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ӱʦѧѧԺ ʦѧϵʿ

ħѧ--̸֮е빲ʶ

ժҪ\"\"֮֮й½֪ʶעĿһѧ\"\"ԴḶָ́£ʵʣƶѧоķչȻźǣ˫ѧϽƽľѧ֣֮̽Ҫڣһ˫ǼԷ\"ħ\"ָƶԷ\"Ȩʶ̬\"ϵӶ۵\"\"ĵλ˫ԶԷһָƶϣں̶ܴϽѧ塣Ϊ\"\"йʶҲ,ǶΪǵһϷΣ֮УرǵӾת˼ɡɺͳɵʱǵһ¡ֻν\"ϷΣ\"ķ߲ì֮Уǿչȵԭ򣻶\"\"ǿٵҪ\"\"\"\"⣬ϸ˵ⳡֻڲۣƵ۴˼ǿûֹϢ̨֮ϣ߸顢ںϵ\"·\"ƺΣгЧֵǵĽľ顣

֮йѧעĿ¼\"\"֮ⳡ͵ѧУ\"\"ǿٵҪ\"\"\"\"⣬ǿչȵԭ˫ţγƲ̬ơӦ˵˫۵Ķйٵ\"\"⣬£ʵʣƶѧоķչٽгõĽ衣ȻźǣַǷȴûʵԵջ񣬷ıݶ԰Ρԭڴ˴ļҪѧǼԷ\"ħ\"ָƶԷ\"Ȩʶ̬\"ϵӶ۵\"\"ĵλij̶ֳϸ۵иߣֿʼһֵн档Ϊ˲ʹǵоҲһȦǴ\"\"Դʼ˫ѧ˼·

һ Դ

й\"\"νڣꣷ£գһġ걨ϣѧƽ۴֮Ԫ¡½ۡ˼塤зѧйʵʱй\"\"ָһ˼йijӦ˵ǶڲƸٷֲʵһηվڵ粻ҵĽǶȶȫʱIJУ۵ĸ̽ǼԵģΪĸ↑Ž뵽ʵʽ׶εй˼ʵʷṩոµĹ۵㡣1 ӴһЩĴ½ѧ\"\"\"\"źšӦ˵ǣԣʹ˼\"\"һӪй½ıᄈ\"\"ȴDZ\"\"ں̶ܴϽй\"\"йȥ\"\"˵\"ӼԭǴ˹ûʵϵƸ죬ԼûʵֱӲȺڴ\"2 \"\"йľᄈµĶãڶ\"\"εıܷУΪ\"\"ѧ߶һƺŲͬһƪо˵\"ұ˴Ӳ޳\'\'\'\'֪ʶķҲһи˴ñӵķʽ\"3 ѧһ˵ķԲֹѧʹһǣ\"\"һν𽥵õѧϿɡĿǰ۵\"\"ѧУ֮Ԫ͡ƽܹ⡢֡ع򡢴ǿꡢ񶫵ˡ

\"\"ԣ\"\"Ҫ򵥵Ķ࣬\"\"˼һУܵ˼롢˼Ӱ죬ѧоһֱͼԴڹйķչǰ彲ڶԻжΪйԶԶûоȫ򻯣ڵij¾ʶ̬ص谭йΪᷢչᶨƵ⿪ţĹϵϣǿЧ빫ĹϵϣǿչڹΪֻǷչıȻۣȫûбҪΪṫЧʵ׷ЧսĿǰڵṫ⡣ͬʱ߽гÿǽһ鵤ҩ\"һгõλλҲˮɡ\"4˳Ϊ\"г\"5, Ӫѧѧڡ桢١ʢ顢ˡ

Ǵӣ\"\"ʼģǵԴ\"\"˼СڡġϷġǣ塷ⳡĻƪУָ\"κμ̬ȣԸķʽᣬ廳Ŀ־͵\"ϸʡΪйڽҪͷתָ\"йִʷϣضʷͷȨ壬ӵרơá\"˵оٵʵƾʵݣǣȻйٷʶ̬࿹һ棬ƺϽѧ̬ȡԺΪһ֮УʱվάȨɵһߣٷݡƪеȾѧķҲΪˣڡ塢˸ѧɼһжоݵķ˫ĵһν档꣬عڡġڣϷˡ\"\"̬ı󡷵һģ\"ijЩ̸\'г\'\'\'гôͲԹžӢΪ棬ԹȨ\'\'ΪԼĶұġ\"\"йijЩ\'\'ִ\'\'㲻ϡ\"ƪҩζսֱ֮ӵ\"\"֮Ľŵľ档ͬڣڵġġ־ڿ͵ġ\"ѧ\"۵ļ⡷ͬʱڸڵĻʽ\"۸ˮ\"\"\"֮Ϊ֪ʵ

