ΩԸƽˮʹ罭ϣ
et revelabitur quasi aqua iudicium et iustitia quasi torrens fortis



ŵܷĹ

׿˹

ڹȥʮаϱΪ߷ԺĴ󷨹ٵУһλ׼֤ϱԺ˾ίԱʼǷšŵܷ[1]ɲһ׻ش⣻ŵܷΪԻIJ׼ȷԶΪƽƯ¡

ҹǵĵһӦڰͬϵʶ̬ϵľ޴ϵŵܷòƱĶ桰ȥܷãֻһЩʬ˲Ųָܹͬһо˾ȥȫΧڵ鹫ܷӦǡŵġǡȥġĿʣ˵Ļشڡŵܷ

߷Ժ󷨹ٵıߵ׼֤϶ֵһʵĻôʣҲӦֵǴӳԽϵķΧȥĹ۵ȷģķ˹󷨹ԣԭܾ尸[2]ٵ˼尸ķ

ױǴѧѧԺ1927һΪŵܷ[3]飬Ү³ѧԺ˽Ҳڲ˴󷨹ֻĸΪŵܷͷԺĽɫ[4]ҵ۶λѧ߶ԶǹƽģǶûͼȥŵܷһȫĶ塣Ǹ̫򵥣ԲȥԶ˼

һ˼ڰ֮ǰɻķ˹󷨹ٱǾĴУMissouri v. Holland[5]˵Ǵ漰֯ʱ˵ܷDZʶЩڷչвܻЩչ仯ǽܳҲ޷Ԥġ߶ԣʶϣǴ˳ξѾ㹻ˣʵϣھһ͵ʱͺĺˮѪ֮󣬲֤Ǵһҡ[6]ҰֶڡŵܷĽΪķ˹Ĺ۵㣬û˻ᷴԡ

ܷƶǵ˿ԣЩԵ񽻸˼һˣʹܹӦIJϱ仯ĻЩݡò׼ս[7]ͬһֱǡسΪҳ[8]ƶʮΪһЩرΪܷʱûг֣ûܹƳһķϱ仯񣬲ζܷеĿԲܱÿԵĵطΪԺܷͨʹDzԤİ˳ֵĿռ䡣

ҵͼУһע⵽ˡŵܷĵڶںȻĻķ˹Ĺ۵ȻͬҲְַҵܡֹһ۳ıһԺժҪǸժҪݵıǼΥܷǴڷԺΪطǵΡɢȺһҪõԺر𱣻Ϊ֧޷ԺڵĵºĺǵִȨ⣬棩ΥܷΪDz̵ġ

ǿһòƸΪǿܷȻֶڴܷߵԺͼһϵмֵе滻û̫ԴʣȷּժҪ߶ڡܷļǣdzѡ˾ؿʹȥ⣬ΪûȥܾЩ٣ѡDzܸκΣȴȻǡĺ¡

ֻһѡٺѡ˽Ȱ˵ͶƱ׼ܷĿںţôԡŵܷһʵ뾫ϸķԵûбҪȻһDZڵѧ˾غ˾˾ʱҪ΢ιϵϤ˾ԭʣԺڽܷʱȨȥصΪЧǰΪЩΥܷijЩʹˣһЩ˼˾˶ʶ˾鱾з뷴һԴΪٵĹ滹ҪһЩɡ

ѧϰɵˣԼûѧɵ˶ϤЪMarbury v. Madison[9]ж˾ľ绤ҽҪּҷdzͬЪĹ۵㣬Ϊһķ˹ġŵܷĹһ£һΪժҪߵĹ۵ⲿơ

Ъ˵ȨԴȷǹᣬǸݣ߷ԺȨԴܷͨԺܷǰԭȫǵȨIJͬšijЩȨЩûȨڸԼ嵽ĸֱ֧ͳ˾ضȨڡȨУΪضĸȨַ˱ӽӽƸݵȨܷĵʮʮġʮС

⣬Ъ˵ѡ֧ءͳܷȨķΧ£ôǵж϶ǷԺжռͳελЩ֧ԽܷȨķΧ˵ͳ͹ַܷĸȨ£Ϊܷս͵ԺʱԺȿܷΪ

ԼЪΪ˾ıʹܷ˾ǿɱģȫϺҪġΪٽܽƶܷDZǶĺͿ͹۵ġܷ׼ϸС仯ֻҪܷʽͲܸıܷĺ塣һʱĶɵ仯ҲֹܷЩܷԱȨ

ЪĽͰ̹ؾƵijɷ֣ܷʷijڷչܷĴ󲿷IJǾ己ı˿ĴǡȻܷеĿǶԣʵǻвͬ⣻һɿʱκηٵľں̶ܴȡԼܷѧȻǻdzҲЪ˾ı֮У־ڷѡķʹ˾ȨıҲΨһѧ͵ġ

Ъ׫дﰸǻؼǵ1787㼯ڷѳǵǵļۣҲܹʮ׼ܷʱıۡЩ1787һ׼ܷ[10]ļһֱ1790̵޵µռ[11]ЩԶԶԽ˹ͨʱۣܴͨͨеĹ߹໥Эı֡ˡֹܷڸݵ׼[12]ŦԼԿֶΪķ˽ܶٺѷΪܷ绤ĽܳŬļ[13]1803׫дѷЪ˵䵽ʮǰʮݵıۣʹȷܷҲʵǷԴĻ¡

