ߳ᡣٵѡ,߽FDPγȨ,ʹԼΪԵ19491966,˵,һֱѳֵ¹1966-1969,˵ɴŽս17Ұʷ1969,ϻ˵,1982,ᵳ̨,˵ٴЯȨֱ1998,ڸѡ̨֮,ִ,벻""ٵ֧֡¹ǰ16о13ļˡȻ,ûʶ̬İSPDҲCDU/CSU˵Ⱦ

 

 

ս50,¹൱ߵȶԡֻ1982,һ˵ʩ"ԲͶƱ"ڶ̨¼ܷͶƱ൱ϸĹ涨һ򻯡ȹ̵ƹͬٳļǿ̬:ᷢìʱ,,ᱻɢ

 

 

ӰҪԭ"""ȫλ(catchallparty)"ת¹ѧҰСϣĬ(CDU/CSU),ʶ̬ɫ˵,ӵʱͬʱ,ҲҪḣ,Ž̵Ĺ˽ײеӵߡ䳤ִս󾭼÷,ѡеõвͬͼŵĹ㷺֧֡Ϊͳ˼ʶ̬İ,֧һֱ40%ǻ,ֱ1959,İظ˹ʹ"ͳ"˼崫ͳֵͳһʤ(1998)Ȼм""ȴģѡ󵳾ѵij,ѡƱѱ̵ʳ̵ǰҲԵʶֹ̬,""ڻʶ̬۵Ķ˵֧֡

 

 

ͳһ,һͬչ19909º϶Ϊһ,֮»10ºϲģȷм·µĽǸȶ׼ƺ͸ȶ

 

 

ٲμMaurice Duverger, Political Parties,Edition3( London: Methuen,1964), pp.55-206.˹Ү:Ƚѧ,ij,2001,36ҳ

 

Ī˹ΤȶѡƶƶȵĹϵ˾о

 

˶˹:οѧ,ij,2001,275ҳ

 

ͬ,158ҳ

 

ͬ,276ҳ

 

˹ҮȽѧij,2001,63ҳ

 

˶˹οѧij,2001,276ҳ

 

ƶȻΪѵĺ;ۺϵ͡

 

Andrew Milnor, Elections and Political Stability (Boston: Little Brown, 1969). Giovanni Sartori, Parties and Party Systems, Vol.1 (NewYork: Canbridge University Press,1976) p p. 85-131.

 

۲μMaurice Duverger, Political Parties, Eition3( London: Methuen, 1964).ΤȰΪȺ͡ɲͺͽԵ

 

ٲμGiovanni Sartori, Partiesand Party Systems, Vol.1( New York: Canbridge University Press,1976)

 

ڹ"ԲͶƱ"μХԭƶʷߵȽ,2000,321ҳָЩҪھѡ齨ʱòǵ

 

Otto Kirchheimer,"Germany: The Vanishing Opposition," RobertA. Dahl Political Oppositions in Western Democracies( New Haven, CT:Yale Unversity Press,1966).

 

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