ħѧ

Ӧ˵\"\"ǿĹӵгǵйٵ\"\"£ѧʵʣҳİ취Ӷڸϴٽĸ↑ҵķչȻԣԿɵĻﻷйѧ粢Ǵѧ̽֡йִչʵ⣬ڸ̶Ͼ֪ʶڲ\"Ȩ\"ᣬȻѧַǷֱ̺IJǶԾ֮оݵԷ̶ǵͬ졣һ֮\"\"֮бֵΪԣǹԼѧλڹйᷢչΪеʵ⣬ʹԭdzʵԵڱʽⲻܲһֱйѧչǸеЩź

Ķ˫£ǸеһʵǣйѾԶ\"\"ʱǸʱǵӰȻ֮ȥս˫ƺڽƽľѧ֣̽ǼԷ\"ħ\"۵\"\"ĵλؽ\"\"\"\"ߣڹٷ֮ıԵ״̬սУ߳ڶԹٷʶ̬ıܾܳ⣬ָԼ۵\"ٷ\"\"\"\"汣أڳΪԭĵҪǿı\"6 ˵\"Ϊṩ˰κϷΣ۽\"7 ǿȨεף\"ʮĩжȨ˸ƶȳֵ⣬˼룬ʲ׼ǿȨΡοʷпģּ\'ս\'ƻչϿľ\"8 ָ֮֮\"\'\'Ȩʶ̬ϵָ\'\'Ĺ۵ᵼ壬ΪȨǿרṩڡ\"9 ˵\"Ǵ֪ʶӣĻʶν\'ʶ̬\'ǴӼԭ\"10 ĿԿ\"\"\"\"ּڸԷñӵΥѧ۵ּģǵѧ̽޲ֻʹǸԷij̶ֳʹѧֱ̽ɿ顣

˫ս£ѧ֣̽һϷԶԷָҲǽƶϣϲ׵һֵԣѧ\"\"ڻжϣ\"ΪйѾȫ򻯣ʱйѾij֣ҪĵƶӦʱ˾֣ǾûĻ\"11 ѧڳ齱粨էʱ˵һ仰\"ɣȻȡǷгáʱôʱǮԼ\"12 Ҳ\"齱\"껹\"\"һʵֻͨһʵǿԿ\"\"\"\"\"ʱ\"ȷʵѧʹDz׵ǣ˭Ҫ\"˾\"\"г\"Ǵ֮Ԫܹ⡢֣ǺعͣĻƺ\"\"ûšûи⻰˭֮ڣҲû׵һжƺǽԼĻӵĻϵģüڭս糵

УԶԷ۹۵ĸǻڸжϣ漰ΪѧʱȻˡ̸\"ƻ\"ʱһλ˵\"ʱ緢˾ôƻõѧ˵ϣԺݱΪȫ̹ƵĿƾãϽ˿ڳƷǧ˶ʮ˱ijɹĴǻֻۣдӳԶʷǶȲܿľ޴ֵϼƻõ·ڶԾֵгĸĸԼ֮ҹõ𣬱Ȼҹĸˡ\"13 һжƺ뾭ѧչʷǺϣDz֪˵ѧڣĴǻȷʵ٣ǣɾ˵컨׹뽫ƻ˵һǴʵǵ̬ȣȲϽҲûе˹ڣڴ֮ǰռ֧λľѧ˵ǹŵ侭ѧЩָ,ڣͣǰ\"ͳѧһȫгƶԶʹԴЧﵽõ磬ԵľΣرǣĩԴΣ˴ͳѧгܵþʹձʶгƶȵȱݡ\"14 г۶ԣΣ޲ߵ£DzŽĿתǿƻĿ˹ѧԻ\"г\"µľΣ˲áֻǵˣͣгԤľԣ˹ҲӦչᾭã˺徭ѧ̧ͷȡ֮Ⲣ˵˹ѧ˵Ѿ˳ʷ̨񷮸˵ģ\"\'\'ѧ˹塢زٹŵҵĽ죬˹廹\'û\'ں󿭶˹ߵУΪ¹ŵͥһϵںͷչš\"15 һľ£ٶȸΪΣ֣ΪϾг徭ѧԤڵȱġ羭÷չʷϣ\"г\"\"ƻ\"йԾ÷չΪʱ̣Ҳ𵽹Σã\"г\"ܵһ\"ƻ\"Ҳľԣ20;÷չУߵĽ滥ʹ羭һһεس͹ȡ