˻ע⵽ͨ֯ǰᵽǸժҪ߹ ŵܷĹ۵롣ժҪߵĹ۵ƺǽĻ֮ϣ٣˵еķ٣ǶԴڵ־൱ĶڴʱӵԼĽɫȻһǸ˷ԺΥܵȨij̶ֳҪֵܷͨϵЩʹ˾Ȩ˾رֳһȻͬĿǽԼػ෴ǻ˵سΪһСӵƲְȥᡢغݵԱԤʲôڹҶõġɣһ֧ûڵɣһ֧ȥʮݵͨķɵ߻ȱɡʹһЩ˲ͬϵĹ۵㣬ôء֧ԱҲҪѡѡٲǸ֧һȷʵҪһίԱ鹤ôҲҪ鱣ϵijԱ߾ѡ٣ǵһޣֻоѡԱѡIJԺȷϲְ

ժҪ߹ڡŵܷĹ˳ֱӱ෴Ż¡ַͬıһ˵ԳĺΪ俪ˣΪʲôҪαƳܷеĿǾпȷݣϾЩҲֲͬǶ֪ϯ󷨹˹۶ϣǴܷͳ֮£ܷʲôɷ˵㡣[14]Ƕ֪ЪΪ˾ı֮ڲϷչȴҪʿɶֹκξڹѧַᷢߵͼЩͼʲôܷۡ˿ĴǣԷӦúԥʹܷڽִʱϢϢأࡣժҪ߹ڡŵܷĹԤеĽۡ

ȻժҪ߹ڡŵܷĹٴصȱݡһܷıʣܷʹôѡٵ֧˾֧ȥʹʱڶժҪߵĹ߷ԺڹȥIJʹʱҲŷŵܷӦðеġʱֵĹ۵㡣ܶժҪ߶ԣƽijЩĿش壬ǽġѡ˾ضԶ޷˽ܵġ

ڷĶ˵ڷѳǣܻ飩ϵı֮ҺѵóнۣͼʹܷΪҪٵṩֳɵĴ𰸡ʵϣݵܷȷ˲ȷԣԸԭڿǽڽȨͳ¡֧Ϊṩ˶г棻ӵд֧ȥδֵܳڶʽ⡣ͨȨԸȨȷȷʩơȻЩƱδδ⣬෴DZȷѡ֧ͼʱԽЩơ

Ȼս[15]ҪǶȨʩƣЩΪ˷ֹЩĸݶ½ŵ˽ӺʩӲĴij̶ֳ˵ЩĴǶǿģȻҲԺӦǵʱصĴDZһ¡ȻˣҲܻɼʹ¡˹˼ԼЩʱмĹ͵Ҳû뵽սκһ֣Ȼʮĵ[16]ᱻһԺٵ⡣ΪǺܻܿ˵ЩֻDZֹǰһЩصսĸޡ

ȻժҪ߹ڡŵܷĹȴͼǣݵغݳͳûܽijض⣬Ժȥ㡣Ϊ羭ܲסԵķʹŲɵ׶ˣһϷĴҲԾǡܻΪֱ׶ڳ̶϶ڻʹкʵɽ룻ҲΪ׶˵Ŀ֧׶沢ƣΪ׶˵Ĵʩܻı׶ˡ

ɣܷûа֧֧չʾߵĵӱУһʱûеõ˾ذ¼ʱʼṩķ

ժҪ߹ڡŵܷĹĵڶȱܾ߷ԺƵķʱʷѵ

19ͺͱ͵ϰҶŵܷһʿܻûг֣ժҪߵĹֵ˼ȷʵżʡŵܷ19͵Դ߷ԺDred Scott v. Sanford[17]һǸУһūݣūݴˡԼ涨ĽūݡȻֱūݣ˹ǰ̤ɵصʱѾõĽš߷Ժͨϯ󷨹̸ΪʹڹͳεϣҲȨū˹Ҳû[18]ԺΪʵȨƻ綨ūƵķΧ