\"\"90ггֵ⣬˽\"ܷ\"\"ĸ\"صĽ飬ʹҪעǣǴӸĽǶȾܳ\"\"Ľ飬ǾѧĻӦ߼ϽȥʲһijЩӣ˼ķչΪȻڰǿѵļ䣬Ǵѵķ⽨ƶȣִأҲִԴ16 еĴƶֱӲ͵ķ⽨ƶȡ¬˵ģԱ\"ǽIJԴڷ⽨Դʹ貢ʹ\'\'ɥʧϵġֻƶȡ\"17 Զ׼ȥм䲢ԷӦע⡣

ڹȥļΡܵԸѹֱֵ֪ʶͬ飬ҲûбҪͬ飬Լѧһָ𡶶顷\"\"һãһ˵ġ\"\'\'Ӫ\"18ʵߵͬ洦ɼƺҲû˵ijij\"ĴӪ\"ڡ顷͡ġȻԶ˵֣Դ󣬡ġ཯ӵһƪдԡġ\"ǹ¿ʵǷֲ˱˵ģֱꣶ£\'\'\'\'ɱǰҵսʱŮҷң\'\'Щˣ˼Ĵֵ˵ûиⲻǡġ\"19 ȻƺǶߵͬ飬źľáһֲȡѧ̬ȣľͬʱҲйԶѧչ

\"·\"ܼԳΪܣ

˻ҩζ\"\"ǿǿЧʣ侲ʱ򣬾ͻᷢ\"\"岢ûκιʶǶΪǵһϷΣ֮УرǵӾת˼ɡɺͳɵʱǵһ¡ֻν\"ϷΣ\"ķ߲ì֮СǿչȵԭΪйеⲢ\"г\"µģ෴ǡǡΪ\"г\"µġǿ\"һгõλλҲˮɡ\"20 ޹̸ֺ\"\"ʱص㣺\"ձгθƽȵļֵԳľЧΪӣһڲȫΧڴƶľ޴ó׵ʵжӶԿóףȴֲƽȵĽṹ԰ŵһ֡\"21 \"\"ǿٵҪ\"\"\"\"⣬󵨵ԼIJͬ⣺\"ھ÷չгת͹УƽҲԱģǣӲƽDzģƽȵгת вDzɱģʹԹƽгĸ֮·ƽȵǾıҪЧȿЧҲԸƹƽƫöԼӾƽȻСƽȾҪӰã벻ƽҪְ֮һҼȡ½ʵٷҪԭ\"22 ʵйƽĹߣƶ˿ڣÿ˹ĻȨٽҪǿķչȽԲߡǵĶԲִ߲ܽ⣬ĵֳʶͽֵÿ϶ġ

ȻϿɵĹ۵ƺDzɵϵģǾʶ̬֪֮ʶȺ壬ҶǸ˵ȨĻ֧ߣ˵֮ȴҲйʶڴ£ҵΪһ۵㲻޵Ŀǰ\"\"֮\"ڲ\"رǴѧϿ\"\"оҲӦ֮壬SpitzоҪ23 Ȼ˫нʵڴôĿǰӦľͲӦ\"Ȩ\"νᣬӦʵΪı᲻ͷչϵгö߾ȫͬᷢչеɣЧʣˣ֮Ѿ֣һ߼˵¾档

ڹᾭ÷չвû˽й׿ݡʵὨijԡӢѧҰᡤ˹ǿΪɡμȨȨͬʱעƽȡߵıӶһ\"·\"Σ\"ȷעⷶΧȾɵҷҰܹ¸ӹ㷺ͬʱȻǺĵĹע㡣ƽȺ͸ҲᷢͻƽȵĸʩҲЩ˳ɵķΧ˵ӦָΪ߷ҪṲͬIJ롣ʽļһߵͬʱ·ѰҸ֮һ͹ϵѰһֶȨ¶塣\"24Щ۵ѾڲеõʵĹִ᳹Уȡһijɹڵѡʼ˺ܶжߣһгԾṫƽᣬڴѡѹƱμһ֤ӹIJߵһ\"\"\"\"ĵ·ߣְʶִ̬עʵĽִ񣬱һʵķ緶һϻ\"èèץסǺè\"