˹ذԼ30ǰʷչʾ˸İ˴ūչԲʹĴܡ1820꣬ѰΪһݶѰΪһūʱؾ˽ֹūŵĶˡԼ[19]IJúԼýֹϲ߽Աʵū[20]DZūһʤϷҲϺ̡1846īսʱ򣬱ϦݵԱάάĪһƵάĪظ[21]øֹūīսϵš[22]ڡԼڹ⼤ҵر˺öꡣ[23]1854꣬Ա˹ġ˹ͨ쵼ƶ˿˹ڲ˹ӷ[24]the Kansas-Nebraska Act÷ʵϷϳˡԼˡռȨ squatter sovereigntyķԭ򣺼Ƿūɸ[25]÷ƶȻǹ޳ūʤͷūʧܡūƵľˣȻҲԴߣȴԸϺ̹ľ[26]ȻDzǨͣ߷Ժ˹һ

߷Ժ˹ذΪ1820ġԼԺһάĪظͶ1854Ŀ˹ڲ˹ӷıһIJֵ˰׵Ļ˵ǣһɵϽij֪ͱĹ£ûκ塣[27]ݷԺĹ۵㣬δȨȥūƵģ⣻ǸֻзԺڽܷʱ򣬲Ȩ

ЩܵܵĹԭΪֻԼЩִܸбDzֿϵĵһξְ˵ֱĹӦϣӰȫĹؼϵߣҲ߷Ժоʽɸĵľôһ˽ϵͨеĵ¸о㲻ԼͳߣʵʹǰԼֵؽ˵λԺյķͥС[28]

Ȼ˹ذľʵϱϳսһڷϱϳͨսʽȻ˹ذľ߷Ժ𺦺ķ˲ֹһ˵ŬȥҽΡʵϣűֽϵ˹ذΪɹ߷Ժϯ󷨹̸ᣬֱҲˡ

ժҪ߹ڡŵܷĹͷ¶ڱͳŦԼ[29]һ伸һͬġѧܷ˶ԣðƼǶ꣬ʱţðеķһసռѹԵ˵ɰУһŦԼݹ涨ĹԱÿʱ䲻ó10СʱķܵսԭǸ÷δɵɡԺĶΪŦԼݵ߹ʱΥܣ˵Ҫķɵǣ˳Ϊʱ䣬ǶԸȨҪĸ桭[30]

ȻʮڸǩΪԼ֮ûκ˵ɰܷ֮⻹һʵԵĹ۵㣬ͬӢĺղء˹ҹ׺ķķеձѧɰijЩ٣ֻʶǹأΪѧȻľ˵ĴԿųѧ룬ΪʲôΪһأʱ֤ȷĴڻķ˹󷨹ٵķܷȥijضľۣǼҳ壬ǹҵлϵֻɷΡΪЩָͬĹ۵ƶģżȻijЩ۵ȻϤ𾪣ʹǵó˵Щ۵ķǷΥܷ[31]

Ķ߷ԺʷϵЩ󣬳һĿģͻóеĽۣǰڴժҪ߶ԡŵܷͻĹ߷ԺȻڽвˣõǸժҪһսǰ̸ᷨԺͱͳշԺطԺʧܲͼܷǸ͹۵ѧ߶޷óԭʵϲڣһЩܷû涨ġԭ˼άƺоȻūжıDzɽܵģҶЩݹȨŶܵвṩҲDzҪģȻڶԿĸԼɢ[32]ˣǰе棬󱣻ȫվȻͬΪ˵ϡһ˵ֻԴܷҵɣҺ˵ǸԭҲȷȫͬij㡣ǣһԣΪʹܷаЩԭǶܷıͼĽȻԽֹϻ⣬Ҷԣƺʵ֧˹ذɰԭ֡

ժҪ߹ڡŵܷĹĵȱƺȫһϵļֵжϵʡһܷڸܷΪṩ˱ϣôЩϵȷһ㻯ĵ⡣DZĴܲΪκڵļֵҲΪijЩ˵ĹȻΨһԴ෴ǽΪDZսܷܷƵķΧڣ֧Ĵƶ䲼ɡζиʽĸ˼ֵжϵıۣɵγɣͬҲΪϵ⣬ΪЩͨʵʵķɵԹ᳹ʵʩЩʲôͨƶɷɵʵǹϵĵ£ЩֻijЩضļֵеԶ²Ӱ

ǵԽܷͷ֮⣬ֻйĸIJΪжϵij㡣ʵϣûκκϺ߼ķܹʹ֤ҵжϾ˵жϣ֮ҲһеĴ˶ԼĵжϻǿִŵȻͬĵλǾͽֻǸ˵ĵж϶ѡ

ķ˹󷨹Ȼ˵ģȷŵĸоΪʵԵı׼Ƕ鶼ŲɣʵDzʹһʯ϶϶ŤˣҲоܵһϮϲ;ηһ㶼ȡڵľϲҺǣţľԣΪͯʱĻڣЩֹᴩҵȻһ˵ľʹԼijЩϲγɶʱһʶγɵԭͻᷢһЩһЩҲͬĶϡζŻۡ[33]