\"\"ʶʹʶֻȨܡȱݣҲӦע⵽δȫг֮νһС˵гĿȷʵй˾ڷɣгܵģ᲻ﵽޣϵﵽȻ۾гĻôгıѾΪʱԶΪЩȨķŭȺȺӦʱ̣ͻᷢܵгܣǸʱһζĮȨ߿Ҫָгˡ˫Ŷijֺԣһ\"̵Ƭ\"£һЩʶ֮ʿѾע⵽\"·\"26 ĿԡΪдΪףԡ27 \"\"£Ҳд⣬ѧʡ28 ̽־÷չеĹƽģȳгչԣͬʱҲעⷢչеƽȡ⡣Ϊ\"ڽгõʱٵҪⲻǽƽȵ⣬ƽȺ͹ƽ⣬Ҳṫ⡣\"29\"Э˽Ȩ빫Ȩ򻮷ֵ²ʵ֡һϹIJƲȨȨһڹԵĻ\'츳\'ȨȲǾҲ\'\'ģ˲\'\'ᡣһ˽Ȩ֮Ĺжԭ򣬲˽˲Ȩ빫γȨǮסĹϵһһġ\"30 ƺԾѡ˵·ּ\"չ\"\"\"IJʹͳԽ\"\"\"\"Ǵ˼˵˼άʽڵɭϵĹǰܿɹġ

Ȼ\"\"\"\"\"\"\"˽\"Щ֮\"\"Ϣģô\"\"\"\"֮ûбҪһ ȻDZֵܵӣǾӦ㾭÷չֳԽΪΡûһѧаľ۱Ե£Լľ߽еĹٷʶ̬Ӷʶ̬ؽֻһֲʵʵĻ롣Ϊֻȶǰ²Żһٶɵгһ˵\"\"ĺгƵУ෴ӳԶǶгij־÷١Ȼͣ\"\"֮ɢڣĽ죬ȻҪ˵\"оЩ⣬̸Щ\'\'\"

עͣ
1 ƽ˵\"\"˼ȱࣺйôսù磬1996棬58-59ҳ
2 ѧڣ1998ѧ˵իĸ磬1999棬392ҳ
3 ͣҶĿǰ˵лࣺѧȨؽ磬2000棬16ҳͬʱĴ֮Ԫڡ顷\"\"ϵ˵ͬ顣
4 гѧй磬19984°棬51ҳ
5 ͣ¡򡷣ѧ磬20001°棬7ҳ
6 عгʶ̬γġ19982
7 תѧڣ1998ѧ˵իĸ磬1999棬392ҳ
8 ع\"\"̬ı󡷣ġ19985
9 򣺡ƶ Ԥڵĺʮһ͡2001º
10 ѧڣ1998˵իĸ磬1999棬392ҳ
11 ѧڣɷڡիĸ磬1999棬419ҳ
12 תͣ˼ʷϵ\"齱\"¼ѧȨؽ磬2000棬129ҳ
13 ת棺塷ɵ˵磬1999棬284ҳ
14 ȣɡг͹ңǰԡϣɡг͹ҡѧԺ磬1988棬2ҳ
15 ٣ ִ󾭼ϵıȽۺϡ1997棬Ϻ꣬21ҳ
16 μǿ塷йѧ磬1998棬41ҳ
17 ¬󣺡Լۡ룬磬1997棬171ҳ172ҳ
18 ٹ롶ġӽ硷ӱ磬20015°棬164ҳ
19 תԺٹ롶ġͬϣ164ҳ
20 гѧй磬19984°棬51ҳ
21 ͣ¡򡷣ѧ磬20001°棬7ҳ
22 ܹ ֣йƽⷢչξѧйƻ磬199911°棬2ҳ
23 see David Spitz, The Real World of Liberalism, University of Chicago press, 1982, P215
24 ᡤ˹·꣬2000棬68ҳ
26 μ׵ġ\"·\"صȵġѰ\"·\"ľ֪ʶ֮й˼ķֻʱճ磬2000
27 ʮһ͡(Ĵѧ йĻо)19962º
28 顷19986
29 칫ľ--ͷ̸¼֮һĸڲΡ19985
30 ͣ۴ԡ


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