Ⲣ˵˵ĵжϾͲΪΪij㣬ʵϣЩжڴǷʱձǿԴȪҲǽƶ֮ϵģһһٵ漰ʱͻȥѰͬĹ۵Ըȥ˵Щͬǹ۵ˡֹŷߴﵽ㹻ʱӵҪıҪĹ۵ʩѡٲЩ۵ʵʵķ֮С

һ˵ʱʧˣоʤԶԿδֵܳĵ߸ȥðķȥ޸ܷȥֵ֧Ĺ۵㡣ȻܻóɹôֹʤʱǰܷԭĴ۸ġ

Ҳ֪ʲôķܹһ£ʹǽѸ˵ĵ¹תΪʵʵķɣӶһԪġձĵϿɡʵϣ˵زŵļֵжƶΪɳҪķѴʱ䣬ٺܶҳɹʺܵ͡ҪЩڸ˻һȺļֵжܷĸ߶ȣΪѡȻЩǡǡĹһµġκθ˻ҪͨɽǵļֵǿӵͬǹĹϣһӦǼѵġܽΪһǷپʹ׵ʵһ̡ǶֽԼĹΪɵ򣬵ΪһϰżʵɡӢΰѧԼ˹ͼءܶע⵽ͳ߻ǹҪԼĹ۵򰮺ΪΪ׼򣬶еЩаijܵǿҵ֧֣ͨȨơ[34]

һַժҪ߹ڡŵܷĹֵĹζսᡣij̶ֳ˵ʹܹͨȰ˵һٶһΪǿϣΪȲǴѡٵ֧ҪƶģҲͶƱѾҪܷеġʵϣժҪ߹ڡŵܷĹǶֵʴ

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

* This observation is the revised text of the ninth annual Will E. Orgain Lecture, delivered at The University of Texas School of Law on March 12, 1976. It is reprinted with permission from the Texas Law Review. See William H. Rehnquist, The Notion of a Living Constitution, 54 TEX. L. REV. 693 (1976).

[1] See Hearings on Nominations of William H. Rehnquist and Lewis F. Powell, Jr., Before the Senate Comm. on the Judiciary, 92d Cong., 1st Sess. 87 (1971).

[2] Lochner v. New York, 198 U.S. 45, 76 (1905)(Holmes, J., dissenting).

[3] H. MCBAIN, THE LIVING CONSTITUTION (1927).

[4] Reich, The Living Constitution and the Courts Role, in HUGO BLACK AND THE SUPREME COURT 133 (S. Strickland ed. 1967).

[5] 252 U.S. 416 (1920).

[6] Id. at 433.

[7] U.S. CONST. amends. XIII, XIV, XV.

[8] Fay v. New York, 332 U.S. 261, 282 (1947) (Jackson, J.).

[9] 5 U.S. (1 Cranch) 137 (1803).

[10] 2 F. THORPE, THE CONSTITUTIONAL HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES 18 (1901).

[11] Id. at 191.

[12] Id. at 81, 87, 91C95.

[13] Id. at 134C39.

[14] C. HUGHES, ADDRESSES 139 (1908).

[15] U.S. CONST. amends. XIII, XIV, XV.

[16] The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article. U.S. CONST. amend. XIV, 5

[17] 60 U.S. (19 How.) 393 (1857).

[18] Id. at 452.

[19] Act of March 6, 1820, ch. 22, 3 Stat. 545.

[20] See 2 F. THORPE, supra note 10, at 366C77, 433.

[21] Act of June 19, 1862, ch. 111, 12 Stat. 432

[22] 2 F. THORPE, supra note 10, at 430

[23] Id. at 430C32.

[24] Act of May 30, 1854, ch. 59, 10 Stat. 277

[25] See 2 F. THORPE, supra note 10, at 518C21.

[26] See id. at 524C36

[27] Shakespeare, Macbeth, V.v. 19.

[28] First Inaugural Address by Abraham Lincoln, March 4, 1861, in A. LINCOLN, SPEECHES AND LETTERS 171C72 (M. Roe ed. 1894).

[29] 198 U.S. 45 (1905).

[30] Id. at 61.

[31] Id. at 75C76 (Holmes, J., dissenting).

[32] United States v. Carolene Prods. Co., 304 U.S. 144, 152 n.4 (1938).

[33] O.W. HOLMES, Natural Law,in COLLECTED LEGAL PAPERS 310, 311 (1920).

[34] J.S. MILL,ON LIBERTY, in 43 GREAT BOOKS OF THE WESTERN WORLD 273 (R. Hutchins ed. 1952).